White Americans

Last updated

White Americans
Total population
Increase2.svg243,832,540 (2018) [1]
75.5% of the estimated total U.S. population
234,904,818 (2018) (one race) [1]
Increase2.svg197,181,177 (Non-Hispanic: 2018) [1]
60.4% of the total U.S. population
Regions with significant populations
All areas of the United States
Languages
Most:Unusual:
Religion
[2]
Related ethnic groups
European Americans, Europeans, Middle Eastern Americans, White Latin Americans, European Canadians, European Australians, European New Zealanders, European diasporas from other parts of the world

White Americans are a racial or ethnic group of Americans who identify as and are perceived to be white people. White Americans (including White Hispanics) constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population identifying as white in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,181,177 or 60.4% of the U.S. population. [3] [4] European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and have constituted the majority population of the United States since the nation's founding.

Contents

The United States Census Bureau defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." [5] However, people of these regions can be of various racial backgrounds, and the Obama-era Census Bureau had planned to change this definition prior to the election of Donald Trump. [6] Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component, [7] the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is synonymous with "white", although the latter is sometimes used to denote skin tone instead of race. [8] Some of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U.S. Census, such as Arab Americans, [9] Jewish Americans, [10] and Hispanics or Latinos, may not identify as or may not be perceived to be, white.

The largest ancestries of American whites are: German (17%), Irish (12%), English (9%), Italian (6%), French (4%), Polish (3%), Scottish (3%), Scotch-Irish (2%), Dutch (2%), Norwegian (2%) and Swedish (1%). [11] [12] [13] However, the English and British Americans' demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (7%), due to the length of time they have inhabited the United States, particularly if their family arrived prior to the American Revolution. [14] The vast majority of white Americans also have ancestry from multiple countries.

Historical and present definitions

Definitions of who is "White" have changed throughout the history of the United States.

U.S. Census definition

The term "White American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria. The 2000 U.S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria." [15]

The Census question on race lists the categories White or European American, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Asian, plus "Some other race", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one racial or ethnic category. The Census Bureau defines White people as follows:

"White" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa. It includes people who indicated their race(s) as "White" or reported entries such as German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian. [5]

In U.S. census documents, the designation White overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic or Latino , which was introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity, separate and independent of race. [16] [17] Hispanic and Latino Americans as a whole make up a racially diverse group and as a whole are the largest minority in the country. [18] [19]

The characterization of Middle Eastern and North African Americans as white has been a matter of controversy. In the early 20th century, there were a number of cases where people of Arab descent were denied entry into the United States or deported, because they were characterized as nonwhite. [20] In 1944, the law changed, and Middle Eastern and North African peoples were granted white status. In 2015, the US Census endorsed the idea of creating a separate racial category for Middle Eastern and North African Americans in the 2020 Census, but this plan was discarded when the Trump Administration came to power.

Abraham Lincoln O-77 matte collodion print.jpg
President Abraham Lincoln was descended from Samuel Lincoln and was of English and Welsh ancestry.
Gloria Vanderbilt 1959.JPG
Gloria Vanderbilt, noted artist and designer, was of Dutch descent.

In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U.S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value.

Additionally, people who reported Muslim (or a sect of Islam such as Shi'ite or Sunni), Jewish, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section, without noting a country of origin, are automatically tallied as White. [21] The US Census considers the write-in response of " Caucasian " or " Aryan " to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing. [22]

Social definition

In the contemporary United States, essentially anyone of European descent is considered White. However, many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as White by the U.S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, and Hispanics or Latinos may not identify as, and may not be perceived to be, White. [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]

The definition of White has changed significantly over the course of American history. Among Europeans, those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Irish, Finns, and Russians. [28] [29] [30] Early on in the United States, membership in the white race was generally limited to those of British, Germanic, or Nordic ancestry. [31]

David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves. [32] The process of officially being defined as white by law often came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship. [33]

Critical race theory definition

Critical race theory developed in the 1970s and 1980s, influenced by the language of critical legal studies, which challenged concepts such as objective truth, rationality and judicial neutrality, and by critical theory. [34] Academics and activists disillusioned with the outcomes of the Civil Rights Movement pointed out that though African Americans supposedly enjoyed legal equality, white Americans continued to hold disproportionate power and still had superior living standards. [35] Liberal ideas such as meritocracy and equal opportunity, they argued, hid and reinforced deep structural inequalities and thus serves the interests of a white elite. [36] Critical race theorists see racism as embedded in public attitudes and institutions, and highlight institutional racism and unconscious biases. [37] Legal scholar Derrick Bell advanced the interest convergence principle, which suggests that whites support minority rights only when doing so is also in their self-interest. [38] [39]

As Whites, especially White Anglo-Saxon Protestants, or WASPs, are the dominant racial and cultural group, according to sociologist Steven Seidman, writing from a critical theory perspective, "White culture constitutes the general cultural mainstream, causing non-White culture to be seen as deviant, in either a positive or negative manner. Moreover, Whites tend to be disproportionately represented in powerful positions, controlling almost all political, economic, and cultural institutions."

Yet, according to Seidman, Whites are most commonly unaware of their privilege and the manner in which their culture has always been dominant in the US, as they do not identify as members of a specific racial group but rather incorrectly perceive their views and culture as "raceless", when in fact it is ethno-national (ethnic/cultural) specific, with a racial base component. [40]

Demographic information

Self-identified as White 1790–2010
YearPopulation% of
the U.S.
% change
(10 yr)
YearPopulation% of
the U.S.
% change
(10 yr)
17903,172,00680.7Steady2.svg191081,731,95788.9Increase2.svg22.3%
18004,306,44681.1Increase2.svg35.8%192094,820,91589.7Increase2.svg16.0%
18105,862,07381.0Increase2.svg36.1%1930110,286,74089.8Increase2.svg16.3%
18207,866,79781.6Increase2.svg34.2%1940118,214,87089.8 (highest)Increase2.svg7.2%
183010,532,06081.9Increase2.svg33.9%1950134,942,02889.5Increase2.svg14.1%
184014,189,70583.2Increase2.svg34.7%1960158,831,73288.6Increase2.svg17.7%
185019,553,06884.3Increase2.svg37.8%1970178,119,22187.5Increase2.svg12.1%
186026,922,53785.6Increase2.svg37.7%1980188,371,62283.1Increase2.svg5.8%
187033,589,37787.1Increase2.svg24.8%1990199,686,07080.3Increase2.svg6.0%
188043,402,97086.5Increase2.svg29.2%2000211,460,62675.1Increase2.svg5.9%
189055,101,25887.5Increase2.svg26.9%2010223,553,26572.4 (lowest)Increase2.svg5.7%
190066,809,19687.9Increase2.svg21.2%
Source: United States census bureau. [41] [42] [43] [44]

White Americans constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. [lower-alpha 1] [5] [46]

The largest ethnic groups (by ancestry) among White Americans were Germans, followed by Irish and English. [47] In the 1980 census 49,598,035 Americans cited that they were of English ancestry, making them 26% of the country and the largest group at the time, and in fact larger than the population of England itself. [48] Slightly more than half of these people would cite that they were of "American" ancestry on subsequent censuses and virtually everywhere that "American" ancestry predominates on the 2000 census corresponds to places where "English" predominated on the 1980 census. [49] [50]

While over ten million White people can trace part of their ancestry back to the Pilgrims who arrived on the Mayflower in 1620 (this common statistic overlooks the Jamestown, Virginia foundations of America and roots of even earlier colonist-descended Americans, such as Spanish Americans in St. Augustine, Florida), over 35 million whites have at least one ancestor who passed through the Ellis Island immigration station, which processed arriving immigrants from 1892 until 1954.

Geographic distribution

According to the Census definition, White Americans are the majority racial group in almost all of the United States. They are not the majority in Hawaii, many American Indian reservations, parts of the South, the District of Columbia, all US territories, and in many urban areas throughout the country. Non-Hispanic whites are also not the majority in several southwestern states.

Overall the highest concentration of those referred to as "Non-Hispanic Whites" by the Census Bureau are found in the Midwest, New England, the northern Rocky Mountain states, Kentucky, West Virginia, and East Tennessee. [51] The lowest concentration of whites was found in southern and mid-Atlantic states. [7] [52] [53]

Although all large geographical areas are dominated by White Americans, much larger differences can be seen between specific parts of large cities.

States with the highest percentages of White Americans, as of 2007: [54]

States with the highest percentages of non-Hispanic Whites, as of 2007: [55]

Income and educational attainment

White Americans have the second highest median household income and personal income levels in the nation, by cultural background. The median income per household member was also the highest, since White Americans had the smallest households of any racial demographic in the nation. In 2006, the median individual income of a White American age 25 or older was $33,030, with those who were full-time employed, and of age 25 to 64, earning $34,432. Since 42% of all households had two income earners, the median household income was considerably higher than the median personal income, which was $48,554 in 2005. Jewish Americans rank first in household income, personal income, and educational attainment among White Americans. [56] In 2005, White households had a median household income of $48,977, which is 10% above the national median of $44,389. Among Cuban Americans, with 86% classified as White, those born in the US have a higher median income and educational attainment level than most other Whites. [57]

The poverty rates for White Americans are the second-lowest of any racial group, with 11% of white individuals living below the poverty line, 3% lower than the national average. [58] However, due to Whites' majority status, 48% of Americans living in poverty are white. [59]

White Americans' educational attainment is the second-highest in the country, after Asian Americans'. Overall, nearly one-third of White Americans had a Bachelor's degree, with the educational attainment for Whites being higher for those born outside the United States: 38% of foreign born, and 30% of native born Whites had a college degree. Both figures are above the national average of 27%. [60]

Gender income inequality was the greatest among Whites, with White men outearning White women by 48%. Census Bureau data for 2005 reveals that the median income of White females was lower than that of males of all races. In 2005, the median income for White American females was only slightly higher than that of African American females. [61]

White Americans are more likely to live in suburbs and small cities than their black counterparts. [62]

Population by state

Percentage of population self-reported as White American by state in 2010 :
less than 50%
50-60%
60-70%
70-80%
80-90%
more than 90% White American by state in the USA in 2010.svg
Percentage of population self-reported as White American by state in 2010 :
   less than 50%
   50–60%
   60–70%
   70–80%
   80–90%
   more than 90%

2000 and 2010 censuses

White American population as of 2000 and 2010 censuses [63]
StatePop. 2000% 2000Pop. 2010% 2010% growth
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama 3,162,80871.1%3,275,39468.5%+3.6%
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska 434,53469.3%473,57666.7%+9.0%
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona 3,873,61175.5%4,667,12173.0%+20.5%
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas 2,138,59880.0%2,245,22977.0%+5.0%
Flag of California.svg California 20,170,05979.7%21,453,93474.0%+6.4%
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado 3,560,00582.8%4,089,20281.3%+14.9%
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut 2,780,35581.6%2,772,41077.6%-0.3%
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware 584,77374.6%618,61768.9%+5.8%
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia 176,10130.8%231,47138.5%+31.4%
Flag of Florida.svg Florida 12,465,02978.0%14,109,16275.0%+13.2%
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia 5,327,28165.1%5,787,44059.7%+8.6%
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 294,10224.3%336,59924.7%+14.4%
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho 1,177,30491.0%1,396,48789.1%+18.6%
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois 9,125,47173.5%9,177,87771.5%+0.6%
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana 5,320,02287.5%5,467,90684.3%+2.8%
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa 2,748,64093.9%2,781,56191.3%+1.2%
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas 2,313,94486.1%2,391,04483.8%+3.3%
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky 3,640,88990.1%3,809,53787.8%+4.6%
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana 2,856,16163.9%2,836,19262.6%-0.7%
Flag of Maine.svg Maine 1,236,01496.9%1,264,97195.2%+2.3%
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland 3,391,30864.0%3,359,28458.2%-0.9%
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts 5,367,28684.5%5,265,23680.4%-1.9%
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan 7,966,05380.2%7,803,12078.9%-2.0%
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota 4,400,28289.4%4,524,06285.3%+2.8%
Flag placeholder.svg Mississippi 1,746,09961.4%1,754,68459.1%+0.5%
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri 4,748,08384.9%4,958,77082.8%+4.4%
Flag of Montana.svg Montana 817,22990.6%884,96189.4%+8.3%
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska 1,533,26189.6%1,572,83886.1%+2.6%
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada 1,501,88675.2%1,786,68866.2%+19.0%
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire 1,186,85196.0%1,236,05092.3%+4.1%
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 6,104,70572.6%6,029,24868.6%-1.2%
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico 1,214,25366.8%1,407,87668.4%+15.9%
Flag of New York.svg New York 12,893,68967.9%12,740,97465.7%-1.2%
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina 5,804,65672.1%6,528,95068.5%+12.5%
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota 593,18192.4%605,44990.0%+2.1%
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio 9,645,45385.0%9,539,43782.7%-1.1%
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma 2,628,43476.2%2,706,84572.2%+3.0%
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon 2,961,62386.6%3,204,61483.6%+8.2%
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania 10,484,20385.4%10,406,28881.9%-0.7%
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island 891,19185.0%856,86981.4%-3.8%
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina 2,695,56067.2%3,060,00066.2%+13.5%
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota 669,40488.7%699,39285.9%+4.5%
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee 4,563,31080.2%4,921,94877.6%+7.9%
Flag of Texas.svg Texas 14,799,50571.0%17,701,55270.4%+19.6%
Flag of Utah.svg Utah 1,992,97589.2%2,379,56086.1%+19.4%
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont 589,20896.8%596,29295.3%+1.2%
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia 5,120,11072.3%5,486,85268.6%+7.2%
Flag of Washington.svg Washington 4,821,82381.8%5,196,36277.3%+7.8%
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia 1,718,77795.0%1,739,98893.9%+1.2%
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin 4,769,85788.9%4,902,06786.2%+2.8%
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming 454,67092.1%511,27990.7%+12.4%
Flag of the United States.svg United States of America211,460,62675.1%223,553,26572.4%+5.7%

2016 and 2017 estimates

White population by state [64]
StatePop. 2016% 2016Pop. 2017% 2017percentage
growth
numeric
growth
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama 3,371,06669.35%3,374,13169.22%-0.13%+3,065
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska 490,86466.20%486,72465.79%-0.41%-4,140
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona 5,753,50683.28%5,827,86683.06%-0.22%+74,360
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas 2,372,84379.41%2,381,66279.27%-0.14%+3,740
Flag of California.svg California 28,560,03272.68%28,611,16072.37%-0.31%+51,128
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado 4,837,19787.47%4,894,37287.29%-0.18%+57,175
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut 2,891,94380.60%2,879,75980.26%-0.34%-12,184
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware 667,07670.02%670,51269.70%-0.32%+3,436
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia 305,23244.60%313,23445.14%+0.54%+8,002
Flag of Florida.svg Florida 16,022,49777.56%16,247,61377.43%-0.13%+225,116
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia 6,310,42661.18%6,341,76860.81%-0.37%+31,342
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 370,36225.92%366,54625.67%-0.25%-3,816
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho 1,567,86893.32%1,599,81493.18%-0.2%+31,946
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois 9,909,18477.20%9,864,94277.06%-0.14%-44,242
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana 5,679,25285.61%5,690,92985.36%-0.25%+11,677
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa 2,860,13691.35%2,864,66491.06%-0.29%+4,528
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas 2,519,34086.64%2,519,17686.47%-0.17%-164
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky 3,901,87887.96%3,908,96487.76%-0.20%+7,086
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana 2,958,47163.13%2,951,00363.00%-0.13%-7,468
Flag of Maine.svg Maine 1,261,24794.81%1,264,74494.67%-0.14%+3,497
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland 3,572,67359.30%3,568,67958.96%-0.34%-3,994
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts 5,575,62281.71%5,576,72581.29%-0.42%+1,103
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan 7,906,91379.60%7,914,41879.44%-0.16%+7,505
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota 4,687,39784.84%4,708,21584.43%-0.41%+20,818
Flag placeholder.svg Mississippi 1,771,27659.33%1,766,95059.21%-0.12%-4,326
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri 5,069,86983.23%5,080,44483.10%-0.13%+10,575
Flag of Montana.svg Montana 926,47589.20%935,79289.08%-0.12%+9,317
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska 1,693,62288.78%1,700,88188.58%-0.20%+7,259
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada 2,208,91575.15%2,235,65774.57%-0.58%+26,742
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire 1,251,83693.77%1,256,80793.59%-0.18%+4,971
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 6,499,05772.38%6,489,40972.06%-0.32%-9,648
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico 1,716,66282.31%1,715,62382.16%-0.15%-1,039
Flag of New York.svg New York 13,856,65169.85%13,807,12769.56%-0.29%-49,524
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina 7,212,42371.01%7,276,99570.83%-0.18%+64,572
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota 663,42487.81%661,21787.53%-0.28%-2,207
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio 9,578,42482.41%9,579,20782.16%-0.25%+783
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma 2,923,75174.56%2,921,39074.32%-0.24%-2,361
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon 3,569,53887.29%3,607,51587.08%-0.21%+37,977
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania 10,525,56282.31%10,507,78082.06%-0.25%-17,782
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island 892,28784.37%890,88384.07%-0.30%-1,404
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina 3,393,34668.2%3,440,14168.47%+0.27%+46,795
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota 733,19985.10%738,55484.92%-0.18%+5,355
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee 5,231,98778.68%5,276,74878.57%-0.11%+44,761
Flag of Texas.svg Texas 22,166,78279.44%22,404,11879.15%-0.29%+237,336
Flag of Utah.svg Utah 2,774,60691.14%2,820,38790.93%-0.21%+45,781
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont 589,83694.62%589,16394.47%-0.15%-673
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia 5,891,17470.01%5,904,47269.71%-0.30%+13,298
Flag of Washington.svg Washington 5,820,00779.93%5,887,06079.49%-0.44%+67,053
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia 1,712,64793.66%1,699,26693.58%-0.08%-13,381
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin 5,049,69887.47%5,060,89187.32%-0.15%+11,193
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming 543,22492.87%537,39692.76%-0.11%-5,828
Flag of the United States.svg United States248,619,30376.87%249,619,49376.64%-0.23%+1,000,190
Non-Hispanic population
Non-Hispanic White population by state [64]
StatePop. 2016% 2016Pop. 2017% 2017percentage
growth
numeric
growth
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama 3,198,38165.80%3,196,85265.58%-0.22%-1,529
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska 454,65161.31%449,77660.80%-0.51%-4,875
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona 3,819,88155.29%3,849,13054.86%-0.43%+29,249
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas 2,175,52172.80%2,177,80972.49%-0.31%+2,288
Flag of California.svg California 14,797,97137.66%14,696,75437.17%-0.49%-101,217
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado 3,791,61268.56%3,827,75068.26%-0.30%+36,135
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut 2,428,33267.68%2,404,79267.02%-0.66%-23,540
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware 597,72862.74%599,26062.30%-0.44%+1,532
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia 249,14136.40%255,38736.80%+0.40%+6,246
Flag of Florida.svg Florida 11,273,38854.57%11,343,97754.06%-0.51%+70,589
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia 5,499,05553.32%5,507,33452.81%-0.51%+8,279
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 317,02622.19%312,49221.89%-0.30%-4,534
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho 1,382,93482.32%1,408,29482.02%-0.30%+25,360
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois 7,915,01361.65%7,849,88761.32%-0.33%-65,126
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana 5,280,02979.59%5,280,42079.20%-0.39%+391
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa 2,696,68686.13%2,695,96285.70%-0.43%-724
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas 2,215,92076.21%2,209,74875.86%-0.35%-6,172
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky 3,767,09284.92%3,768,89184.61%-0.31%+1,799
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana 2,760,41658.91%2,747,73058.66%-0.25%-12,686
Flag of Maine.svg Maine 1,243,74193.50%1,246,47893.30%-0.20%+2,737
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland 3,098,54351.43%3,077,90750.86%-0.57%-20,636
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts 4,972,01072.86%4,953,69572.21%-0.65%-18,315
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan 7,489,60975.40%7,488,32675.17%-0.23%-1,283
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota 4,442,68480.41%4,455,60579.89%-0.52%+12,921
Flag placeholder.svg Mississippi 1,697,56256.86%1,691,56656.69%-0.17%-5,996
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri 4,855,15679.71%4,859,22779.48%-0.23%+4,071
Flag of Montana.svg Montana 897,79086.44%905,81186.23%-0.21%+8,021
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska 1,515,49479.44%1,516,96279.00%-0.44%+1,468
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada 1,465,88849.87%1,470,85549.06%-0.81%+4,967
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire 1,212,37790.81%1,215,44790.52%-0.29%+3,070
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 5,002,86655.72%4,962,47055.10%-0.62%-40,396
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico 789,86938.31%783,06437.50%-0.81%-6,805
Flag of New York.svg New York 11,047,45655.69%10,972,95955.28%-0.41%-74,497
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina 6,447,85263.48%6,486,10063.13%-0.35%+38,248
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota 641,94584.96%639,02984.59%-0.37%-2,916
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio 9,229,93279.41%9,219,57779.08%-0.33%-10,355
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma 2,592,57166.12%2,581,56865.67%-0.45%-11,003
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon 3,115,65676.25%3,139,68575.79%-0.46%+24,029
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania 9,841,61976.96%9,796,51076.50%-0.44%-45,109
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island 773,40573.13%768,22972.50%-0.63%-5,176
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina 3,165,17663.82%3,203,04563.75%-0.07%+37,869
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota 710,50982.47%714,88182.20%-0.27%+4,372
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee 4,931,60974.17%4,963,78073.91%-0.26%+32,171
Flag of Texas.svg Texas 11,862,69742.51%11,886,38142.00%-0.51%+23,684
Flag of Utah.svg Utah 2,400,88578.86%2,434,78578.49%-0.37%+33,900
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont 580,23893.08%579,14992.86%-0.22%-1,089
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia 5,247,23162.36%5,241,26261.88%-0.48%-5,969
Flag of Washington.svg Washington 5,049,81769.36%5,091,37068.75%-0.61%+41,553
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia 1,688,47292.33%1,674,55792.22%-0.11%-13,915
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin 4,710,92881.60%4,713,99381.34%-0.26%+3,065
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming 492,23584.16%486,56583.99%-0.17%-5,670
Flag of the United States.svg United States197,834,59961.17%197,803,08360.73%-0.44%-31,516

Culture

From their earliest presence in North America, White Americans have contributed literature, art, cinema, religion, agricultural skills, foods, science and technology, fashion and clothing styles, music, language, legal system, political system, and social and technological innovation to American culture. White American culture derived its earliest influences from English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers and is quantitatively the largest proportion of American culture. [65] The overall American culture reflects White American culture. The culture has been developing since long before the United States formed a separate country. Much of American culture shows influences from English culture. Colonial ties to Great Britain spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes. [66]

Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America

Three members of the Kennedy political dynasty, John, Robert and Edward. All eight of their great-grandparents emigrated from Ireland. Kennedy bros.jpg
Three members of the Kennedy political dynasty, John, Robert and Edward. All eight of their great-grandparents emigrated from Ireland.

In his 1989 book Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America , David Hackett Fischer explores the details of the folkways of four groups of settlers from the British Isles that moved to the American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries from distinct regions of Britain and Ireland. His thesis is that the culture of each group persisted (albeit in modified form), providing the basis for the modern United States. [67]

According to Fischer, the foundation of America's four regional cultures was formed from four mass migrations from four regions of the British Isles by four distinct ethno-cultural groups. New England's formative period occurred between 1629 and 1640 when Puritans, mostly from East Anglia, settled there, thus forming the basis for the New England regional culture. [68] The next mass migration was of southern English Cavaliers and their working class English servants to the Chesapeake Bay region between 1640 and 1675. This spawned the creation of the American Southern culture. [69]

Then, between 1675 and 1725, thousands of Irish, Cornish, English and Welsh Quakers plus many Germans sympathetic to Quaker ideas, led by William Penn, settled the Delaware Valley. This resulted in the formation of the General American culture, although, according to Fischer, this is really a "regional culture", even if it does today encompass most of the U.S. from the mid-Atlantic states to the Pacific Coast. [70] Finally, a huge number of settlers from the borderlands between England and Scotland, and from northern Ireland, migrated to Appalachia between 1717 and 1775. This resulted in the formation of the Upland South regional culture, which has since expanded to the west to West Texas and parts of the American Southwest. [71]

In his book, Fischer brings up several points. He states that the U.S. is not a country with one "general" culture and several "regional" culture, as is commonly thought. Rather, there are only four regional cultures as described above, and understanding this helps one to more clearly understand American history as well as contemporary American life. Fischer asserts that it is not only important to understand where different groups came from, but when. All population groups have, at different times, their own unique set of beliefs, fears, hopes and prejudices. When different groups moved to America and brought certain beliefs and values with them, these ideas became, according to Fischer, more or less frozen in time, even if they eventually changed in their original place of origin. [72]

Admixture

Admixture in Non-Hispanic Whites

Some White Americans have varying amounts of American Indian and Sub-Saharan African ancestry. In a recent study, Gonçalves et al. 2007 reported Sub-Saharan and Amerindian mtDNA lineages at a frequency of 3.1% (respectively 0.9% and 2.2%) in American Caucasians (in the US, "Caucasian" includes people from North Africa and Western Asia as well as Europeans). [73] Recent research on Y-chromosomes and mtDNA detected no African admixture in European-Americans. The sample included 628 European-American Y-chromosomes and mtDNA from 922 European-Americans [74]

DNA analysis on White Americans by geneticist Mark D. Shriver showed an average of 0.7% Sub-Saharan African admixture and 3.2% Native American admixture. [75] The same author, in another study, claimed that about 30% of all White Americans, approximately 66 million people, have a median of 2.3% of Black African admixture. [76] Shriver discovered his ancestry is 10 percent African, and Shriver's partner in DNA Print Genomics, J.T. Frudacas, contradicted him two years later stating "Five percent of European Americans exhibit some detectable level of African ancestry." [77]

White Americans (European Americans) on average are: 98.6 percent European, 0.19 percent African and 0.18 percent Native American. Inferred British/Irish ancestry is found in European Americans from all states at mean proportions of above 20%, and represents a majority of ancestry, above 50% mean proportion, in states such as Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Scandinavian ancestry in European Americans is highly localized; most states show only trace mean proportions of Scandinavian ancestry, while it comprises a significant proportion, upwards of 10%, of ancestry in European Americans from Minnesota and the Dakotas. [78]

Admixture in Hispanic Whites

Although most Hispanic Americans self-identify in the white racial category of the US Census or other official government data collecting, an overwhelming majority of them would in their personal lives consider themselves as ethnically mestizo (of mixed European and Native American/American Indian background) or mulatto (of mixed European and sub-Saharan African background). [79] ‹See TfM› [ failed verification ]

Thus, only a minority of those Hispanic Americans who self-identified in their personal lives as mestizo or mulatto actually selected "multiracial" as their race on the U.S. census, with 9 out of every 10 of them preferring to pick white, one of the five single race categories available on the U.S. census. [79] ‹See TfM› [ failed verification ]

In contrast to non-Hispanic European Americans, whose average European ancestry ranges about 98.6%, [78] [80] genetic research has found that the average European admixture among self-identified Hispanic White Americans is 73% European, while the average European admixture for Hispanic Americans overall (regardless of their self-identified race) is 65.1% European admixture.

See also

Notes

  1. Of the foreign-born population from Europe (4,817 thousand), in 2010, 62% were naturalized. [45]

Related Research Articles

Demographics of the United States Study of the population of the United States and how it changes

The United States is the third-most populous country in the world, with an estimated population of 330,020,103 as of July 27, 2020. The United States Census Bureau shows a population increase of 0.75% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2012. Though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1.1%. The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2019 is 1.71 children per woman, which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1.

White people is a racial classification and skin color specifier, used mostly and exclusively for people of European and Western Eurasian descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view. The term has at times been expanded to encompass persons of Middle Eastern and North African descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts, and at times excluded people of Southern European descent. The usage of "white people" or a "white race" for a large group of mainly or exclusively European populations, defined by their light skin, among other physical characteristics, and contrasting with "black people", Amerindians, and other "colored" people or "persons of color", originated in the 17th century. It was only during the 19th century that this vague category was transformed in a quasi-scientific system of race and skin color relations.

Mexican Americans Americans of Mexican heritage

Mexican Americans are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent. As of July 2018, Mexican Americans made up 11.3% of the United States' population, as 37.0 million U.S. residents identified as being of full or partial Mexican ancestry. As of July 2018, Mexican Americans comprised 61.9% of all Latinos in Americans in the United States. Many Mexican Americans reside in the American Southwest; over 60% of all Mexican Americans reside in the states of California and Texas. As of 2016, Mexicans made up 53% of the total population of Latino foreign-born Americans. Mexicans are also the largest foreign-born population, accounting for 25% of the total foreign-born population, as of 2017.

Multiracial people is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds, including multiracial, biracial, multiethnic, polyethnic, Métis, Creole, mulatto, Coloured, Dougla, half-caste, mestizo, Melungeon, quadroon, Chindian, sambo/zambo, Eurasian, hapa, hāfu, Garifuna, honhyeol, and pardo.

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are the self-identified categories of race or races and ethnicity chosen by residents, with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether they are of Hispanic or Latino origin.

European Americans Americans of European descent

European Americans are Americans of European ancestry. This term includes people who are descended from the first European settlers in America as well as people who are descended from more recent European arrivals. European Americans are the largest panethnic group in the United States, both historically and at present.

Hispanophone and Hispanic refers to anything relating to the people, speech, or culture of Spain.

A majority-minority or minority-majority area is a term used to refer to a subdivision in which one or more racial and/or ethnic minorities make up a majority of the local population.

Race and ethnicity in the United States is a complex topic because the United States of America has a racially and ethnically diverse population. At the federal level, race and ethnicity have been categorized separately.

Demographics of Manhattan

New York County, coterminous with the New York City borough of Manhattan, is the most densely populated U.S. county, with a density of 70,825.6/mi2 (27,267.4/km2) as of 2013. In 1910, it reached a peak of 101,548/mi2 (39,222.9/km2). The county is one of the original counties of New York state.

In the United States, a White Hispanic is an individual who self-identifies as white and of Hispanic descent and/or speaks the Spanish language natively. White Latino Americans are a broader category, including people of Brazillian descent, who predominantly speak Portuguese, in addition to Spanish-speaking populations.

The legal and social strictures which define white Americans, and distinguish them from persons who are not considered white by the government and society, have varied throughout U.S. history.

Americans Citizens or natives of the United States of America

Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, many dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents may also claim American nationality. The United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance.

Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of two or more races. The term may also include Americans of mixed race ancestry who self-identify with just one group culturally and socially. In the 2010 US census, approximately 9 million individuals, or 2.9% of the population, self-identified as multiracial. There is evidence that an accounting by genetic ancestry would produce a higher number. Historical reasons, including slavery creating a racial caste and the European-American suppression of Native Americans, often led people to identify or be classified by only one ethnicity, generally that of the culture in which they were raised. Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their multiracial heritage because of racial discrimination against minorities. While many Americans may be considered multiracial, they often do not know it or do not identify so culturally, any more than they maintain all the differing traditions of a variety of national ancestries.

The demographics of Georgia are inclusive of the ninth most populous state in the United States, with over 9.68 million people, just over 3% of America's population.

American ancestry refers to people in the United States who self-identify their ancestral origin or descent as "American", rather than the more common officially recognized racial and ethnic groups that make up the bulk of the American people. The majority of these respondents are visibly White Americans, who either simply use this response as a political statement or are far removed from and no longer self-identify with their original ethnic ancestral origins. The latter response is attributed to a multitude of generational distance from ancestral lineages, and these tend be of English, Scotch-Irish, or other British ancestries, as demographers have observed that those ancestries tend to be seriously undercounted in U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey ancestry self-reporting estimates. Although U.S. Census data indicates "American ancestry" is commonly self-reported in the Deep South and Upland South, the vast majority of Americans and expatriates do not equate their nationality with ancestry, race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance.

Interracial marriage in the United States Regional categorization of cross-ethnic marital unions

Interracial marriage in the United States has been legal throughout the United States since at least the 1967 U.S. Supreme Court decision Loving v. Virginia (1967) that held that "anti-miscegenation" laws were unconstitutional. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote in the court opinion that "the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual, and cannot be infringed by the State."

Non-Hispanic whites are European Americans, Middle Eastern Americans, and North African Americans that speak English as a native language as defined by the United States Census Bureau.

Ethnic groups in Latin America

The inhabitants of Latin America are from a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition of the group varies from country to country. Many have a predominance of European-Amerindian or Mestizo population; in others, Amerindians are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations have large African or Mulatto populations.

In the United States, despite the efforts of equality proponents, income inequality persists among races and ethnicities. Asian Americans have the highest median income, followed by White Americans, Latino Americans, African Americans, and Native Americans. A variety of explanations for these differences have been proposed—such as differing access to education, two parent home family structure, high school dropout rates and experience of discrimination and deep-seated and systemic anti-Black racism—and the topic is highly controversial.

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