Mohave people

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Mojave People
Parker, Arizona. Henry Welsh, Mojave Indian and chairman of the tribal council of the Colorado Rive . . . - NARA - 536247.jpg
Henry Welshe, Mojave tribal chairman of Colorado River Indian Reservation council, ca. 1944–6
Total population
2,000 (Golla, 2007) [1] –967 (1990) [2]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of the United States.svg  United States (Flag of Arizona.svg  Arizona)
Languages
Mojave, English [1]
Religion
traditional tribal religion, Humatuve
Related ethnic groups
Maricopa, Walapai, Havasupai, and Yavapai [1]

Mohave or Mojave (Pronounced "Moh-ha-vee")(Mojave: 'Aha Makhav) are a Native American people indigenous to the Colorado River in the Mojave Desert. The Fort Mojave Indian Reservation includes territory within the borders of California, Arizona, and Nevada. The Colorado River Indian Reservation includes parts of California and Arizona and is shared by members of the Chemehuevi, Hopi, and Navajo peoples.

Mojave or Mohave is the native language of the Mohave people along the Colorado River in northwestern Arizona, southeastern California, and southwestern Nevada. Approximately 70% of the speakers reside in Arizona, while approximately 30% reside in California. It belongs to the River branch of the Yuman language family, together with Quechan and Maricopa.

Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the United States (except Hawaii)

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States. More than 570 federally recognized tribes live within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaskan Natives, while "Native Americans" are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians or Chamorro, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

Colorado River major river in the western United States and Mexico

The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The 1,450-mile-long (2,330 km) river drains an expansive, arid watershed that encompasses parts of seven U.S. states and two Mexican states. Starting in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado, the river flows generally southwest across the Colorado Plateau and through the Grand Canyon before reaching Lake Mead on the Arizona–Nevada border, where it turns south toward the international border. After entering Mexico, the Colorado approaches the mostly dry Colorado River Delta at the tip of the Gulf of California between Baja California and Sonora.

Contents

The original Colorado River and Fort Mojave reservations were established in 1865 and 1870, respectively. Both reservations include substantial senior water rights in the Colorado River; water is drawn for use in irrigated farming.

The four combined tribes sharing the Colorado River Indian Reservation function today as one geo-political unit known as the federally recognized Colorado River Indian Tribes; each tribe also continues to maintain and observe its individual traditions, distinct religions, and culturally unique identities.

Colorado River Indian Tribes federally recognized tribe

The Colorado River Indian Tribes is a federally recognized tribe consisting of the four distinct ethnic groups associated with the Colorado River Indian Reservation: Chemehuevi, the Mohave, Hopi, and Navajo. The tribe has about 4,277 enrolled members. A total population of 9,485 currently resides within the tribal reservation according to the 2012-2016 American Community Survey data.

Culture

Mojave ceramic figurine with red slip and earrings, pre-1912, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Doll, Mohave, acquired in 1912 - Native American collection - Peabody Museum, Harvard University - DSC05514.JPG
Mojave ceramic figurine with red slip and earrings, pre-1912, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology

In the 1930s, George Devereux, a Hungarian-French anthropologist, did fieldwork and lived among the Mohave for an extended period of study. He published extensively about their culture and incorporated psychoanalytic thinking in his interpretation of their culture.

George Devereux ethnologist

Georges Devereux was a Hungarian-French ethnologist and psychoanalyst, often considered the founder of ethnopsychiatry.

Language

The Mojave language belongs to the River Yuman branch of the Yuman language family. In 1994 approximately 75 people in total on the Colorado River and Fort Mojave reservations spoke the language, according to linguist Leanne Hinton. The tribe has published language materials, and there are new efforts to teach the language to their children. [1]

Leanne Hinton professor of linguistics

Leanne Hinton is an emerita professor of linguistics at the University of California at Berkeley. She specializes in American Indian languages, sociolinguistics, and language revitalization. She has been described as "an authority on how and why languages are being lost, the significance of language diversity, and the ways in which indigenous tongues can be revitalized before it's too late." "She first worked with Native American groups on bilingual education, orthographic design and literature development. After joining the Berkeley faculty in 1978, Hinton began working with California languages."

Religion

The Mohave creator is Matevilya, who gave the people their names and their commandments. His son is Mastamho, who gave them the River and taught them how to plant. Historically this was an agrarian culture; they planted in the fertile floodplain of the untamed river, following the age-old customs of the Aha cave. They have traditionally used the indigenous plant Datura as a deliriant hallucinogen in a religious sacrament. A Mohave who is coming of age must consume the plant in a rite of passage, in order to enter a new state of consciousness. [3]

Mastamho, sometimes also referred to as Mustamho, is the creator deity of the first Mohave people along the Colorado River in the Mojave Desert and Colorado Desert. Mastamho is the grandson of the Earth Mother and the Sky father.

<i>Datura</i> genus of plants

Datura is a genus of nine species of poisonous Vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. They are commonly known as daturas, but also known as devil's trumpets. Other English common names include moonflower, jimsonweed, devil's weed, hell's bells and thorn-apple. The Mexican common names Toloache and Tolguacha derive from the Nahuatl name Tolohuaxihuitl meaning "the plant with the nodding head". Datura species are native to dry, temperate, and subtropical regions of the Americas and are distributed mostly in Mexico, which is considered the center of its origin. Although Datura ferox occurs in Argentina, Datura metel in Asia, and Datura leichardthii in Australia, these species were probably introduced from Mexico. Its distribution within the Americas and North Africa, however, is most likely restricted to the United States, Mexico and Southern Canada in North America, and Tunisia in Africa where the highest species diversity occurs.

A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which most likely causes hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness. The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants. Although hallucinations are a common symptom of amphetamine psychosis, amphetamines are not considered hallucinogens as they are not a primary effect of the drugs themselves. While hallucinations can occur when abusing stimulants, the nature of stimulant psychosis is not unlike delirium.

History

1851 drawing of Mohavi men and women made by Lorenzo Sitgreaves' topographical mission across Arizona in 1851. Image taken from page 64 of 'Report of an expedition down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers by Captain L. Sitgreaves (11041216516) (cropped).jpg
1851 drawing of Mohavi men and women made by Lorenzo Sitgreaves' topographical mission across Arizona in 1851.
Chiefs Irataba and Cairook, with Mohave woman, by Balduin Mollhausen (1856) Irataba and Cairook (cropped).jpg
Chiefs Irataba and Cairook, with Mohave woman, by Balduin Möllhausen (1856)

Much of early Mojave history remains unrecorded in writing, since the Mojave language was not written in precolonial times. They depended on oral communication to transmit their history and culture from one generation to the next. Disease, outside cultures and encroachment on their territory disrupted their social organization. Together with having to adapt to a majority culture of another language, this resulted in interrupting the Mojave transmission of their stories and songs to the following generations.[ citation needed ]

The tribal name has been spelled in Spanish and English transliteration in more than 50 variations, such as Hamock avi, Amacava,A-mac-ha ves, A-moc-ha-ve, Jamajabs, and Hamakhav. This has led to misinterpretations of the tribal name, also partly traced to a translation error in Frederick W. Hodge's 1917 Handbook of the American Indians North of Mexico (1917). This incorrectly defined the name Mohave as being derived from hamock, (three), and avi, (mountain). According to this source, the name refers to the mountain peaks known as The Needles in English, located near the Colorado River. (The city of Needles, California is located a few miles north from here). But, the Mojave call these peaks Huqueamp avi, which means "where the battle took place," referring to the battle in which the God-son, Mastamho, slew the sea serpent.

Ancestral lands

Charley-Arri-Wa-Wa (Mohave), 1872 Charley-Arri-Wa-Wa. Mohave, 1872 - NARA - 518966.tif
Charley-Arri-Wa-Wa (Mohave), 1872

[ This quote needs a citation ]

The Mojave held lands along the river that stretched from Black Canyon, where the tall pillars of First House of Mutavilya loomed above the river, past Avi kwame or Spirit Mountain, the center of spiritual things, to the Quechan Valley, where the lands of other tribes began. As related to contemporary landmarks, their lands began in the north at Hoover Dam and ended about one hundred miles below Parker Dam on the Colorado River, or aha kwahwat in Mojave.

19th–20th centuries

Mosa (Mojave girl), 1903, photograph by Edward Curtis Mosa, Mohave girl, by Edward S. Curtis, 1903.jpg
Mosa (Mojave girl), 1903, photograph by Edward Curtis

In mid-April 1859, United States troops, led by Lieutenant Colonel William Hoffman, on the Expedition of the Colorado, moved upriver into Mojave country with the well-publicized objective of establishing a military post. By this time, white immigrants and settlers had begun to encroach on Mojave lands and the post was intended to protect east-west European-American emigrants from attack by the Mojave. Hoffman sent couriers among the tribes, warning that the post would be gained by force if they or their allies chose to resist. During this period, several members of the Rose party were massacred by the Mojave. The Mojave warriors withdrew as Hoffman's armada approached and the army, without conflict, occupied land near the future Fort Mojave. Hoffman ordered the Mojave men to assemble on April 23, 1859 at the armed stockade adjacent to his headquarters, to hear Hoffman' terms of peace. Hoffman gave them the choice of submission or extermination and the Mojave chose submission. At that time the Mojave population was estimated to be about 4,000 which were comprised into 22 clans identified by totems.

Two Mojave girls standing in front of a small dwelling with a thatched roof, 1900 Two Mojave Indians girls standing in front of a small dwelling with a thatched roof, 1900 (CHS-1241).jpg
Two Mojave girls standing in front of a small dwelling with a thatched roof, 1900

Under American law the Mohave were to live on the Colorado River Reservation after its establishment in 1865; however many refused to leave their ancestral homes in the Mojave Valley. At this time, under jurisdiction of the War Department, officials declined to try to force them onto the reservation and the Mojave in the area were relatively free to follow their tribal ways. In the midsummer of 1890, after the end of the Indian Wars, the War Department withdrew its troops and the post was transferred to the Office of Indian Affairs within the Department of the Interior.

Beginning in August 1890, the Office of Indian Affairs began an intensive program of assimilation where Mohave, and other native children living on reservations, were forced into boarding schools in which they learned to speak, write, and read English. This assimilation program, which was Federal policy, was based on the belief that this was the only way native peoples could survive. Fort Mojave was converted into a boarding school for local children and other "non-reservation" Indians. Until 1931, forty-one years later, all Fort Mojave boys and girls between the ages of six and eighteen were compelled to live at this school or to attend an advanced Indian boarding school far removed from Fort Mojave.

Two Mojave Indian women playing a game (fortune-telling with bones?), ca.1900 Two Mojave Indian woman playing a game (fortune-telling with bones%3F), ca.1900 (CHS-3410).jpg
Two Mojave Indian women playing a game (fortune-telling with bones?), ca.1900

The assimilation helped to break up tribal culture and governments. In addition to English, schools taught American culture and customs and insisted that the children follow them; students were required to adopt European-American hairstyles (which included hair cutting), clothing, habits of eating, sleeping, toiletry, manners, industry, and language. Use of their own language or customs was a punishable offense; at Fort Mojave five lashes of the whip were issued for the first offense. Such corporal punishment of children scandalized the Mojave, who did not discipline their children in that way.

As part of the assimilation the administrators assigned English names to the children and registered as members of one of two tribes, the Mojave Tribe on the Colorado River Reservation and the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation. These divisions did not reflect the traditional Mojave clan and kinship system. By the late 1960s, thirty years after the end of the assimilation program 18 of the 22 traditional clans had survived.

Population

Estimates of the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) put the 1770 population of the Mohave at 3,000 and Francisco Garcés, a Franciscan missionary-explorer, also estimated the population at 3,000 in 1776(Garcés 1900(2):450).

A.L. Kroeber estimate of the population in 1910 was 1,050. [4] By 1963 Lorraine M. Sherer's research revealed the population had shrunk to approximately 988, with 438 at Fort Mojave and 550 of the Colorado River Reservation. [5]

Current status

The Mohave, along with the Chemehuevi, some Hopi, and some Navajo, share the Colorado River Indian Reservation and function today as one geopolitical unit known as the federally recognized Colorado River Indian Tribes; each tribe also continues to maintain and observe its individual traditions, distinct religions, and culturally unique identities. The Colorado River Indian Tribes headquarters, library and museum are in Parker, Arizona, about 40 miles (64 km) north of I-10. The Colorado River Indian Tribes Native American Days Fair & Expo is held annually in Parker, from Thursday through Sunday during the first week of October. The Megathrow Traditional Bird Singing & Dancing social event is also celebrated annually, on the third weekend of March. RV facilities are available along the Colorado River.

See also

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Fort Mohave

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Mohave War

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Irataba leader of the Mohave Nation

Irataba was a leader of the Mohave Nation, known for his role as a mediator between his people and the United States. He was born near the Colorado River in present-day Arizona. Irataba was a renowned orator and one of the first Mohave to speak English, a skill he used to develop relations with the United States.

Homoseh quahote also called Seck-a-hoot, Sicihoot or Sickahoot in some English language sources; c. 1800 – c. 1872) was a hereditary leader of the Mohave.

The Mohave Trail was a Native American trade route between Mohave Indian villages on the Colorado River and settlements in coastal Southern California.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Mohave." Ethnologue. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
  2. Pritzker 47
  3. http://www.angelfire.com/indie/anna_jones1/datura.html
  4. Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D.C.
  5. Sherer 1965

Further reading