Technology

Last updated

A steam turbine with the case opened. Such turbines produce most of the electricity used today. Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated. Electrification is believed to be the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century. Dampfturbine Montage01.jpg
A steam turbine with the case opened. Such turbines produce most of the electricity used today. Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated. Electrification is believed to be the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century.

Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia [2] ) is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems (e. g. machines) applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by Medieval Greek.

A skill is the ability to carry out a task with determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self-motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be used only for a certain job. Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used.

Scientific method Interplay between observation, experiment and theory in science

The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises.

Contents

The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.

Tool Physical item that can be used to achieve a goal

A tool is an object used to extend the ability of an individual to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back hundreds of millennia, use tools to make other tools. The set of tools required to perform different tasks that are part of the same activity is called gear or equipment.

Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but it took thousands of years for writing to be widely adopted, and it was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or even until the present. The end of prehistory therefore came at very different dates in different places, and the term is less often used in discussing societies where prehistory ended relatively recently.

Control of fire by early humans Hominin events for the last 10 million years

The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution. Fire provided a source of warmth, protection, improvement on hunting and a method for cooking food. These cultural advances allowed human geographic dispersal, cultural innovations, and changes to diet and behavior. Additionally, creating fire allowed human activity to continue into the dark and colder hours of the evening.

Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.

An economy is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents. Understood in its broadest sense, 'The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources'. Economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two groups or parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency. However, monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain. Economic activity is spurred by production which uses natural resources, labor and capital. It has changed over time due to technology, innovation such as, that which produces intellectual property and changes in industrial relations. A given economy is the result of a set of processes that involves its culture, values, education, technological evolution, history, social organization, political structure and legal systems, as well as its geography, natural resource endowment, and ecology, as main factors. These factors give context, content, and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. In other words, the economic domain is a social domain of human practices and transactions. It does not stand alone.

Economic globalization increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world

Economic globalization is one of the three main dimensions of globalization commonly found in academic literature, with the two others being political globalization and cultural globalization, as well as the general term of globalization. Economic globalization refers to the widespread international movement of goods, capital, services, technology and information. It is the increasing economic integration and interdependence of national, regional, and local economies across the world through an intensification of cross-border movement of goods, services, technologies and capital. Economic globalization primarily comprises the globalization of production, finance, markets, technology, organizational regimes, institutions, corporations, and labour.

Conspicuous leisure

Conspicuous leisure is a concept introduced by the American economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen, in The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899). Conspicuous or visible leisure is engaged in for the sake of displaying and attaining social status. The concept comprises those forms of leisure that seem to be fully motivated by social factors, such as taking long vacations to exotic places and bringing souvenirs back. Conspicuous leisure is observed in all societies where stratification exists. Conspicuous leisure contributes to the glorification of non-productivity, thus validating the behavior of the most powerful classes and leading the lower classes to admire rather than revile the leisure class. This aids the leisure class in retaining their status and material position. Veblen's more well-known concept of "conspicuous consumption" is employed when non-productivity can be more effectively demonstrated through lavish spending.

Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.

The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality". This is a very broad topic which has been and continues to be pondered and analyzed from many perspectives, including those of religion, philosophy, history, art, literature, anthropology, psychology, and biology.

Neo-Luddism or new Luddism is a philosophy opposing many forms of modern technology. The word Luddite is generally used as a derogatory term applied to people showing technophobic leanings. The name is based on the historical legacy of the English Luddites, who were active between 1811 and 1816.

Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. According to anarcho-primitivism, the shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural subsistence gave rise to social stratification, coercion, alienation, and overpopulation. Anarcho-primitivists advocate a return of non-"civilized" ways of life through deindustrialization, abolition of the division of labor or specialization, and abandonment of large-scale organization technologies. Many traditional anarchists reject the critique of civilization while some, such as Wolfi Landstreicher, endorse the critique but do not consider themselves anarcho-primitivists. Anarcho-primitivists are often distinguished by their focus on the praxis of achieving a feral state of being through "rewilding".

Definition and usage

The spread of paper and printing to the West, as in this printing press, helped scientists and politicians communicate their ideas easily, leading to the Age of Enlightenment; an example of technology as cultural force. Handtiegelpresse von 1811.jpg
The spread of paper and printing to the West, as in this printing press, helped scientists and politicians communicate their ideas easily, leading to the Age of Enlightenment; an example of technology as cultural force.

The use of the term "technology" has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, and it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts [3] or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chartered in 1861). [4]

Massachusetts Institute of Technology University in Massachusetts

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant university, with an urban campus that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the Charles River. The Institute also encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the Bates Center, and the Haystack Observatory, as well as affiliated laboratories such as the Broad and Whitehead Institutes. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. It has since played a key role in the development of many aspects of modern science, engineering, mathematics, and technology, and is widely known for its innovation and academic strength, making it one of the most prestigious institutions of higher learning in the world.

The term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution. The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which usually translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves. [5]

The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization from the late 19th century into the early 20th century. The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the middle of 19th century, was punctuated by a slowdown in important inventions before the Second Industrial Revolution in 1870. Though a number of its characteristic events can be traced to earlier innovations in manufacturing, such as the establishment of a machine tool industry, the development of methods for manufacturing interchangeable parts and the invention of the Bessemer Process to produce steel, the Second Industrial Revolution is generally dated between 1870 and 1914.

Thorstein Veblen American academic

Thorstein Veblen was a Norwegian-American economist and sociologist, who during his lifetime emerged as a well-known critic of capitalism.

Industrial arts is an educational program which features fabrication of objects in wood or metal using a variety of hand, power, or machine tools. It may include small engine repair and automobile maintenance, and all programs usually cover technical drawing as part of the curricula. As an educational term, industrial arts dates from 1904 when Charles R. Richards of Teachers College, Columbia University, New York suggested it to replace manual training.

In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." [6] Bain's definition remains common among scholars today, especially social scientists. Scientists and engineers usually prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use. [7] More recently, scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self (techniques de soi).

Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, method, etc., that is created by technology." [8] Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it is "practice, the way we do things around here." [9] The term is often used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. [10] Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1 , defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter." [11]

Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology. [12] W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a similarly broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose." [13]

The word "technology" can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials. When combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.

The invention of integrated circuits and the microprocessor (here, an Intel 4004 chip from 1971) led to the modern computer revolution. C4004 (Intel).jpg
The invention of integrated circuits and the microprocessor (here, an Intel 4004 chip from 1971) led to the modern computer revolution.

Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture. [14] Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and as a result has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has at its basis the development of the Internet and the computer. [15] Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor.

Science, engineering and technology

Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment with combustion generated by amplified sun light Zoom lunette ardente.jpg
Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment with combustion generated by amplified sun light

The distinction between science, engineering, and technology is not always clear. Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation. [16] Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability, and safety.[ citation needed ]

Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result.

Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference. [17]

The exact relations between science and technology in particular have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science. In the immediate wake of World War II, for example, it was widely considered in the United States that technology was simply "applied science" and that to fund basic science was to reap technological results in due time. An articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science – The Endless Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research." [18] In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). The issue remains contentious, though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research. [19] [20]

History

Paleolithic (2.5 Ma – 10 ka)

A primitive chopper Chopper of Dmanisi.png
A primitive chopper

The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, [21] with a brain mass approximately one third of modern humans. [22] Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history. Approximately 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of fully modern language. [23]

Stone tools

Hand axes from the Acheulian period Biface de St Acheul MHNT.jpg
Hand axes from the Acheulian period
A Clovis point, made via pressure flaking Clovis Point.jpg
A Clovis point, made via pressure flaking

Hominids started using primitive stone tools millions of years ago. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, but approximately 75,000 years ago, [24] pressure flaking provided a way to make much finer work.

Fire

The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind. [25] The exact date of its discovery is not known; evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma; [26] scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between 500 and 400 ka. [27] [28] Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that could be eaten. [29]

Clothing and shelter

Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly, but they were a key to humanity's progress. As the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated and more elaborate; as early as 380 ka, humans were constructing temporary wood huts. [30] [31] Clothing, adapted from the fur and hides of hunted animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions; humans began to migrate out of Africa by 200 ka and into other continents such as Eurasia. [32]

Neolithic through classical antiquity (10 ka – 300 CE)

An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Neolithique 0001.jpg
An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools

Human's technological ascent began in earnest in what is known as the Neolithic Period ("New Stone Age"). The invention of polished stone axes was a major advance that allowed forest clearance on a large scale to create farms. This use of polished stone axes increased greatly in the Neolithic, but were originally used in the preceding Mesolithic in some areas such as Ireland. [33] Agriculture fed larger populations, and the transition to sedentism allowed simultaneously raising more children, as infants no longer needed to be carried, as nomadic ones must. Additionally, children could contribute labor to the raising of crops more readily than they could to the hunter-gatherer economy. [34] [35]

With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor specialization. [36] What triggered the progression from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, such as Uruk, and the first civilizations, such as Sumer, is not specifically known; however, the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures and specialized labor, of trade and war amongst adjacent cultures, and the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges such as irrigation, are all thought to have played a role. [37]

Metal tools

Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided, for the first time, the ability to smelt and forge of gold, copper, silver, and lead  native metals found in relatively pure form in nature. [38] The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times (about 10 ka). [39] Native copper does not naturally occur in large amounts, but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal fires. Eventually, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BCE). The first uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1800 BCE. [40] [41]

Energy and transport

The wheel was invented circa 4000 BCE. Wheel Iran.jpg
The wheel was invented circa 4000 BCE.

Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailing ship; the earliest record of a ship under sail is that of a Nile boat dating to the 8th millennium BCE. [42] From prehistoric times, Egyptians probably used the power of the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate their lands, gradually learning to regulate much of it through purposely built irrigation channels and "catch" basins. The ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia used a complex system of canals and levees to divert water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for irrigation. [43]

According to archaeologists, the wheel was invented around 4000 BCE probably independently and nearly simultaneously in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe. [44] Estimates on when this may have occurred range from 5500 to 3000 BCE with most experts putting it closer to 4000 BCE. [45] The oldest artifacts with drawings depicting wheeled carts date from about 3500 BCE; [46] however, the wheel may have been in use for millennia before these drawings were made. More recently, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia. [47]

The invention of the wheel revolutionized trade and war. It did not take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads. The ancient Sumerians used the potter's wheel and may have invented it. [48] A stone pottery wheel found in the city-state of Ur dates to around 3429 BCE, [49] and even older fragments of wheel-thrown pottery have been found in the same area. [49] Fast (rotary) potters' wheels enabled early mass production of pottery, but it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy (through water wheels, windmills, and even treadmills) that revolutionized the application of nonhuman power sources. The first two-wheeled carts were derived from travois [50] and were first used in Mesopotamia and Iran in around 3000 BCE. [50]

The oldest known constructed roadways are the stone-paved streets of the city-state of Ur, dating to circa 4000 BCE [51] and timber roads leading through the swamps of Glastonbury, England, dating to around the same time period. [51] The first long-distance road, which came into use around 3500 BCE, [51] spanned 1,500 miles from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea, [51] but was not paved and was only partially maintained. [51] In around 2000 BCE, the Minoans on the Greek island of Crete built a fifty-kilometer (thirty-mile) road leading from the palace of Gortyn on the south side of the island, through the mountains, to the palace of Knossos on the north side of the island. [51] Unlike the earlier road, the Minoan road was completely paved. [51]

Plumbing

Photograph of the Pont du Gard in France, one of the most famous ancient Roman aqueducts Pont du Gard BLS.jpg
Photograph of the Pont du Gard in France, one of the most famous ancient Roman aqueducts

Ancient Minoan private homes had running water. [53] A bathtub virtually identical to modern ones was unearthed at the Palace of Knossos. [53] [54] Several Minoan private homes also had toilets, which could be flushed by pouring water down the drain. [53] The ancient Romans had many public flush toilets, [54] which emptied into an extensive sewage system. [54] The primary sewer in Rome was the Cloaca Maxima; [54] construction began on it in the sixth century BCE and it is still in use today. [54]

The ancient Romans also had a complex system of aqueducts, [52] which were used to transport water across long distances. [52] The first Roman aqueduct was built in 312 BCE. [52] The eleventh and final ancient Roman aqueduct was built in 226 CE. [52] Put together, the Roman aqueducts extended over 450 kilometers, [52] but less than seventy kilometers of this was above ground and supported by arches. [52]

Medieval and modern history (300 CE – present)

Innovations continued through the Middle Ages with innovations such as silk, the horse collar and horseshoes in the first few hundred years after the fall of the Roman Empire. Medieval technology saw the use of simple machines (such as the lever, the screw, and the pulley) being combined to form more complicated tools, such as the wheelbarrow, windmills and clocks. The Renaissance brought forth many of these innovations, including the printing press (which facilitated the greater communication of knowledge), and technology became increasingly associated with science, beginning a cycle of mutual advancement. The advancements in technology in this era allowed a more steady supply of food, followed by the wider availability of consumer goods.

The automobile revolutionized personal transportation. Late model Ford Model T.jpg
The automobile revolutionized personal transportation.

Starting in the United Kingdom in the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution was a period of great technological discovery, particularly in the areas of agriculture, manufacturing, mining, metallurgy, and transport, driven by the discovery of steam power. Technology took another step in a second industrial revolution with the harnessing of electricity to create such innovations as the electric motor, light bulb, and countless others. Scientific advancement and the discovery of new concepts later allowed for powered flight and advancements in medicine, chemistry, physics, and engineering. The rise in technology has led to skyscrapers and broad urban areas whose inhabitants rely on motors to transport them and their food supply. Communication was also greatly improved with the invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio and television. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a revolution in transportation with the invention of the airplane and automobile.

F-15 and F-16 flying over Kuwaiti oil fires during the Gulf War in 1991. USAF F-16A F-15C F-15E Desert Storm edit2.jpg
F-15 and F-16 flying over Kuwaiti oil fires during the Gulf War in 1991.

The 20th century brought a host of innovations. In physics, the discovery of nuclear fission has led to both nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Computers were also invented and later miniaturized utilizing transistors and integrated circuits. Information technology subsequently led to the creation of the Internet, which ushered in the current Information Age. Humans have also been able to explore space with satellites (later used for telecommunication) and in manned missions going all the way to the moon. In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and treatments.

Complex manufacturing and construction techniques and organizations are needed to make and maintain these new technologies, and entire industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations of increasingly more complex tools. Modern technology increasingly relies on training and education – their designers, builders, maintainers, and users often require sophisticated general and specific training. Moreover, these technologies have become so complex that entire fields have been created to support them, including engineering, medicine, and computer science, and other fields have been made more complex, such as construction, transportation, and architecture.

Philosophy

Technicism

Generally, technicism is the belief in the utility of technology for improving human societies. [55] Taken to an extreme, technicism "reflects a fundamental attitude which seeks to control reality, to resolve all problems with the use of scientific–technological methods and tools." [56] In other words, human beings will someday be able to master all problems and possibly even control the future using technology. Some, such as Stephen V. Monsma, [57] connect these ideas to the abdication of religion as a higher moral authority.

Optimism

Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological development as generally having beneficial effects for the society and the human condition. In these ideologies, technological development is morally good.

Transhumanists generally believe that the point of technology is to overcome barriers, and that what we commonly refer to as the human condition is just another barrier to be surpassed.

Singularitarians believe in some sort of "accelerating change"; that the rate of technological progress accelerates as we obtain more technology, and that this will culminate in a "Singularity" after artificial general intelligence is invented in which progress is nearly infinite; hence the term. Estimates for the date of this Singularity vary, [58] but prominent futurist Ray Kurzweil estimates the Singularity will occur in 2045.

Kurzweil is also known for his history of the universe in six epochs: (1) the physical/chemical epoch, (2) the life epoch, (3) the human/brain epoch, (4) the technology epoch, (5) the artificial intelligence epoch, and (6) the universal colonization epoch. Going from one epoch to the next is a Singularity in its own right, and a period of speeding up precedes it. Each epoch takes a shorter time, which means the whole history of the universe is one giant Singularity event. [59]

Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and techno-utopianism and fear the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they support. Some have described Karl Marx as a techno-optimist. [60]

Skepticism and critics

Luddites smashing a power loom in 1812 FrameBreaking-1812.jpg
Luddites smashing a power loom in 1812

On the somewhat skeptical side are certain philosophers like Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan, who believe that technological societies are inherently flawed. They suggest that the inevitable result of such a society is to become evermore technological at the cost of freedom and psychological health.

Many, such as the Luddites and prominent philosopher Martin Heidegger, hold serious, although not entirely, deterministic reservations about technology (see "The Question Concerning Technology" [61] ). According to Heidegger scholars Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa, "Heidegger does not oppose technology. He hopes to reveal the essence of technology in a way that 'in no way confines us to a stultified compulsion to push on blindly with technology or, what comes to the same thing, to rebel helplessly against it.' Indeed, he promises that 'when we once open ourselves expressly to the essence of technology, we find ourselves unexpectedly taken into a freeing claim.' [62] What this entails is a more complex relationship to technology than either techno-optimists or techno-pessimists tend to allow." [63]

Some of the most poignant criticisms of technology are found in what are now considered to be dystopian literary classics such as Aldous Huxley's Brave New World , Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange , and George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four . In Goethe's Faust, Faust selling his soul to the devil in return for power over the physical world is also often interpreted as a metaphor for the adoption of industrial technology. More recently, modern works of science fiction such as those by Philip K. Dick and William Gibson and films such as Blade Runner and Ghost in the Shell project highly ambivalent or cautionary attitudes toward technology's impact on human society and identity.

The late cultural critic Neil Postman distinguished tool-using societies from technological societies and from what he called "technopolies," societies that are dominated by the ideology of technological and scientific progress to the exclusion or harm of other cultural practices, values, and world-views. [64]

Darin Barney has written about technology's impact on practices of citizenship and democratic culture, suggesting that technology can be construed as (1) an object of political debate, (2) a means or medium of discussion, and (3) a setting for democratic deliberation and citizenship. As a setting for democratic culture, Barney suggests that technology tends to make ethical questions, including the question of what a good life consists in, nearly impossible because they already give an answer to the question: a good life is one that includes the use of more and more technology. [65]

Nikolas Kompridis has also written about the dangers of new technology, such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, and robotics. He warns that these technologies introduce unprecedented new challenges to human beings, including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers, scientists and public intellectuals who have written about similar issues (e.g. Francis Fukuyama, Jürgen Habermas, William Joy, and Michael Sandel). [66]

Another prominent critic of technology is Hubert Dreyfus, who has published books such as On the Internet and What Computers Still Can't Do.

A more infamous anti-technological treatise is Industrial Society and Its Future , written by the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski and printed in several major newspapers (and later books) as part of an effort to end his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure. There are also subcultures that disapprove of some or most technology, such as self-identified off-gridders. [67]

Appropriate technology

The notion of appropriate technology was developed in the 20th century by thinkers such as E.F. Schumacher and Jacques Ellul to describe situations where it was not desirable to use very new technologies or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere. The ecovillage movement emerged in part due to this concern.

Optimism and skepticism in the 21st century

This section mainly focuses on American concerns even if it can reasonably be generalized to other Western countries.

The inadequate quantity and quality of American jobs is one of the most fundamental economic challenges we face. [...] What's the linkage between technology and this fundamental problem?

Bernstein, Jared, "It’s Not a Skills Gap That’s Holding Wages Down: It’s the Weak Economy, Among Other Things," in The American Prospect , October 2014

In his article, Jared Bernstein, a Senior Fellow at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, [68] questions the widespread idea that automation, and more broadly, technological advances, have mainly contributed to this growing labor market problem. His thesis appears to be a third way between optimism and skepticism. Essentially, he stands for a neutral approach of the linkage between technology and American issues concerning unemployment and declining wages.

He uses two main arguments to defend his point. First, because of recent technological advances, an increasing number of workers are losing their jobs. Yet, scientific evidence fails to clearly demonstrate that technology has displaced so many workers that it has created more problems than it has solved. Indeed, automation threatens repetitive jobs but higher-end jobs are still necessary because they complement technology and manual jobs that "requires flexibility judgment and common sense" [69] remain hard to replace with machines. Second, studies have not shown clear links between recent technology advances and the wage trends of the last decades.

Therefore, according to Bernstein, instead of focusing on technology and its hypothetical influences on current American increasing unemployment and declining wages, one needs to worry more about "bad policy that fails to offset the imbalances in demand, trade, income, and opportunity." [69]

For people who use both the Internet and mobile devices in excessive quantities it is likely for them to experience fatigue and over exhaustion as a result of disruptions in their sleeping patterns. Continuous studies have shown that increased BMI and weight gain are associated with people who spend long hours online and not exercising frequently. [70] Heavy Internet use is also displayed in the school lower grades of those who use it in excessive amounts. [71] It has also been noted that the use of mobile phones whilst driving has increased the occurrence of road accidents — particularly amongst teen drivers. Statistically, teens reportedly have fourfold the number of road traffic incidents as those who are 20 years or older, and a very high percentage of adolescents write (81%) and read (92%) texts while driving. [72] In this context, mass media and technology have a negative impact on people, on both their mental and physical health.

Complex technological systems

Thomas P. Hughes stated that because technology has been considered as a key way to solve problems, we need to be aware of its complex and varied characters to use it more efficiently. [73] What is the difference between a wheel or a compass and cooking machines such as an oven or a gas stove? Can we consider all of them, only a part of them, or none of them as technologies?

Technology is often considered too narrowly; according to Hughes, "Technology is a creative process involving human ingenuity". [74] This definition's emphasis on creativity avoids unbounded definitions that may mistakenly include cooking "technologies," but it also highlights the prominent role of humans and therefore their responsibilities for the use of complex technological systems.

Yet, because technology is everywhere and has dramatically changed landscapes and societies, Hughes argues that engineers, scientists, and managers have often believed that they can use technology to shape the world as they want. They have often supposed that technology is easily controllable and this assumption has to be thoroughly questioned. [73] For instance, Evgeny Morozov particularly challenges two concepts: "Internet-centrism" and "solutionism." [75] Internet-centrism refers to the idea that our society is convinced that the Internet is one of the most stable and coherent forces. Solutionism is the ideology that every social issue can be solved thanks to technology and especially thanks to the internet. In fact, technology intrinsically contains uncertainties and limitations. According to Alexis Madrigal's review of Morozov's theory, to ignore it will lead to "unexpected consequences that could eventually cause more damage than the problems they seek to address." [76] Benjamin R. Cohen and Gwen Ottinger also discussed the multivalent effects of technology. [77]

Therefore, recognition of the limitations of technology, and more broadly, scientific knowledge, is needed – especially in cases dealing with environmental justice and health issues. Ottinger continues this reasoning and argues that the ongoing recognition of the limitations of scientific knowledge goes hand in hand with scientists and engineers’ new comprehension of their role. Such an approach of technology and science "[require] technical professionals to conceive of their roles in the process differently. [They have to consider themselves as] collaborators in research and problem solving rather than simply providers of information and technical solutions." [78]

Competitiveness

Technology is properly defined as any application of science to accomplish a function. The science can be leading edge or well established and the function can have high visibility or be significantly more mundane, but it is all technology, and its exploitation is the foundation of all competitive advantage.

Technology-based planning is what was used to build the US industrial giants before WWII (e.g., Dow, DuPont, GM) and it is what was used to transform the US into a superpower. It was not economic-based planning.

Other animal species

This adult gorilla uses a branch as a walking stick to gauge the water's depth, an example of technology usage by non-human primates. Gorilla tool use.png
This adult gorilla uses a branch as a walking stick to gauge the water's depth, an example of technology usage by non-human primates.

The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. These include primates such as chimpanzees, [79] some dolphin communities, [80] and crows. [81] [82] Considering a more generic perspective of technology as ethology of active environmental conditioning and control, we can also refer to animal examples such as beavers and their dams, or bees and their honeycombs.

The ability to make and use tools was once considered a defining characteristic of the genus Homo. [83] However, the discovery of tool construction among chimpanzees and related primates has discarded the notion of the use of technology as unique to humans. For example, researchers have observed wild chimpanzees utilising tools for foraging: some of the tools used include leaf sponges, termite fishing probes, pestles and levers. [84] West African chimpanzees also use stone hammers and anvils for cracking nuts, [85] as do capuchin monkeys of Boa Vista, Brazil. [86]

Future technology

Theories of technology often attempt to predict the future of technology based on the high technology and science of the time. As with all predictions of the future, however, technology's is uncertain.

In 2005, futurist Ray Kurzweil predicted that the future of technology would mainly consist of an overlapping "GNR Revolution" of genetics, nanotechnology and robotics, with robotics being the most important of the three. [87]

See also

Theories and concepts in technology
Economics of technology
Technology journalism
Other

Related Research Articles

In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans. Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is often used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving".

Engineering applied science

Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application. See glossary of engineering.

Science systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Stone Age Hominin events for the last 10 million years

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted roughly 3.4 million years and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking.

Transhumanism Philosophical movement

Transhumanism is an international philosophical movement that advocates for the transformation of the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellect and physiology.

Wheel One of the six simple machines, a circular item that rotates about an axial bearing

In its primitive form, a wheel is a circular block of a hard and durable material at whose center has been bored a circular hole through which is placed an axle bearing about which the wheel rotates when a moment is applied by gravity or torque to the wheel about its axis, thereby making together one of the six simple machines. When placed vertically under a load-bearing platform or case, the wheel turning on the horizontal axle makes it possible to transport heavy loads; when placed horizontally, the wheel turning on its vertical axle makes it possible to control the spinning motion used to shape materials ; when mounted on a column connected to a rudder or a chassis mounted on other wheels, one can control the direction of a vessel or vehicle ; when connected to a crank or engine, a wheel can store, release, or transmit energy.

Geomatics Discipline concerned with the collection, distribution, storage, analysis, processing, presentation of geographic data or geographic information

Geomatics is defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as the "discipline concerned with the collection, distribution, storage, analysis, processing, presentation of geographic data or geographic information". Under another definition, it "consists of products, services and tools involved in the collection, integration and management of geographic data". It includes geomatics engineering and is related to geospatial science.

Ethics in technology is a sub-field of ethics addressing the ethical questions specific to the Technology Age. Some prominent works of philosopher Hans Jonas are devoted to ethics of technology. The subject has also been explored, following the work of Mario Bunge, under the term technoethics.

History of technology Hominin events for the last 10 million years

The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is one of the categories of the history of humanity. Technology can refer to methods ranging from as simple as stone tools to the complex genetic engineering and information technology that has emerged since the 1980s. The term technology comes from the Greek word techne, meaning art and craft, and the word logos, meaning word and speech. It was first used to describe applied arts, but it is now used to described advancements and changes which affect the environment around us.

Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large. Social responsibility is a duty every individual has to perform so as to maintain a balance between the economy and the ecosystems. A trade-off may exist between economic development, in the material sense, and the welfare of the society and environment, though this has been challenged by many reports over the past decade. Social responsibility means sustaining the equilibrium between the two. It pertains not only to business organizations but also to everyone whose any action impacts the environment. It is a concept that aims to ensure secure healthcare for the people living in rural areas and eliminate all barriers like distance, financial condition, etc. This responsibility can be passive, by avoiding engaging in socially harmful acts, or active, by performing activities that directly advance social goals. Social responsibility must be intergenerational since the actions of one generation have consequences on those following.

In common usage, technoscience refers to the entire long-standing global human activity of technology combined with the relatively recent scientific method that occurred primarily in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. Technoscience is the study of how humans interact with technology using the scientific method. Technoscience thus comprises the history of human application of technology and modern scientific methods, ranging from the early development of basic technologies for hunting, agriculture, or husbandry and all the way through atomic applications, biotechnology, robotics, and computer sciences. This more common and comprehensive usage of the term technoscience can be found in general textbooks and lectures concerning the history of science.

The history of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent begins with prehistoric human activity in the Indus Valley Civilization to early states and empires. Following independence, science and technology in the Republic of India has included automobile engineering, information technology, communications as well as space, polar, and nuclear sciences.

During the growth of the ancient civilizations, ancient technology was the result from advances in engineering in ancient times. These advances in the history of technology stimulated societies to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Holocene calendar, also known as the Holocene Era or Human Era (HE), is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution, when humans transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture and fixed settlements. The current year by the Gregorian calendar, AD 2019, is 12019 HE in the Holocene calendar. The HE scheme was first proposed by Cesare Emiliani in 1993.

The philosophy of technology is a sub-field of philosophy that studies the nature of technology and its social effects.

South Asian Stone Age Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in South Asia

The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in South Asia. Evidence for the most ancient anatomically modern Homo sapiens in South Asia has been found in the cave sites of Cudappah of India, Batadombalena and Belilena in Sri Lanka. In Mehrgarh, in what is today western Pakistan, the Neolithic began c. 7000 BCE and lasted until 3300 BCE and the first beginnings of the Bronze Age. In South India, the Mesolithic lasted until 3000 BCE, and the Neolithic until 1400 BCE, followed by a Megalithic transitional period mostly skipping the Bronze Age. The Iron Age began roughly simultaneously in North and South India, around c. 1200 to 1000 BCE.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to technology:

Prehistoric technology Hominin events for the last 10 million years

Prehistoric technology is technology that predates recorded history. History is the study of the past using written records. Anything prior to the first written accounts of history is prehistoric, including earlier technologies. About 2.5 million years before writing was developed, technology began with the earliest hominids who used stone tools, which they may have used to start fires, hunt, and bury their dead.

Outline of prehistoric technology Hominin events for the last 10 million years

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to prehistoric technology.

References

  1. National Research Council; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Energy Engineering Board; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Committee on Electricity in Economic Growth (1986). Electricity in Economic Growth. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. pp. 16, 40. ISBN   978-0-309-03677-1. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-910207-5.
  3. Crabb, George (1823). Universal Technological Dictionary, or Familiar Explanation of the Terms Used in All Arts and Sciences. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. p. 524 via Internet Archive.
  4. Mannix, Loretta H.; Stratton, Julius Adams (2005). Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 190–92. ISBN   978-0-262-19524-9.
  5. "Technik Comes to America: Changing Meanings of Technology Before 1930". Technology and Culture. 47.
  6. Bain, Read (1937). "Technology and State Government". American Sociological Review. 2 (6): 860. doi:10.2307/2084365. JSTOR   2084365.
  7. MacKenzie, Donald A.; Wajcman, Judy (1999). "Introductory Essay". The Social Shaping of Technology (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press. ISBN   978-0-335-19913-6.
  8. "Technology | Definition of Technology by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  9. Franklin, Ursula (1999). The Real World of Technology (revised ed.). Scarborough: House of Anansi. ISBN   978-0-88784-891-9.
  10. See, for example, "Technology". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  11. Stiegler, Bernard (1998). Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stanford University Press. pp. 17, 82. ISBN   978-0-8047-3041-9. Stiegler has more recently stated that biotechnology can no longer be defined as "organized inorganic matter," given that it is, rather, "the reorganization of the organic." Stiegler, Bernard (2008). L'avenir du passé: Modernité de l'archéologie. La Découverte. p. 23. ISBN   978-2-7071-5495-8.
  12. "Industry, Technology and the Global Marketplace: International Patenting Trends in Two New Technology Areas". Science and Engineering Indicators 2002. National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 August 2005. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
  13. Arthur, W. Brian (2009). The Nature of Technology. New York: Free Press. p. 28. ISBN   978-1-4165-4405-0.
  14. Borgmann, Albert (2006). "Technology as a Cultural Force: For Alena and Griffin" (fee required). The Canadian Journal of Sociology. 31 (3): 351–60. doi:10.1353/cjs.2006.0050. Archived from the original on 13 August 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  15. Macek, Jakub. "Defining Cyberculture". Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  16. "Science". Dictionary.com. 2016. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  17. "Intute: Science, Engineering and Technology". Intute. Archived from the original on 17 February 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  18. Bush, Vannevar (July 1945). "Science the Endless Frontier". National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  19. Wise, George (1985). "Science and Technology". Osiris. 2nd Series. 1: 229–46. doi:10.1086/368647.
  20. Guston, David H. (2000). Between Politics and Science: Assuring the Integrity and Productivity of Research. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-65318-3.
  21. "Mother of man – 3.2 million years ago". BBC. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2008.
  22. "Human Evolution". History Channel. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008.
  23. Wade, Nicholas (15 July 2003). "Early Voices: The Leap to Language". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  24. Bower, Bruce (29 October 2010). "Stone Agers Sharpened Skills 55,000 Years Earlier Than Thought". WIRED. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  25. Crump, Thomas (2001). A Brief History of Science. Constable & Robinson. p. 9. ISBN   978-1-84119-235-2.
  26. "Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 27 March 2007. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
  27. "Stone Age Man". History World. Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2007.
  28. James, Steven R. (February 1989). "Hominid Use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene". Current Anthropology . 30 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1086/203705. JSTOR   2743299.
  29. Stahl, Ann B. (1984). "Hominid dietary selection before fire". Current Anthropology . 25 (2): 151–68. doi:10.1086/203106. JSTOR   2742818.
  30. O'Neil, Dennis. "Evolution of Modern Humans: Archaic Homo sapiens Culture". Palomar College. Archived from the original on 4 April 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  31. Villa, Paola (1983). Terra Amata and the Middle Pleistocene archaeological record of southern France. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 303. ISBN   978-0-520-09662-2.
  32. Cordaux, Richard; Stoneking, Mark (2003). "South Asia, the Andamanese, and the Genetic Evidence for an 'Early' Human Dispersal out of Africa" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics . 72 (6): 1586–90, author reply 1590–93. doi:10.1086/375407. PMC   1180321 . PMID   12817589. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2007.
  33. Driscoll, Killian (2006). The early prehistory in the west of Ireland: Investigations into the social archaeology of the Mesolithic, west of the Shannon, Ireland. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  34. University of Chicago Press Journals (4 January 2006). "The First Baby Boom: Skeletal Evidence Shows Abrupt Worldwide Increase In Birth Rate During Neolithic Period". ScienceDaily. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  35. Sussman, Robert W.; Hall, Roberta L. (April 1972). "Child Transport, Family Size, and Increase in Human Population During the Neolithic". Current Anthropology . 13 (2): 258–67. doi:10.1086/201274. JSTOR   2740977.
  36. Ferraro, Gary P. (2006). Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective. The Thomson Corporation. ISBN   978-0-495-03039-3 . Retrieved 17 May 2008.
  37. Patterson, Gordon M. (1992). The ESSENTIALS of Ancient History. Research & Education Association. ISBN   978-0-87891-704-4 . Retrieved 17 May 2008.
  38. Cramb, Alan W (1964). "A Short History of Metals". Nature. 203 (4943): 337. Bibcode:1964Natur.203Q.337T. doi:10.1038/203337a0. Archived from the original on 8 January 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  39. Chisholm, Hugh (1910). "The Encyclopædia Britannica: A dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information". Encyclopædia Britannica . p. 708. Retrieved 17 May 2008.
  40. "The significance of the composition of excavated iron fragments taken from Stratum III at the site of Kaman-Kalehöyük, Turkey". Anatolian Archaeological Studies. Tokyo: Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology. 14.
  41. "Ironware piece unearthed from Turkey found to be oldest steel". The Hindu. 26 March 2009. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  42. "The oldest representation of a Nile boat". Antiquity. 81.
  43. Crawford, Harriet (2013). The Sumerian World. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. pp. 34–43. ISBN   978-0-203-09660-4.
  44. Potts, D.T. (2012). A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. p. 285.
  45. Childe, V. Gordon (1928). New Light on the Most Ancient East. p. 110.
  46. Anthony, David A. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 67. ISBN   978-0-691-05887-0.
  47. Gasser, Aleksander (March 2003). "World's Oldest Wheel Found in Slovenia". Republic of Slovenia Government Communication Office. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  48. Kramer, Samuel Noah (1963). The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. p. 290. ISBN   978-0-226-45238-8. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  49. 1 2 Moorey, Peter Roger Stuart (1999) [1994]. Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: The Archaeological Evidence. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns. p. 146. ISBN   978-1-57506-042-2. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  50. 1 2 Lay, M G (1992). Ways of the World. Sydney, Australia: Primavera Press. p. 28. ISBN   978-1-875368-05-1.
  51. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Gregersen, Erik (2012). The Complete History of Wheeled Transportation: From Cars and Trucks to Buses and Bikes. New York City, New York: Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 130. ISBN   978-1-61530-728-9.
  52. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Aicher, Peter J. (1995). Guide to the Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Wauconda, Illinois: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc. p. 6. ISBN   978-0-86516-282-2.
  53. 1 2 3 Eslamian, Saeid (2014). Handbook of Engineering Hydrology: Environmental Hydrology and Water Management. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 171–75. ISBN   978-1-4665-5250-0.
  54. 1 2 3 4 5 Lechner, Norbert (2012). Plumbing, Electricity, Acoustics: Sustainable Design Methods for Architecture. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 106. ISBN   978-1-118-01475-2.
  55. Breslin, Gerry, ed. (2011). "technicism". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. ISBN   978-0-00-743786-3.
  56. "Philosophical and Ethical Problems of Technicism and Genetic Engineering". Society for Philosophy and Technology. 3.
  57. Monsma, Stephen V. (1986). Responsible Technology. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. ISBN   978-0-8028-0175-3.
  58. Muehlhauser, Luke (10 November 2015). "Intelligence Explosion FAQ". Machine Intelligence Research Institute. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  59. Kurzweil, Ray (2005). "The Six Epochs". The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Penguin. ISBN   978-1-101-21888-4.
  60. Hughes, James. "Democratic Transhumanism 2.0". Changesurfer. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  61. Lovitt, William (1977). "The Question Concerning Technology". The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. Harper Torchbooks. pp. 3–35. ISBN   978-0-613-91314-0 . Retrieved 21 November 2007.
  62. Heidegger, Martin (1977). "The Question Concerning Technology". The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. Translated by Lovitt, W. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 25–26.
  63. Dreyfus, Hubert; Spinosa, Charles (2006). "Further Reflections on Heidegger, Technology, and the Everyday". In Kompridis, Nikolas (ed.). Philosophical Romanticism. New York: Routledge. pp. 265–81.
  64. Postman, Neil (1993). Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Vintage.
  65. Barney, Darin (2007). One Nation Under Google. Toronto: House of Anansi Press.
  66. "Technology's Challenge to Democracy". Parrhesia. 8.
  67. Vannini, Phillip, and Jonathan Taggart. "Voluntary simplicity, involuntary complexities, and the pull of remove: The radical ruralities of off-grid lifestyles." Environment and Planning A 45.2 (2013): 295-311.
  68. "Jared Bernstein". Center for Budget and Policy Priorities. 13 September 2013. Archived from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  69. 1 2 "It's Not a Skills Gap That's Holding Wages Down: It's the Weak Economy, Among Other Things". The American Prospect. 25.
  70. 7.Kim JH 2010 ~Kim JH, Lau C, Cheuk K-K, Kan P, Hui HL, Griffiths SM. Brief report:predictorsofheavyinternetuseandassociationswithhealthpromoting and health risk behaviors among Hong Kong university students. J Adolesc. 2010;33(1):215–20.
  71. 1. Rideout VJ 2010 ~ Rideout VJ, Foehr UG, Roberts DF. Generation M2: Media in the livesof8-to18-year-olds.HenryJKaiserFamilyFoundation.2010.
  72. Kim JH 2010 ~Kim JH, Lau C, Cheuk K-K, Kan P, Hui HL, Griffiths SM. Brief report:predictors of heavy internet use and associations with health promoting and health risk behaviors among Hong Kong university students. J Adolesc. 2010;33(1):215–20.
  73. 1 2 Hughes, Thomas P. (2004). Human-Built World: How to Think About Technology and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–11. ISBN   978-0-226-35933-5.
  74. Hughes, Thomas P. (2004) "Introduction: Complex Technology" (1–11) in "Human-Built World: How to Think About Technology and Culture"
  75. Morozov, Evgeny (2013). To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN   978-1-61039-139-9.
  76. Madrigal, Alexis C. (13 March 2013). "Toward a Complex, Realistic, and Moral Tech Criticism". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  77. Cohen, Benjamin; Ottinger, Gwen (2011). "Introduction: Environmental Justice and the Transformation of Science and Engineering". In Ottinger, Gwen; Cohen, Benjamin (eds.). Technoscience and Environmental Justice: Expert Cultures in a Grassroots Movement. MIT Press. pp. 1–18. ISBN   978-0-262-01579-0.
  78. Ottinger, Gwen (2011). "Rupturing Engineering Education: Opportunities for Transforming Expert Identities Through Community-Based Projects". In Ottinger, Gwen; Cohen, Benjamin (eds.). Technoscience and Environmental Justice: Expert Cultures in a Grassroots Movement. MIT Press. pp. 229–48. ISBN   978-0-262-01579-0.
  79. Sagan, Carl; Druyan, Ann; Leakey, Richard. "Chimpanzee Tool Use". Archived from the original on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2007.
  80. Rincon, Paul (7 June 2005). "Sponging dolphins learn from mum". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  81. Schmid, Randolph E. (4 October 2007). "Crows use tools to find food". NBC News. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  82. Rutz, C.; Bluff, L.A.; Weir, A.A.S.; Kacelnik, A. (4 October 2007). "Video cameras on wild birds". Science . 318 (5851): 765. Bibcode:2007Sci...318..765R. doi:10.1126/science.1146788. PMID   17916693.
  83. Oakley, K. P. (1976). Man the Tool-Maker. Nature. 199. pp. 1042–43. Bibcode:1963Natur.199U1042.. doi:10.1038/1991042e0. ISBN   978-0-226-61270-6.
  84. McGrew, W. C (1992). Chimpanzee Material Culture. Cambridge u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN   978-0-521-42371-7.
  85. Boesch, Christophe; Boesch, Hedwige (1984). "Mental map in wild chimpanzees: An analysis of hammer transports for nut cracking". Primates . 25 (2): 160–70. doi:10.1007/BF02382388.
  86. Brahic, Catherine (15 January 2009). "Nut-cracking monkeys find the right tool for the job". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  87. Kurzweil, Ray (2005). "GNR: Three Overlapping Revolutions". The Singularity is Near. Penguin. ISBN   978-1-101-21888-4.

Further reading