Tulsa County, Oklahoma

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Tulsa County, Oklahoma
Tulsa County Courthouse.jpg
Tulsa County Courthouse
Map of Oklahoma highlighting Tulsa County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Oklahoma
Map of USA OK.svg
Oklahoma's location within the U.S.
Founded1907
Named forcity of Tulsa
Seat Tulsa
Largest cityTulsa
Area
  Total587 sq mi (1,520 km2)
  Land570 sq mi (1,476 km2)
  Water17 sq mi (44 km2), 2.9%
Population (est.)
  (2017)646,266 [1]
  Density1,134/sq mi (438/km2)
Congressional district 1st
Time zone Central: UTC−6/−5
Website www.tulsacounty.org

Tulsa County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 603,403, [2] making it the second-most populous county in Oklahoma, behind only Oklahoma County. Its county seat and largest city is Tulsa, the second-largest city in the state. [3] Founded at statehood, in 1907, it was named after the previously established city of Tulsa. Before statehood, the area was part of both the Creek Nation and the Cooweescoowee District of Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory.

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Contents

Tulsa County is included in the Tulsa Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Tulsa metropolitan area human settlement in Oklahoma, United States of America

The Tulsa Metropolitan Area, officially defined as the Tulsa-Broken Arrow-Owasso Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area in northeastern Oklahoma centered around the city of Tulsa and encompassing Tulsa, Rogers, Wagoner, Osage, Creek, Okmulgee and Pawnee counties. It has an estimated population of 991,005 and 1,251,172 people in the larger Combined Statistical area as of 2015.

Tulsa County is notable for being the most densely populated county in the state. Tulsa County also ranks as having the highest income. [4]

History

The history of Tulsa County greatly overlaps the history of the city of Tulsa. This section addresses events that largely occurred outside the present city limits of Tulsa.

Lasley Vore Site

The Lasley Vore Site, along the Arkansas River south of Tulsa, was claimed by University of Tulsa anthropologist George Odell to be the most likely place where Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe first encountered a group of Wichita people in 1719. Odell's statement was based on finding both Wichita and French artifacts there during an architectural dig in 1988.

The Lasley Vore Site is an archaeological site in Tulsa County, Oklahoma. Although there is no evidence of historic structures, investigators have found hearths and pits, and have recovered various Native American and European artifacts that have been dated to the early to mid eighteenth century. The leader of the team that studied the site in 2008 concluded that this location contained all of the elements that one could expect at the site where French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe first met a substantial part of the Wichita people in what is now known as Oklahoma in 1719.

Arkansas River major tributary of the Mississippi River, United States

The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas River Valley, where the headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges. It then flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, and finally into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas.

Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe French explorer

Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe was a French explorer who is credited with the discovery of Little Rock, Arkansas. He was the first known French explorer to set foot in the future state of Oklahoma.

Old Fort Arbuckle

The U. S. Government's removal of Native American tribes from the southeastern United States to "Indian Territory" did not take into account how that would impact the lives and attitudes of the nomadic tribes that already used the same land as their hunting grounds. At first, Creek immigrants stayed close to Fort Gibson, near the confluence of the Arkansas and Verdigris rivers. However, the government encouraged newer immigrants to move farther up the Arkansas. The Osage tribe had agreed to leave the land near the Verdigris, but had not moved far and soon threatened the new Creek settlements. [5]

Indian Territory U.S. 17th-, 18th- and early-20th-century territory set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of the indigenous peoples of the Americas

As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War (1861–1865), the policy of the government was one of assimilation.

Fort Gibson

Fort Gibson is a historic military site located next to the present day city of Fort Gibson, in Muskogee County Oklahoma. It guarded the American frontier in Indian Territory from 1824 until 1888. When constructed, the fort lay farther west than any other military post in the United States; it formed part of the north–south chain of forts intended to maintain peace on the frontier of the American West and to protect the southwestern border of the Louisiana Purchase. The fort succeeded in its peacekeeping mission for more than 50 years, as no massacres or battles occurred there. The fort site is now managed by the Oklahoma Historical Society as the Fort Gibson Historical Site. It is a National Historic Landmark.

Verdigris River Tributary of the Arkansas River in Kansas and Oklahoma, USA

The Verdigris River is a tributary of the Arkansas River in southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma in the United States. It is about 310 miles (500 km) long. Via the Arkansas, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed.

In 1831, a party led by Rev. Isaac McCoy and Lt. James L. Dawson blazed a trail up the north side of the Arkansas from Fort Gibson to its junction with the Cimarron River. In 1832, Dawson was sent again to select sites for military posts. One of his recommended sites was about two and a half miles downstream from the Cimarron River junction. The following year, Brevet Major George Birch and two companies of the 7th Infantry Regiment followed the "Dawson Road" to the aforementioned site. Flattering his former commanding officer, General Matthew Arbuckle, Birch named the site "Fort Arbuckle." [5] [6]

According to Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the fort was about 8 miles (13 km) west of the present city of Sand Springs, Oklahoma. [7] Author James Gardner visited the site in the early 1930s. His article describing the visit includes an old map showing the fort located on the north bank of the Arkansas River near Sand Creek, just south of the line separating Tulsa County and Osage County. After ground was cleared and a blockhouse built, Fort Arbuckle was abandoned November 11, 1834. The remnants of stockade and some chimneys could still be seen nearly a hundred years later. [6] The site was submerged when Keystone Lake was built.

Battle of Chusto-Talasah

Main article Battle of Chusto-Talasah

At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, many Creeks and Seminoles in Indian Territory, led by Opothleyahola, retained their allegiance to the U. S. Government. In November, 1861, Confederate Col. Douglas H. Cooper led a Confederate force against the Union supporters with the purpose of either compelling their submission or driving them out of the country. The first clash, known as the Battle of Round Mountain, occurred November 19, 1861. Although the Unionists successfully withstood the attack and mounted a counterattack, the Confederates claimed a strategic victory because the Unionists were forced to withdraw. [8]

The next battle occurred December 9, 1861. Col. Cooper's force attacked the Unionists at Chusto-Talasah (Caving Banks) on the Horseshoe Bend of Bird Creek in what is now Tulsa County. The Confederates drove the Unionists across Bird Creek, but could not pursue, because they were short of ammunition. Still, the Confederates could claim victory. [8]

Coming of the railroads

The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad had extended its main line in Indian Territory from Vinita to Tulsa in 1883, where it stopped on the east side of the Arkansas River. The company, which later merged into the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway (familiarly known as the Frisco), then built a steel bridge across the river to extend the line to Red Fork. This bridge allowed cattlemen to load their animals onto the railroad west of the Arkansas instead of fording the river, as had been the practice previously. It also provided a safer and more convenient way to bring workers from Tulsa to the oil field after the 1901 discovery of oil in Red Fork.

Oil Boom

A wildcat well named Sue Bland No. 1 hit paydirt at 540 feet on June 25, 1901 as a gusher. The well was on the property of Sue A. Bland (née Davis), located near the community of Red Fork. Mrs. Bland was a Creek citizen and wife of Dr. John C. W. Bland, the first practicing physician in Tulsa. The property was Mrs. Bland's homestead allotment. Oil produced by the well was shipped in barrels to the nearest refinery in Kansas, where it was sold for $1.00 a barrel. [9]

Other producing wells followed soon after. The next big strike in Tulsa County was in the vicinity of Glenn Pool.

Ironically, while the city of Tulsa claimed to be "Oil Capital of the World" for much of the 20th century, a city ordinance banned drilling for oil within the city limits.

Tulsa County Court House

In 1910, Tulsa County built a court house in Tulsa on the northeast corner of Sixth Street and South Boulder Avenue. Yule marble was used in its construction. The land had previously been the site of a mansion owned by George Perryman and his wife. This was the court house where a mob of white residents gathered on May 31, 1921, threatening to lynch a young black man held in the top-floor jail. It was the beginning of the Tulsa Race Riot.

An advertisement for bids specified that the building should be fireproof, built of either reinforced concrete or steel and concrete. The size was to be 120 feet (37 m) by 120 feet (37 m) with three floors and a full basement. Cost of the building was not to exceed $200,000. The jail on the top floor was not to exceed $25,000. [10]

The building continued to serve until the present court house building (shown above) opened at 515 South Denver. The old building was then demolished and the land was sold to private investors. The land is now the site of the Bank of America building, completed in 1967.

Geography and climate

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 587 square miles (1,520 km2), of which 570 square miles (1,500 km2) is land and 17 square miles (44 km2) (2.9%) is water. [11]

The Arkansas River drains most of the county. Keystone Lake, formed by a dam on the Arkansas River, lies partially in the county. Bird Creek and the Caney River, tributaries of the Verdigris River drain the northern part of the county. [7]

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Rec High °F79909610296103112110109988780
Norm High °F46.552.962.472.179.68893.893.284.1746049.6
Norm Low °F26.331.140.349.55967.973.171.262.951.139.329.8
Rec Low °F-8-11-32235495152351810-8
Precip (in)1.61.953.573.956.114.722.962.854.764.053.472.43
Source: USTravelWeather.com

Adjacent counties

Major highways

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1910 34,995
1920 109,023211.5%
1930 187,57472.0%
1940 193,3633.1%
1950 251,68630.2%
1960 346,03837.5%
1970 401,66316.1%
1980 470,59317.2%
1990 503,3417.0%
2000 563,29911.9%
2010 603,4037.1%
Est. 2017646,266 [12] 7.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [13]
1790-1960 [14] 1900-1990 [15]
1990-2000 [16] 2010-2013 [2]

As of the census [17] of 2010, there were 603,403 people, 241,737 households, and 154,084 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,059 people per square mile (409/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 69.2% White, 10.7% Black or African American, 6.0% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.8% from other races, and 5.8% from two or more races. 11.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race (8.8% Mexican). 14.2% were of German, 12.3% Irish, 8.8% English, 8.5% American, 2.3% French, and 2.3% Scottish ancestries according to the Census 2010. 88.3% spoke English, 8.1% Spanish, and 0.4% Vietnamese as their first language. [18] [19]

There were 241,737 households out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.3% were non-families. 29.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 22% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, and 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $47,005, and the median income for a family was $60,093. The per capita income for the county was $27,425. About 11.0% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.6% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. [20] [21] Of the county's population over the age of 25, 29.2% held a bachelor's degree or higher, and 88.2% have a high school diploma or equivalent.

Politics

Tulsa, as is typical for Oklahoma, is extremely conservative for an urban county: it has voted Republican at every election since Franklin Roosevelt’s landslide in 1936. [22] Only George H. W. Bush in 1992 has obtained less than a majority for the Republicans in the county since Roosevelt’s landslides, and then only because of Ross Perot’s strong candidacy – although neither Perot nor George Wallace in 1968 made as much impact here as both did in some other parts of Oklahoma.

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of January 15, 2019 [23]
PartyNumber of VotersPercentage
Democratic 116,88833.25%
Republican 176,57950.23%
Others58,04616.52%
Total351,513100%
Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results [24]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 58.4%144,25835.6% 87,8476.1% 14,949
2012 63.7%145,06236.3% 82,744
2008 62.2%158,36337.8% 96,133
2004 64.4%163,45235.6% 90,220
2000 61.3%134,15237.3% 81,6561.3% 2,883
1996 53.7%111,24337.1% 76,9249.3% 19,189
1992 49.1%117,46529.8% 71,16521.1% 50,438
1988 64.5%127,51234.9% 69,0440.6% 1,207
1984 72.9%159,54926.6% 58,2740.5% 1,049
1980 66.3%124,64328.4% 53,4385.4% 10,067
1976 61.6%108,65337.0% 65,2981.3% 2,349
1972 77.8%125,27820.3% 32,7791.9% 3,069
1968 57.1%81,47623.0% 32,74819.9% 28,443
1964 55.5%76,77044.5% 61,484
1960 63.0%89,89937.0% 52,725
1956 65.5%83,21934.5% 43,805
1952 61.3%73,86238.8% 46,728
1948 52.7%42,89247.3% 38,548
1944 56.0%42,66343.9% 33,4360.1% 89
1940 54.8%40,34245.0% 33,0980.2% 135
1936 40.9% 28,75958.7%41,2560.5% 328
1932 42.0% 25,54158.0%35,330
1928 70.5%38,76929.2% 16,0620.3% 167
1924 55.5%19,53740.9% 14,3773.6% 1,265
1920 57.4%14,35740.1% 10,0252.5% 617
1916 41.7% 3,85748.7%4,4979.6% 886
1912 38.0% 2,02951.4%2,74710.7% 571

Parks and recreation

River Parks was established in 1974 as a joint operation of the City of Tulsa and Tulsa County, with funding from both governments as well as private entities. It is not a part of the Tulsa Parks and Recreation Department, but is managed by the River Parks Authority. It is a series of linear parks that run adjacent to the Arkansas River for about 10 miles (16 km) from downtown to the Jenks bridge. Since 2007 a significant portion of the River Parks area has been renovated with new trails, landscaping and playground equipment. The River Parks Turkey Mountain Urban Wilderness Area on the west side of the Arkansas River in south Tulsa is a 300 acres (120 ha) area that contains over 45 miles (72 km) of dirt trails available for hiking, trail running, mountain biking and horseback riding. [25] The "Tulsa Townies" organization provide bicycles that may be checked out for use. There are three kiosks in the parks where bicycles may be obtained or returned. [26]

Communities

Cities

Towns

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Former communities

NRHP sites

The following sites in Tulsa County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:

See also

Related Research Articles

Rogers County, Oklahoma County in the United States

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Osage County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Osage County is the largest county by area in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. Created in 1907 when Oklahoma was admitted as a state, the county is named for and is home to the federally recognized Osage Nation. The county is coextensive with the Osage Nation Reservation, established by treaty in the 19th century when the Osage relocated there from Kansas. The county seat is in Pawhuska, Oklahoma, one of the first three towns established in the county. The total population of the county is 47,987.

Noble County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Noble County is located in the north central part of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,561. Its county seat is Perry. It was part of the Cherokee Outlet in Indian Territory until Oklahoma Territory was created in 1890, and the present county land was designated as County P. After the U. S. government opened the area to non-Indian settlement in 1893, it was renamed Noble County for John Willock Noble, then the United States Secretary of the Interior.

Muskogee County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Muskogee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 70,990. The county seat is Muskogee. The county and city were named for the Muscogee (Creek) Nation. The official spelling of the name was changed to Muskogee by the post office in 1900.

Murray County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Murray County is a county located in the southern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,488. This is a 6.9 percent increase from 12,623 at the 2000 census. The county seat is Sulphur. The county was named for William H. Murray, a member and president of the Oklahoma Constitutional Convention and later a Governor of Oklahoma.

McIntosh County, Oklahoma County in the United States

McIntosh County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,252. Its county seat is Eufaula. The county is named for an influential Muscogee Creek family, whose members led the migration of the Lower Towns to Indian Territory and served as leaders for generations.

Le Flore County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Le Flore County is a county located along the eastern border of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 50,384. Its county seat is Poteau. The name honors a Choctaw family named LeFlore.

Grady County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Grady County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 52,431. Its county seat is Chickasha. It was named for Henry W. Grady, an editor of the Atlanta Constitution and southern orator.

Carter County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Carter County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 47,557. Its county seat is Ardmore. The county was named for Captain Ben W. Carter, a Cherokee who lived among the Chickasaw.

Caddo County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Caddo County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,600. Its county seat is Anadarko. Created in 1901 as part of Oklahoma Territory, the county is named for the Caddo tribe who were settled here on a reservation in the 1870s. Caddo County is immediately west of the seven-county Greater Oklahoma City metro area, and although is not officially in the metro area, it has many economic ties in this region.

Muskogee, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Muskogee is a city in and the county seat of Muskogee County, Oklahoma, United States. Home to Bacone College, it lies approximately 48 miles southeast of Tulsa. The population of the city was 39,223 as of the 2010 census, a 2.4 percent increase from 38,310 at the 2000 census, making it the eleventh-largest city in Oklahoma.

Broken Arrow, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Broken Arrow is a city located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, primarily in Tulsa County but also with a section of the city in western Wagoner County. It is the largest suburb of Tulsa. According to the 2010 census, Broken Arrow has a population of 98,850 residents and is the fourth-largest city in the state. However, a July 2017, estimate reports that the population of the city is just under 112,000, making it the 280th-largest city in the United States. The city is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 961,561 residents.

Red Fork, Oklahoma Unincorporated community in Oklahoma, United States

Red Fork is a community in Southwest Tulsa. It was founded in 1883 as a railhead on the Arkansas River. It is famous for being the location of the first oil well in Tulsa County, the Sue A. Bland. On June 25, 1901, the first oil well in Tulsa County was completed by Drs. J.C.W. Bland and Fred S. Clinton in Red Fork. Dr. Bland, the first graduate physician in Tulsa, had moved to Red Fork in 1895 to set up a country practice. The well was on the homestead allotment of Dr. Bland’s wife, Sue A. Bland, a Creek citizen. The Sue Bland #1 was a thirty barrel well at a depth of 600 feet. This well brought the first nationwide publicity and oil boom to Tulsa and the Indian Territory.

West Tulsa is a local name given to an area situated in the west section of the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma which includes various communities to the west and south of the Arkansas River. As development between Sand Springs and Tulsa continued in the late 19th through the early 20th centuries, the name West Tulsa was used to refer to this area west of Tulsa and north of the Arkansas River, but many people in Tulsa and those knowing of the history of Tulsa do not include this area near Sand Springs when referring to West Tulsa.

Cimarron River (Arkansas River tributary) tributary of the Arkansas River

The Cimarron River extends 698 miles (1,123 km) across New Mexico, Oklahoma, Colorado, and Kansas. The headwaters flow from Johnson Mesa west of Folsom in northeastern New Mexico. Much of the river's length lies in Oklahoma, where it either borders or passes through eleven counties. There are no major cities along its route.The river enters the Oklahoma Panhandle near Kenton, crosses the southeastern corner of Colorado into Kansas, re-enters the Oklahoma Panhandle, re-enters Kansas, and finally returns to Oklahoma where it joins the Arkansas River at Keystone Reservoir west of Tulsa, Oklahoma, its only impoundment. The Cimarron drains a basin that encompasses about 18,927 square miles (49,020 km2).

Chickasaw National Recreation Area

Chickasaw National Recreation Area is a National Recreation Area situated in the foothills of the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma near Sulphur in Murray County. It includes the former Platt National Park and Arbuckle Recreation District.

This article traces the history of Tulsa, part of present-day Oklahoma.

Owen Park, Tulsa human settlement in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States of America

Owen Park is a residential neighborhood and historic district in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Its borders are Edison Avenue on the north, the municipal Owen Park on the east, the Keystone Expressway on the south, and Zenith Avenue on the west. Opened on June 8, 1910, it was Tulsa's first municipal park. The district covers 163.48 acres (66.16 ha), while Owen Park itself covers 24 acres (9.7 ha) on the east side of the District.

References

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  2. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
  3. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. Per capita income in Tulsa County highest in state | Tulsa World
  5. 1 2 Carter, Sandi and Marlene Clark. "Old Fort Arbuckle." Accessed April 10, 2011.
  6. 1 2 Gardner, James E. Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume 11, No. 2. June, 1933. "One Hundred Years Ago in the Region of Tulsa."
  7. 1 2 O"Dell, Larry. "Tulsa County," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society, 2009. Accessed April 5, 2015.
  8. 1 2 Civil War Academy.com Website. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
  9. Clinton, Fred S. "First Oil and Gas Well in Tulsa County," Chronicles of Oklahoma, p. 312-332. Accessed April 5, 2015.
  10. "Sketches for Court House and County Jail." The American Contractor. Accessed July 15, 2015.
  11. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  12. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  13. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  14. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  15. Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  16. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  17. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  18. American FactFinder - Results
  19. American FactFinder - Results
  20. American FactFinder - Results
  21. Tulsa County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau
  22. Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  23. "Oklahoma Registration Statistics by County" (PDF). OK.gov. January 15, 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-21.
  24. Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  25. "About the Park." River Parks Authority. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  26. Tulsa Townies. "How it works." Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  27. Alsuma website. Retrieved September 30, 2011
  28. "Alsuma: The Town That Disappeared From Southeast Tulsa." Arnett, David. GTR Newspapers. March 30, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  29. 1 2 Breed, David M., with early drafting and initial research by Kent Schell. "Appendix D: Early History of Southwest Tulsa" Southwest Tulsa Planning Team, Southwest Tulsa Historical Society and Tulsa Planning Department. p. 111. Accessed April 5, 2015.
  30. 1 2 Tulsa City Council. A History of Tulsa Annexation. 2004. Accessed April 5, 2015.
  31. Tulsa Preservation Commission. "Urban Development {1901–1945) Accessed May 5, 2011.>
  32. Gregory, Carl N. "Sand Springs," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society, 2009. Accessed April 5, 2015.

Coordinates: 36°07′N95°56′W / 36.12°N 95.94°W / 36.12; -95.94