Router (computing)

Last updated

Rack containing an enterprise-class router connected to multiple networks ASR9006.jpg
Rack containing an enterprise-class router connected to multiple networks
Home and small office wireless router Modem-and-router-units.jpg
Home and small office wireless router

A router [lower-alpha 1] is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. Data sent through the internet, such as a web page or email, is in the form of data packets. A packet is typically forwarded from one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork (e.g. the Internet) until it reaches its destination node. [2]

Contents

A router is connected to two or more data lines from different IP networks. [lower-alpha 2] When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the network address information in the packet header to determine the ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.

The most familiar type of IP routers are home and small office routers that simply forward IP packets between the home computers and the Internet. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone.

Operation

When multiple routers are used in interconnected networks, the routers can exchange information about destination addresses using a routing protocol. Each router builds up a routing table, a list of routes, between two computer systems on the interconnected networks. [3]

The software that runs the router is composed of two functional processing units that operate simultaneously, called planes: [4]

Applications

A typical home or small office DSL router showing the telephone socket (left, white) to connect it to the internet using ADSL, and Ethernet jacks (right, yellow) to connect it to home computers and printers. Adsl connections.jpg
A typical home or small office DSL router showing the telephone socket (left, white) to connect it to the internet using ADSL, and Ethernet jacks (right, yellow) to connect it to home computers and printers.

A router may have interfaces for multiple types of physical layer connections, such as copper cables, fiber optic, or wireless transmission. It can also support multiple network layer transmission standards. Each network interface is used to enable data packets to be forwarded from one transmission system to another. Routers may also be used to connect two or more logical groups of computer devices known as subnets, each with a unique network prefix.

Routers may provide connectivity within enterprises, between enterprises and the Internet, or between internet service providers' (ISPs') networks. The largest routers (such as the Cisco CRS-1 or Juniper PTX) interconnect the various ISPs, or may be used in large enterprise networks. [5] Smaller routers usually provide connectivity for typical home and office networks.

All sizes of routers may be found inside enterprises. [6] The most powerful routers are usually found in ISPs, academic and research facilities. Large businesses may also need more powerful routers to cope with ever-increasing demands of intranet data traffic. A hierarchical internetworking model for interconnecting routers in large networks is in common use. [7]

Access, core and distribution

A screenshot of the LuCI web interface used by OpenWrt. This page configures Dynamic DNS. OpenWRT 8.09.1 LuCI screenshot.png
A screenshot of the LuCI web interface used by OpenWrt. This page configures Dynamic DNS.

Access routers, including small office/home office (SOHO) models, are located at home and customer sites such as branch offices that do not need hierarchical routing of their own. Typically, they are optimized for low cost. Some SOHO routers are capable of running alternative free Linux-based firmware like Tomato, OpenWrt, or DD-WRT. [8]

Distribution routers aggregate traffic from multiple access routers. Distribution routers are often responsible for enforcing quality of service across a wide area network (WAN), so they may have considerable memory installed, multiple WAN interface connections, and substantial onboard data processing routines. They may also provide connectivity to groups of file servers or other external networks. [9]

In enterprises, a core router may provide a collapsed backbone interconnecting the distribution tier routers from multiple buildings of a campus, or large enterprise locations. They tend to be optimized for high bandwidth, but lack some of the features of edge routers. [10]

Security

External networks must be carefully considered as part of the overall security strategy of the local network. A router may include a firewall, VPN handling, and other security functions, or they may be handled by separate devices. Routers also commonly perform network address translation which restricts connections initiated from external connections but is not recognized as a security feature by all experts. [11] Some experts argue that open source routers are more secure and reliable than closed source routers because open-source routers allow mistakes to be quickly found and corrected. [12]

Routing different networks

Routers are also often distinguished on the basis of the network in which they operate. A router in a local area network (LAN) of a single organisation is called an interior router. A router that is operated in the Internet backbone is described as exterior router. While a router that connects a LAN with the Internet or a wide area network (WAN) is called a border router, or gateway router . [13]

Internet connectivity and internal use

Routers intended for ISP and major enterprise connectivity usually exchange routing information using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). RFC   4098 defines the types of BGP routers according to their functions: [14]

History

The first ARPANET router, the Interface Message Processor was delivered to UCLA August 30, 1969, and went online October 29, 1969 ARPANET first router 2.jpg
The first ARPANET router, the Interface Message Processor was delivered to UCLA August 30, 1969, and went online October 29, 1969

The concept of an Interface computer was first proposed by Donald Davies for the NPL network in 1966. [18] The same idea was conceived by Wesley Clark the following year for use in the ARPANET. Named Interface Message Processors (IMPs), these computers had fundamentally the same functionality as a router does today. The idea for a router (called gateway at the time) initially came about through an international group of computer networking researchers called the International Networking Working Group (INWG). Set up in 1972 as an informal group to consider the technical issues involved in connecting different networks, it became a subcommittee of the International Federation for Information Processing later that year. [19] These gateway devices were different from most previous packet switching schemes in two ways. First, they connected dissimilar kinds of networks, such as serial lines and local area networks. Second, they were connectionless devices, which had no role in assuring that traffic was delivered reliably, leaving that function entirely to the hosts. This particular idea, the end-to-end principle, had been previously pioneered in the CYCLADES network.

The idea was explored in more detail, with the intention to produce a prototype system as part of two contemporaneous programs. One was the initial DARPA-initiated program, which created the TCP/IP architecture in use today. [20] The other was a program at Xerox PARC to explore new networking technologies, which produced the PARC Universal Packet system; due to corporate intellectual property concerns it received little attention outside Xerox for years. [21] Some time after early 1974, the first Xerox routers became operational. The first true IP router was developed by Ginny Strazisar at BBN, as part of that DARPA-initiated effort, during 1975–1976. [22] By the end of 1976, three PDP-11-based routers were in service in the experimental prototype Internet. [23]

The first multiprotocol routers were independently created by staff researchers at MIT and Stanford in 1981 and both were also based on PDP-11s. Stanford's router program was by William Yeager and MIT's by Noel Chiappa. [24] [25] [26] [27] Virtually all networking now uses TCP/IP, but multiprotocol routers are still manufactured. They were important in the early stages of the growth of computer networking when protocols other than TCP/IP were in use. Modern routers that handle both IPv4 and IPv6 are multiprotocol but are simpler devices than ones processing AppleTalk, DECnet, IP, and Xerox protocols.

From the mid-1970s and in the 1980s, general-purpose minicomputers served as routers. Modern high-speed routers are network processors or highly specialized computers with extra hardware acceleration added to speed both common routing functions, such as packet forwarding, and specialized functions such as IPsec encryption. There is substantial use of Linux and Unix software-based machines, running open source routing code, for research and other applications. The Cisco IOS operating system was independently designed. Major router operating systems, such as Junos and NX-OS, are extensively modified versions of Unix software.

Forwarding

The main purpose of a router is to connect multiple networks and forward packets destined either for directly attached networks or more remote networks. A router is considered a layer-3 device because its primary forwarding decision is based on the information in the layer-3 IP packet, specifically the destination IP address. When a router receives a packet, it searches its routing table to find the best match between the destination IP address of the packet and one of the addresses in the routing table. Once a match is found, the packet is encapsulated in the layer-2 data link frame for the outgoing interface indicated in the table entry. A router typically does not look into the packet payload, [28] but only at the layer-3 addresses to make a forwarding decision, plus optionally other information in the header for hints on, for example, quality of service (QoS). For pure IP forwarding, a router is designed to minimize the state information associated with individual packets. [29] Once a packet is forwarded, the router does not retain any historical information about the packet. [lower-alpha 3]

The routing table itself can contain information derived from a variety of sources, such as a default or static routes that are configured manually, or dynamic entries from routing protocols where the router learns routes from other routers. A default route is one that is used to route all traffic whose destination does not otherwise appear in the routing table; it is common – even necessary – in small networks, such as a home or small business where the default route simply sends all non-local traffic to the Internet service provider. The default route can be manually configured (as a static route); learned by dynamic routing protocols; or be obtained by DHCP. [lower-alpha 4] [30]

A router can run more than one routing protocol at a time, particularly if it serves as an autonomous system border router between parts of a network that run different routing protocols; if it does so, then redistribution may be used (usually selectively) to share information between the different protocols running on the same router. [31]

Besides deciding to which interface a packet is forwarded, which is handled primarily via the routing table, a router also has to manage congestion when packets arrive at a rate higher than the router can process. Three policies commonly used are tail drop, random early detection (RED), and weighted random early detection (WRED). Tail drop is the simplest and most easily implemented: the router simply drops new incoming packets once buffer space in the router is exhausted. RED probabilistically drops datagrams early when the queue exceeds a pre-configured portion of the buffer, until reaching a pre-determined maximum, when it drops all incoming packets, thus reverting to tail drop. WRED can be configured to drop packets more readily dependent on the type of traffic.

Another function a router performs is traffic classification and deciding which packet should be processed first. This is managed through QoS, which is critical when Voice over IP is deployed, so as not to introduce excessive latency. [32]

Yet another function a router performs is called policy-based routing where special rules are constructed to override the rules derived from the routing table when a packet forwarding decision is made. [33]

Some of the functions may be performed through an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to avoid overhead of scheduling CPU time to process the packets. Others may have to be performed through the CPU as these packets need special attention that cannot be handled by an ASIC. [34]

See also

Notes

  1. Pronounced /ˈrtər/ in British English, /ˈrtər/ in American and Australian English. [1]
  2. As opposed to a network switch, which connects data lines from one single network
  3. In some router implementations, the forwarding action can increment a counter associated with the routing table entry for the collection of statistical data.
  4. A router can serve as a DHCP client or as a DHCP server.

Related Research Articles

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a routing technique in telecommunications networks that directs data from one node to the next based on labels rather than network addresses. Whereas network addresses identify endpoints the labels identify established paths between endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols, hence the multiprotocol component of the name. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL.

Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network or between or across multiple networks. Broadly, routing is performed in many types of networks, including circuit-switched networks, such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and computer networks, such as the Internet.

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. BGP is classified as a path-vector routing protocol, and it makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator.

Intermediate System to Intermediate System is a routing protocol designed to move information efficiently within a computer network, a group of physically connected computers or similar devices. It accomplishes this by determining the best route for data through a packet switching network.

A network switch is networking hardware that connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to receive and forward data to the destination device.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing (LSR) algorithm and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols (IGPs), operating within a single autonomous system (AS).

In computer networking, a routing table, or routing information base (RIB), is a data table stored in a router or a network host that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, metrics (distances) associated with those routes. The routing table contains information about the topology of the network immediately around it.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Network address translation</span> Protocol facilitating connection of one IP address space to another

Network address translation (NAT) is a method of mapping an IP address space into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device. The technique was originally used to bypass the need to assign a new address to every host when a network was moved, or when the upstream Internet service provider was replaced, but could not route the network's address space. It has become a popular and essential tool in conserving global address space in the face of IPv4 address exhaustion. One Internet-routable IP address of a NAT gateway can be used for an entire private network.

A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. The benefits of a VPN include increases in functionality, security, and management of the private network. It provides access to resources that are inaccessible on the public network and is typically used for remote workers. Encryption is common, although not an inherent part of a VPN connection.

The Internetworking Operating System (IOS) is a family of proprietary network operating systems used on several router and network switch models manufactured by Cisco Systems. The system is a package of routing, switching, internetworking, and telecommunications functions integrated into a multitasking operating system. Although the IOS code base includes a cooperative multitasking kernel, most IOS features have been ported to other kernels such as Linux and QNX for use in Cisco products.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">NetFlow</span> Communications protocol

NetFlow is a feature that was introduced on Cisco routers around 1996 that provides the ability to collect IP network traffic as it enters or exits an interface. By analyzing the data provided by NetFlow, a network administrator can determine things such as the source and destination of traffic, class of service, and the causes of congestion. A typical flow monitoring setup consists of three main components:

In IP-based computer networks, virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) is a technology that allows multiple instances of a routing table to co-exist within the same router at the same time. One or more logical or physical interfaces may have a VRF and these VRFs do not share routes therefore the packets are only forwarded between interfaces on the same VRF. VRFs are the TCP/IP layer 3 equivalent of a VLAN. Because the routing instances are independent, the same or overlapping IP addresses can be used without conflicting with each other. Network functionality is improved because network paths can be segmented without requiring multiple routers.

An edge device is a device that provides an entry point into enterprise or service provider core networks. Examples include routers, routing switches, integrated access devices (IADs), multiplexers, and a variety of metropolitan area network (MAN) and wide area network (WAN) access devices. Edge devices also provide connections into carrier and service provider networks. An edge device that connects a local area network to a high speed switch or backbone may be called an edge concentrator.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Routing protocol</span> Network protocol for distributing routing information to network equipment

A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other to distribute information that enables them to select routes between nodes on a computer network. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet; data packets are forwarded through the networks of the internet from router to router until they reach their destination computer. Routing algorithms determine the specific choice of route. Each router has a prior knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network. The ability of routing protocols to dynamically adjust to changing conditions such as disabled connections and components and route data around obstructions is what gives the Internet its fault tolerance and high availability.

In network routing, the control plane is the part of the router architecture that is concerned with drawing the network topology, or the information in a routing table that defines what to do with incoming packets. Control plane functions, such as participating in routing protocols, run in the architectural control element. In most cases, the routing table contains a list of destination addresses and the outgoing interface(s) associated with each. Control plane logic also can identify certain packets to be discarded, as well as preferential treatment of certain packets for which a high quality of service is defined by such mechanisms as differentiated services.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Forwarding plane</span>

In routing, the forwarding plane, sometimes called the data plane or user plane, defines the part of the router architecture that decides what to do with packets arriving on an inbound interface. Most commonly, it refers to a table in which the router looks up the destination address of the incoming packet and retrieves the information necessary to determine the path from the receiving element, through the internal forwarding fabric of the router, and to the proper outgoing interface(s).

Juniper M series is a line of multiservice edge routers designed and manufactured by Juniper Networks, for enterprise and service provider networks. It spans over M7i, M10i, M40e, M120, and M320 platforms with 5 Gbit/s up to 160 Gbit/s of full-duplex throughput. The M40 router was the first product by Juniper Networks, which was released in 1998. The M-series routers run on JUNOS Operating System.

IP routing is the application of routing methodologies to IP networks. This involves not only protocols and technologies but includes the policies of the worldwide organization and configuration of Internet infrastructure. In each IP network node, IP routing involves the determination of a suitable path for a network packet from a source to its destination in an IP network. The process uses static configuration rules or dynamically obtained from routing protocols to select specific packet forwarding methods to direct traffic to the next available intermediate network node one hop closer to the desired final destination, a total path potentially spanning multiple computer networks.

In a router, route redistribution allows a network that uses one routing protocol to route traffic dynamically based on information learned from another routing protocol.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Broadcast, unknown-unicast and multicast traffic</span> Computer networking concept

Broadcast, unknown-unicast and multicast traffic is network traffic transmitted using one of three methods of sending data link layer network traffic to a destination of which the sender does not know the network address. This is achieved by sending the network traffic to multiple destinations on an Ethernet network. As a concept related to computer networking, it includes three types of Ethernet modes: broadcast, unicast and multicast Ethernet. BUM traffic refers to that kind of network traffic that will be forwarded to multiple destinations or that cannot be addressed to the intended destination only.

References

  1. "router" . Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. "Overview Of Key Routing Protocol Concepts: Architectures, Protocol Types, Algorithms and Metrics". Tcpipguide.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  3. "Cisco Networking Academy's Introduction to Routing Dynamically". Cisco. Archived from the original on October 27, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
  4. H. Khosravi & T. Anderson (November 2003). Requirements for Separation of IP Control and Forwarding. doi: 10.17487/RFC3654 . RFC 3654.
  5. "Setting uo Netflow on Cisco Routers". MY-Technet.com date unknown. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  6. 1 2 "Windows Home Server: Router Setup". Microsoft Technet 14 Aug 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  7. Oppenheimer, Pr (2004). Top-Down Network Design. Indianapolis: Cisco Press. ISBN   978-1-58705-152-4.
  8. "SOHO Network Requirements Planning and Implementation". ExamCollection. Retrieved 2021-03-25.
  9. "How Do WiFi Extenders Work? Repeater, Booster, Extender?". ISP Family. 2021-02-25. Retrieved 2021-03-25.
  10. "Hierarchical Network Design Overview (1.1) > Cisco Networking Academy Connecting Networks Companion Guide: Hierarchical Network Design | Cisco Press". www.ciscopress.com. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
  11. "Security Considerations Of NAT" (PDF). University of Michigan. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2014.
  12. "Global Internet Experts Reveal Plan for More Secure, Reliable Wi-Fi Routers - and Internet". 14 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-20.
  13. Tamara Dean (2009). Network+ Guide to Networks. Cengage Learning. p. 272. ISBN   9781423902454.
  14. H. Berkowitz; et al. (June 2005). Terminology for Benchmarking BGP Device Convergence in the Control Plane. doi: 10.17487/RFC4098 . RFC 4098.
  15. "M160 Internet Backbone Router" (PDF). Juniper Networks. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  16. "Virtual Backbone Routers" (PDF). IronBridge Networks, Inc. September, 2000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  17. E. Rosen; Y. Rekhter (April 2004). BGP/MPLS VPNs.
  18. Roberts, Dr. Lawrence G. (May 1995). "The ARPANET & Computer Networks". Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016. Then in June 1966, Davies wrote a second internal paper, "Proposal for a Digital Communication Network" In which he coined the word packet,- a small sub part of the message the user wants to send, and also introduced the concept of an interface computer to sit between the user equipment and the packet network.
  19. Davies, Shanks, Heart, Barker, Despres, Detwiler and Riml, "Report of Subgroup 1 on Communication System", INWG Note No. 1.
  20. Vinton Cerf, Robert Kahn, "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume 22, Issue 5, May 1974, pp. 637 - 648.
  21. David Boggs, John Shoch, Edward Taft, Robert Metcalfe, "Pup: An Internetwork Architecture" Archived 2008-09-11 at the Wayback Machine , IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume 28, Issue 4, April 1980, pp. 612- 624.
  22. "Ms. Ginny Strazisar". IT History Society. 21 December 2015. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  23. Craig Partridge, S. Blumenthal, "Data networking at BBN"; IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Volume 28, Issue 1; January–March 2006.
  24. Valley of the Nerds: Who Really Invented the Multiprotocol Router, and Why Should We Care? Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine , Public Broadcasting Service, Accessed August 11, 2007.
  25. Router Man Archived 2013-06-05 at the Wayback Machine , NetworkWorld, Accessed June 22, 2007.
  26. David D. Clark, "M.I.T. Campus Network Implementation", CCNG-2, Campus Computer Network Group, M.I.T., Cambridge, 1982; pp. 26.
  27. Pete Carey, "A Start-Up's True Tale: Often-told story of Cisco's launch leaves out the drama, intrigue", San Jose Mercury News, December 1, 2001.
  28. "Packet Forwarding and Routing on IPv4 Networks - System Administration Guide: IP Services". docs.oracle.com. Retrieved 2021-03-25.
  29. Roberts, Lawrence (22 July 2003). "The Next Generation of IP - Flow Routing". Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  30. David Davis (April 19, 2007). "Cisco administration 101: What you need to know about default routes". Archived from the original on December 19, 2017.
  31. Diane Teare (March 2013). Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE): Foundation Learning Guide. Cisco Press. pp. 330–334.
  32. Donahue, Gary A. (2007-06-21). Network Warrior. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". ISBN   978-0-596-10151-0.
  33. Diane Teare (March 2013). "Chapter 5: Implementing Path Control". Implementing Cisco IP-Routing (ROUTE): Foundation Learning Guide. Cisco Press. pp. 330–334.
  34. Schudel, Gregg; Smith, David (2007-12-29). Router Security Strategies: Securing IP Network Traffic Planes. Pearson Education. ISBN   978-0-13-279673-6.