Non-Hispanic whites

Last updated
Non-Hispanic whites
White, not Hispanic or Latino
Total population
197,181,177
61.1 % of the total U.S. population (2018) [1]
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States
Languages
Predominantly American English, with local minorities who speak American French (Louisiana, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire), Pennsylvania German language (Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana) and immigrant languages (esp. German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Russian, Italian, Polish and Greek [2] )
Religion
Predominantly Christianity; minorities practice Judaism, Islam, and other faiths
Related ethnic groups
European Americans
European diaspora

Non-Hispanic whites (also referred to as Anglo Americans) [3] [4] [5] are European Americans, Middle Eastern Americans, and North African Americans as defined by the United States Census Bureau. [6] [7]

Contents

Americans of European ancestry represent ethnic groups that combined account for more than half of the share of the white population are German, Irish, Scottish and English.

In the United States, this population was first derived from English (and, to a lesser degree, French) settlement of the Americas, as well as settlement by other Europeans such as the Germans and Dutch that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). Continued growth since the early 19th century is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration from European countries, especially Germany, Ireland, England, Italy, Greece, Sweden and Norway, as well as Poland, Russia, and many more countries. It typically refers to an English-speaking American in distinction to Spanish speakers in Mexico and the Southwestern states; German speakers (Amish) in North Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania; and French speakers in New England, and Louisiana. [8]

In 2011, for the first time in U.S. history, non-Hispanic whites accounted for under half of the births in the country, with 49.6% of total births. [9] Over 50% of children under age one have at least one parent of color. [10] [11] Between 2015 and 2016 for the first time in American history the population of non-Hispanic whites declined by 0.005% and then declined by 0.016% between 2016 and 2017 to a historically low proportion of 60.7%. [12] [13] [14] Between 2042 and 2045, the United States is projected to be a majority minority nation [15] [16] and by 2060 the white population will decline by roughly 16.1 million. [17]

In 2016, white births rebounded to a majority of all births, [18] this coincides with a rapid decline of fertility amidst non-whites since 2008, compared to a modest decline in white fertility. During the 2008-16 period, a decline in Hispanic fertility led to nearly 19% of the babies that would have been born from 2008–16, or about 2.2 million births, being wiped out. Non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites suffered 9.6% and 9.3% declines, respectively, in fertility by comparison. [19]

History

The first non-Hispanic whites who came to North America were Norse explorers around the year 1000, however they ultimately were absorbed and killed off, leaving no permanent settlements behind. [20] Later, pilgrims and colonists came in the 1600s along the east coast, mainly from England, in search of economic opportunities and religious freedom. [21] Over time emigrants from Europe settled the coastal regions developing a commercial economy. Between one-half and two-thirds of white immigrants to the American colonies between the 1630s and American Revolution had come as indentured servants. [22] The total number of European immigrants to all 13 colonies before 1775 was about 500,000; of these 55,000 were involuntary prisoners. Of the 450,000 or so European arrivals who came voluntarily, an estimated 48% were indentured. [23]

By the time of American Revolution there were about 2.5 million whites in the colonies. [24] The white population was largely of English, German, Irish, Scotch-Irish and French Huguenot descent at the time. [25] Between the revolution and the 1820s there was relatively little immigration to the U.S. Starting after the 1820s large scale migration to the U.S began and lasted until the 1920s. [26] Many of the newcomers were of Irish, [27] Italian, [28] and Polish [29] descent which lead to a nativist backlash. Some Americans worried about the growing Catholic population and wanted to maintain America as an Anglo Saxon Protestant nation. [30] [31] Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century European mass emigration to the United States and high birthrates grew the white population. [32] [33] [34] After the American Revolution white Americans settled the entire nation west of Appalachian Mountains, ultimately displacing the natives and populating the entire country by the late 19th century. All immigration to the US declined markedly between the mid 1920s until the 1960s due to a combination of immigration laws, The Great Depression, and The Second World War. [35] Waves of Jewish, Syrian, and Lebanese immigration also occurred around this time. [36] [37] [38]

Since 1965 white migration to the U.S has been relatively minor compared to other racial and ethnic groups. During the 1990s there was a moderate increase from former communist countries in Eastern Europe. [39] At the same time birthrates amongst whites have fallen below replacement level. [40]

Culture

White Americans have developed their own music, art, cuisine, fashion, and political economy largely based on a combination of traditional European ones. [41] [42] Most religious white Americans are Christian. [43] Many Europeans often Anglicized their names and over time most Europeans adopted English as their primary language and intermarried with other white groups. [44] [45]

Population stagnation and decline

The falling percentage of non-Hispanic white Americans is due to multiple factors:

1. Immigration. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants in the world with the vast majority coming from countries where the population is of non-white and/or Hispanic origin. Immigration to the U.S. from European countries has been in a steady decline since World War II averaging 56% of all immigrants in the 1950s and declining to 35% of all immigrants in the 1960s, 20% in the 1970s, 11% in the 1980s, 14% in the 1990s, and 13% in the 2000s. In 2009, approximately 90% of all immigrants came from non-European countries. [46] The U.S. does receive a small number of non-Hispanic white immigrants, mainly from countries such as Brazil, Canada, Poland, Russia, and the UK. [47]

2. Intermarriage. The USA is seeing an unprecedented increase in intermarriage between the various racial and ethnic groups. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all new marriages in the United States were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another. 9% of non-Hispanic whites who married in 2008 married either a non-white or Hispanic. Among all newlyweds in 2008, intermarried pairings were primarily white-Hispanic of any race (41%) as compared to white-Asian (15%), white-black (11%), and other combinations (33%). Other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and Native Indigenous Americans. [48] The children of such unions would not automatically be classified as white non-Hispanic. Note that one self-identifies his or her racial and/or ethnic category.

3. Methodology. In the 2000 Census, people were allowed to check more than one race in addition to choosing "Hispanic." There was strong opposition to this from some civil rights activists who feared that this would reduce the size of various racial minorities. The government responded by counting those who are white and of one minority race or ethnicity as minorities for the purposes of civil-rights monitoring and enforcement. Hence one could be 1/8th black and still be counted as a minority. [49] Also, because this does not apply to Hispanic origin (one is either Hispanic or not, but cannot be both Hispanic and non-Hispanic), the offspring of Hispanics and non-Hispanics are usually counted as Hispanic. [50] In 2017, the Pew Research Center reported that high intermarriage rates and declining Latin American immigration has led to 11% of U.S. adults with Hispanic ancestry (5.0 million people) to no longer identify as Hispanic. [51] First generation immigrants from Spain and Latin America identify as Hispanic at very high rates (97%) which reduces in each succeeding generation, second generation (92%), third generation (77%), and fourth generation (50%). [51]

4. Attrition. Minority populations are younger than non-Hispanic whites. The national median age in 2011 was 37.3 with non-Hispanic whites having the oldest median age (42.3) while Hispanics have the youngest (27.6). Non-Hispanic blacks (32.9) and non-Hispanic Asians (35.9) also are younger than whites. [52] In 2013, the Census Bureau reported that for the first time, due to the more advanced age profile of the non-Hispanic white population, non-Hispanic whites died at a faster rate than non-Hispanic white births. [53]

Although non-Hispanic whites are declining as a percentage, in actual numbers they have still been growing. From 2000 - 2010 the non-Hispanic white population grew from 194,552,774 to 196,817,552. This was a growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period, due to residual population momentum. [54]

Population by settlement

White Non-Hispanic population by state or territory (1990–2018) [55] [56] [57]
State/TerritoryPop 1990% pop
1990
Pop 2000% pop
2000
Pop 2010% pop
2010
Pop 2018% pop
2018
% growth
2000-2012
% pop
1990-2012
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama 2,960,16773.3%3,125,81970.3%3,204,40267.0%3,190,85265.3%+2.8%-6.7 pp
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska 406,72273.9%423,78867.6%455,32064.1%444,02660.2%+8.7%-10.9 pp
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona 2,626,18571.7%3,274,25863.8%3,695,64757.8%3,895,20254.3%+13.9%-14.8 pp
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas 1,933,08282.2%2,100,13578.6%2,173,46974.5%2,172,90472.1%+3.8%-8.3 pp
Flag of California.svg California 17,029,12657.2%15,816,79046.7%14,956,25340.1%14,497,30036.6%-5.8%-18.0 pp
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado 2,658,94580.7%3,202,88074.5%3,520,79370.0%3,858,95867.8%+12.4%-11.3 pp
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut 2,754,18483.8%2,638,84577.5%2,546,26271.2%2,367,29966.3%-4.8%-13.8 pp
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware 528,09279.3%567,97372.5%586,75265.3%598,30061.9%+3.8%-15.0 pp
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia 166,13127.4%159,17827.8%209,46434.8%259,77637.0%+40.1%+7.9 pp
Flag of Florida.svg Florida 9,475,32673.2%10,458,50965.4%10,884,72257.9%11,342,67153.3%+4.9%-16.4 pp
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia 4,543,42570.1%5,128,66162.6%5,413,92055.9%5,495,42452.2%+6.5%-15.1 pp
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 347,64431.4%277,09122.9%309,34322.7%307,58121.7%+14.4%-8.6 pp
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho 928,66192.2%1,139,29188.0%1,316,24384.0%1,432,78181.7%+16.8%-8.8 pp
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois 8,550,20874.8%8,424,14067.8%8,167,75363.7%7,764,12260.9%-3.9%-11.9 pp
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana 4,965,24289.6%5,219,37385.8%5,286,45381.5%5,266,03478.7%+1.3%-8.7 pp
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa 2,663,84095.9%2,710,34492.6%2,701,12388.7%2,696,79885.4%-0.2%-7.9 pp
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas 2,190,52488.4%2,233,99783.1%2,230,53978.2%2,201,41875.6%0.0%-11.0 pp
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky 3,378,02291.7%3,608,01389.3%3,745,65586.3%3,774,82484.5%+4.2%-5.9 pp
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana 2,776,02265.8%2,794,39162.5%2,734,88460.3%2,720,53458.4%-1.6%-6.1 pp
Flag of Maine.svg Maine 1,203,35798.0%1,230,29796.5%1,254,29794.4%1,245,63293.1%+1.7%-3.9 pp
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland 3,326,10969.6%3,286,54762.1%3,157,95854.7%3,035,97950.2%-3.7%-15.8 pp
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts 5,280,29287.8%5,198,35981.9%4,984,80076.1%4,883,70070.8%-3.7%-12.6 pp
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan 7,649,95182.3%7,806,69178.6%7,569,93976.6%7,476,35074.8%-3.6%-6.2 pp
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota 4,101,26693.7%4,337,14388.2%4,405,14283.1%4,454,93079.4%+2.0%-11.4 pp
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi 1,624,19863.1%1,727,90860.7%1,722,28758.0%1,684,11656.4%-0.6%-5.6 pp
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri 4,448,46586.9%4,686,47483.8%4,850,74881.0%4,857,89079.3%+3.5%-6.4 pp
Flag of Montana.svg Montana 733,87891.8%807,82389.5%868,62887.8%911,35285.8%+8.5%-4.6 pp
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska 1,460,09592.5%1,494,49487.3%1,499,75382.1%1,514,09878.5%+1.0%-11.2 pp
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada 946,35778.7%1,303,00165.2%1,462,08154.1%1,470,21048.5%+11.7%-26.0 pp
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire 1,079,48497.3%1,175,25295.1%1,215,05092.3%1,218,50289.8%+3.2%-5.5 pp
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 5,718,96674.0%5,557,20966.0%5,214,87859.3%4,863,53554.6%-7.6%-16.1 pp
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico 764,16450.4%813,49544.7%833,81040.5%773,54636.9%+1.7%-10.7 pp
Flag of New York.svg New York 12,460,18969.3%11,760,98162.0%11,304,24758.3%10,791,66555.2%-4.5%-11.9 pp
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina 4,971,12775.0%5,647,15570.2%6,223,99565.3%6,505,36062.7%+11.4%-10.5 pp
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota 601,59294.2%589,14991.7%598,00788.9%636,78083.8%+4.6%-6.1 pp
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio 9,444,62287.1%9,538,11184.0%9,359,26381.1%9,183,46178.6%-2.4%-6.5 pp
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma 2,547,58881.0%2,556,36874.1%2,575,38168.7%2,566,50665.1%+1.2%-13.2 pp
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon 2,579,73290.8%2,857,61683.5%3,005,84878.5%3,146,82975.1%+5.9%-13.2 pp
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania 10,422,05887.7%10,322,45584.1%10,094,65279.5%9,725,76975.9%-2.8%-9.1 pp
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island 896,10989.3%858,43381.9%803,68576.4%755,24971.4%-7.8%-13.9 pp
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina 2,390,05668.5%2,652,29166.1%2,962,74064.1%3,230,60063.5%+13.7%-4.6 pp
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota 634,78891.2%664,58588.0%689,50284.7%716,98481.3%+5.1%-7.4 pp
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee 4,027,63182.6%4,505,93079.2%4,800,78275.6%4,983,17173.6%+7.4%-7.6 pp
Flag of Texas.svg Texas 10,291,68060.6%10,933,31352.4%11,397,34545.3%11,884,77341.4%+5.7%-16.3 pp
Flag of Utah.svg Utah 1,571,25491.2%1,904,26585.3%2,221,71980.4%2,460,08777.8%+19.7%-11.4 pp
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont 552,18498.1%585,43196.2%590,22394.3%580,75892.7%+0.5%-4.3 pp
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia 4,701,65076.0%4,965,63770.2%5,186,45064.8%5,223,24561.3%+5.4%-12.1 pp
Flag of Washington.svg Washington 4,221,62286.7%4,652,49078.9%4,876,80472.5%5,110,80167.8%+5.9%-15.3 pp
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia 1,718,89695.8%1,709,96694.6%1,726,25693.2%1,660,84492.0%+0.7%-3.0 pp
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin 4,464,67791.3%4,681,63087.3%4,738,41183.3%4,710,33581.0%+1.2%-8.5 pp
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming 412,71191.0%438,79988.9%483,87485.9%484,99083.9%+11.1%-6.4 pp
Flag of American Samoa.svg American Samoa 6821.2%6111.1%-10.4%
Flag of Guam.svg Guam 10,6666.9%11,0016.9%+3.1%
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg Northern Mariana Islands 1,2741.8%9161.7%-28.1%
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico 33,9660.9%26,9460.7%23,5420.6%-30.7%
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg U.S. Virgin Islands 8,5807.9%3,8303.6%-55.3%
Flag of the United States.svg United States of America188,128,29675.6%194,552,77469.1%196,817,55263.7%197,034,85160.2%+1.4%–11.9 pp

In 2012, in 37 out of the 50 U.S. states non-Hispanic whites made up a greater percentage of the state's population than the U.S. overall share of 62.8%; however, the 13 states with greater shares of non-whites include the four most populous states (California, Texas, New York, and Florida). Also, note that while the total non-Hispanic white population has grown since 2000 in 36 out of the 50 states, the relative share of non-Hispanic whites in the overall state population has declined in all 50 states during that same time period.

As of 2016, five states are majority minority: Hawaii, California, New Mexico, Texas, and Nevada.

Historical population by state or territory

Non-Mexican White (1910-1930) and Non-Hispanic White % of population (1940-2010) by U.S. State [58] [59] [60]
State/Territory1910192019301940195019601970198019902000201020162018
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama 65.3%73.3%73.3%73.3%70.3%67.0%65.8%65.3%
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska 48.3%77.2%75.8%73.9%67.6%64.1%61.2%60.2%
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona 65.1%74.3%74.5%71.7%63.8%57.8%55.5%54.3%
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas 75.2%81.0%82.2%82.2%78.6%74.5%72.9%72.1%
Flag of California.svg California 89.5%76.3%66.6%57.2%46.7%40.1%37.7%36.6%
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado 90.3%84.6%82.7%80.7%74.5%70.0%68.6%67.8%
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut 97.9%91.4%88.0%83.8%77.5%71.2%67.7%66.3%
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware 86.4%84.1%81.3%79.3%72.5%65.3%62.9%61.9%
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia 71.4%26.5%25.7%27.4%27.8%34.8%36.4%37.0%
Flag of Florida.svg Florida 71.5%77.9%76.7%73.2%65.4%57.9%54.9%53.3%
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia 65.2%73.4%71.6%70.1%62.6%55.9%53.4%52.2%
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 31.5%38.0%31.1%31.4%22.9%22.7%22.1%21.7%
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho 98.4%95.9%93.9%92.2%88.0%84.0%82.4%81.7%
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois 94.7%83.5%78.0%74.8%67.8%63.7%61.7%60.9%
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana 96.3%91.7%90.2%89.6%85.8%81.5%79.6%78.7%
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa 99.2%98.0%96.9%95.9%92.6%88.7%86.2%85.4%
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas 95.6%92.7%90.5%88.4%83.1%78.2%76.3%75.6%
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky 92.5%92.4%91.7%91.7%89.3%86.3%85.0%84.5%
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana 63.7%68.2%67.6%65.8%62.5%60.3%59.0%58.4%
Flag of Maine.svg Maine 99.7%99.1%98.3%98.0%96.5%94.4%93.5%93.1%
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland 83.3%80.4%73.9%69.6%62.1%54.7%51.5%50.2%
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts 98.6%95.4%92.3%87.8%81.9%76.1%72.7%70.8%
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan 95.7%87.1%84.1%82.3%78.6%76.6%75.4%74.8%
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota 99.0%97.7%96.1%93.7%88.2%83.1%80.6%79.4%
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi 50.6%62.6%63.6%63.1%60.7%58.0%56.9%56.4%
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri 93.4%88.6%87.7%86.9%83.8%81.0%79.7%79.3%
Flag of Montana.svg Montana 96.2%94.7%93.4%91.8%89.5%87.8%86.5%85.8%
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska 98.2%95.2%94.0%92.5%87.3%82.1%79.6%78.5%
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada 91.6%86.7%83.2%78.7%65.2%54.1%49.9%48.5%
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire 99.9%99.1%98.4%97.3%95.1%92.3%90.8%89.8%
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 94.3%84.7%79.1%74.0%66.0%59.3%55.8%54.6%
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico 50.9%53.8%52.6%50.4%44.7%40.5%38.1%36.9%
Flag of New York.svg New York 94.6%80.1%75.0%69.3%62.0%58.3%55.8%55.2%
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina 71.9%76.5%75.3%75.0%70.2%65.3%63.5%62.7%
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota 98.3%96.9%95.5%94.2%91.7%88.9%85.0%83.8%
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio 95.0%89.8%88.2%87.1%84.0%81.1%79.5%78.6%
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma 89.9%88.1%85.0%81.0%74.1%68.7%66.2%65.1%
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon 98.6%95.8%93.3%90.8%83.5%78.5%76.4%75.1%
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania 95.1%90.3%89.1%87.7%84.1%79.5%77.0%75.9%
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island 98.3%96.1%93.4%89.3%81.9%76.4%73.3%71.4%
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina 57.1%69.0%68.3%68.5%66.1%64.1%63.9%63.5%
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota 96.2%94.6%92.3%91.2%88.0%84.7%82.5%81.3%
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee 82.5%83.7%83.1%82.6%79.2%75.6%74.2%73.6%
Flag of Texas.svg Texas 74.1%69.6%65.7%60.6%52.4%45.3%42.6%41.4%
Flag of Utah.svg Utah 98.2%93.6%92.4%91.2%85.3%80.4%78.8%77.8%
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont 99.7%99.2%98.5%98.1%96.2%94.3%93.1%92.7%
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia 75.3%80.1%78.2%76.0%70.2%64.8%62.4%61.3%
Flag of Washington.svg Washington 97.7%93.6%90.2%86.7%78.9%72.5%69.5%67.8%
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia 93.7%95.7%95.6%95.8%94.6%93.2%92.3%92.0%
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin 99.2%95.6%93.6%91.3%87.3%83.3%81.7%81.0%
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming 95.9%92.1%92.0%91.0%88.9%85.9%84.1%83.9%
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico 0.9%0.7%0.6%

See also

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A population decline in humans is a reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, aging, emigration, for example as a result of economic recession, urban decay, rural flight, food resource decline or high death rates due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.. Generally, population decline is perceived as a negative occurrence by policy makers, because a large population is traditionally associated with great power status; for this reason, many governments are trying to halt or reverse declining trends in population. However, depopulation in humans can be largely beneficial for a region, allocating more resources with less or no competition for the new population. In addition to exempting the disadvantages of overpopulation, such as increased traffic, pollution, real estate prices, environmental destruction, and fossil fuel usage, etc. Per-capita wealth may increase in depopulation scenarios, in addition to improvement of environmental quality-of-life indicators such as improved air and water quality, carbon neutrality, reforestation, including nitrogen fixing trees, return of native species such as salt marshes and mangroves, reduction of pollution and urban heat island effect, buying more time for people to fight the climate crisis, etc. The accompanying benefits of depopulation have been termed shrink and prosper, with benefits being similar to the post-Civil War Gilded Age, post-World War I economic boom, and the post-World War II economic boom.

A majority-minority or minority-majority area is a term used to refer to a subdivision in which one or more racial and/or ethnic minorities make up a majority of the local population.

White Americans are a racial or ethnic group of Americans who identify as and are perceived to be white people. The term is usually used to refer to those of European descent, though is at times also used to refer to Americans of North African and Middle Eastern descent. White Americans constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population identifying as white in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,181,177 or 60.4% of the U.S. population. European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and constitute the historical majority population of the United States since the nation's founding.

Race and ethnicity in the United States is a complex topic because the United States of America has a racially and ethnically diverse population. At the federal level, race and ethnicity have been categorized separately.

Texas is the second most populous U.S. state, with an estimated July 2019 population of 28.996 million. In recent decades, it has experienced strong population growth. Texas has many major cities and metropolitan areas, along with many towns and rural areas. Much of the population is in the major cities of Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, and El Paso.

In the United States, a White Hispanic is an individual who self-identifies as white and of Hispanic descent and/or speaks the Spanish language natively. White Latino Americans are a broader category, including people of Brazillian descent, who predominantly speak Portuguese, in addition to Spanish-speaking populations.

The legal and social strictures which define white Americans, and distinguish them from persons who are not considered white by the government and society, have varied throughout U.S. history.

The demographics of the District of Columbia are ethnically diverse in the cosmopolitan federal district. In 2018, the District had a population of 702,455 people, for a resident density of 11,515 people per square mile.

Demographics of Arizona

As of 2009, Arizona had a population of 6.343 million, which is an increase of 213,311, or 3.6%, from the prior year and an increase of 1,035,686, or 20.2%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 297,928 people and an increase due to net migration of 745,944 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 204,661 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 541,283 people. New population figures for the year ending July 1, 2006, indicate that Arizona is the fastest growing state in the United States, with 3.6% population growth since 2005, exceeding the growth of the previous leader, Nevada. The most recent population estimates released by the US Census put the population at 6,828,065 in 2015.

Demographics of Hispanic and Latino Americans

The demographics of Hispanic and Latino Americans depict a population that is the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, 52 million people or 16.7% of the national population, of them, 47 Million are American citizens.

Americans Citizens or natives of the United States of America

Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents may also claim American nationality. The United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance.

The demographics of Georgia are inclusive of the ninth most populous state in the United States, with over 9.68 million people, just over 3% of America's population.

Demographics of South Carolina

The U.S. state of South Carolina is the 23rd largest state by population, with a population of 5,024,369 as of 2017 United States Census estimates.

Demographic history of New York City

The racial and ethnic history of New York City has varied widely; from its sale to the Dutch by Native American residents, to the modern multi-cultural period.

Demographics of Cleveland

From its founding in 1796, Cleveland's population grew to 796,841 in 1920, making it the fifth largest city in the United States. By 1930, the population rose to 900,429 and, after World War II, it reached 914,808 in 1950. Since then, due to various historical factors including deindustrialization, suburbanization, and urban sprawl, Cleveland's population began decreasing in the 1960s and had fallen to 381,009 by the 2019 U.S. census estimate. Beginning in 2018, the city's population began to flatten, after decades of decline. Additionally, in recent years, some neighborhoods within Cleveland, notably Downtown, have begun seeing a population increase.

The racial and ethnic demographics of the United States have changed dramatically throughout its history.

History of the White Americans in Baltimore

The history of the White Americans in Baltimore dates back to the 17th century when the first white European colonists came to what is now Maryland and established the Province of Maryland on what was then Native American land. White Americans in Baltimore are Baltimoreans "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." Majority white for most of its history, Baltimore no longer had a white majority by the 1970s. As of the 2010 Census, white Americans are a minority population of Baltimore at 29.6% of the population. White Americans have played a substantial impact on the culture, dialect, ethnic heritage, history, politics, and music of the city. Since the earliest English settlers arrived on the shores of the Chesapeake Bay, Baltimore's white population has been sustained by substantial immigration from all over Europe, particularly Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Southern Europe, as well as a large out-migration of White Southerners from Appalachia. Numerous white immigrants from Europe and the European diaspora have immigrated to Baltimore from the United Kingdom, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Italy, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Spain, France, Canada, and other countries, particularly during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Smaller numbers of white people have immigrated from Latin America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, North Africa, and other non-European regions. Baltimore also has a prominent population of white Jews of European descent, mostly with roots in Central and Eastern Europe. There is a smaller population of white Middle Easterners and white North Africans, most of whom are Arab, Persian, Israeli, or Turkish. The distribution of White Americans in Central and Southeast Baltimore is sometimes called "The White L", while the distribution of African Americans in East and West Baltimore is called "The Black Butterfly."

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