Science (journal)

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History

Cover of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February-June 1883) Science 1883 Cover.png
Cover of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February–June 1883)

Science was founded by New York journalist John Michels in 1880 with financial support from Thomas Edison and later from Alexander Graham Bell. [8] [9] (Edison received favorable editorial treatment in return, without disclosure of the financial relationship, at a time when his reputation was suffering due to delays producing the promised commercially viable light bulb. [10] ) However, the journal never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard bought the magazine rights and hired young entomologist Samuel H. Scudder to resurrect the journal one year later. They had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS. [11] However, by 1894, Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500.[ citation needed ]

Thomas Edison American inventor and businessman

Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman who has been described as America's greatest inventor. He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures. These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He established the first industrial research laboratory.

Alexander Graham Bell scientist and inventor known for his work on the telephone

Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born American inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He also co-founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in 1885.

Samuel Hubbard Scudder American entomologist

Samuel Hubbard Scudder was an American entomologist and paleontologist. He was a leading figure in entomology during his lifetime and the founder of insect paleontology in America. In addition to fossil insects, he was an authority on butterflies (Lepidoptera) and grasshoppers (Orthoptera).

In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, Science became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900. [12] During the early part of the 20th century important articles published in Science included papers on fruit fly genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan, gravitational lensing by Albert Einstein, and spiral nebulae by Edwin Hubble. [13] After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS. [14]

Leland Ossian Howard American entomologist

Leland Ossian Howard, Ph.D., M.D., was an American entomologist.

<i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> Species of fruit fly

Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly in the family Drosophilidae. The species is known generally as the common fruit fly or vinegar fly. Starting with Charles W. Woodworth's proposal of the use of this species as a model organism, D. melanogaster continues to be widely used for biological research in genetics, physiology, microbial pathogenesis, and life history evolution. As of 2017, eight Nobel prizes had been awarded for research using Drosophila.

Genetics Science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms

Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.

After Cattell's death in 1944, the journal lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShane's leadership, Science absorbed The Scientific Monthly , thus increasing the journal's circulation by over 60% from 38,000 to more than 61,000. [15] Physicist Philip Abelson, a co-discoverer of neptunium, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency of the review process was improved and the publication practices were brought up to date. [15] During this time, papers on the Apollo program missions and some of the earliest reports on AIDS were published. [16]

<i>The Scientific Monthly</i>

The Scientific Monthly was a science magazine published from 1915 to 1957. Psychologist James McKeen Cattell, the former publisher and editor of The Popular Science Monthly, was the original founder and editor. In 1958, The Scientific Monthly was absorbed by Science.

Philip Abelson US physicist, editor of the journal Science, and director of the Carnegie Institution of Washingtons Geophysical Laboratory

Philip Hauge Abelson was an American physicist, a scientific editor, and a science writer.

Neptunium Chemical element with atomic number 93

Neptunium is a chemical element with the symbol Np and atomic number 93. A radioactive actinide metal, neptunium is the first transuranic element. Its position in the periodic table just after uranium, named after the planet Uranus, led to it being named after Neptune, the next planet beyond Uranus. A neptunium atom has 93 protons and 93 electrons, of which seven are valence electrons. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. The element occurs in three allotropic forms and it normally exhibits five oxidation states, ranging from +3 to +7. It is radioactive, poisonous, pyrophoric, and can accumulate in bones, which makes the handling of neptunium dangerous.

Biochemist Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd E. Bloom held that position. [16] Biologist Donald Kennedy became the editor of Science in 2000. Biochemist Bruce Alberts took his place in March 2008. [17] Geophysicist Marcia McNutt became editor-in-chief in June 2013. [18] During her tenure the family of journals expanded to include Science Robotics and Science Immunology , [19] and open access publishing with Science Advances . [20] Jeremy M. Berg became editor-in-chief on July 1, 2016. [21]

In February 2001, draft results of the human genome were simultaneously published by Nature and Science with Science publishing the Celera Genomics paper and Nature publishing the publicly funded Human Genome Project. In 2007 Science (together with Nature) received the Prince of Asturias Award for Communications and Humanity. [22] In 2015 Rush D. Holt, Jr., chief executive officer of the AAAS and executive publisher of Science, stated that the journal was becoming increasingly international: "[I]nternationally co-authored papers are now the norm—they represent almost 60 percent of the papers. In 1992, it was slightly less than 20 percent." [23]

Former Washington University in St. Louis Provost Holden Thorp was named editor-in-chief on Monday, August 19th, 2019. [24] [25]

Family of journals

The Science family of journals includes Science, Science Translational Medicine , Science Signaling , and Science Advances . In 2015, Holt announced another expansion: Science Robotics and Science Immunology would begin publication in mid-2016. [26]

Availability

The latest editions of the journal are available online, through the main journal website, only to subscribers, AAAS members, and for delivery to IP addresses at institutions that subscribe; students, K–12 teachers, and some others can subscribe at a reduced fee. However, research articles published after 1997 are available for free (with online registration) one year after they are published i.e. delayed open access. [1] Significant public-health related articles are also available for free, sometimes immediately after publication. AAAS members may also access the pre-1997 Science archives at the Science website, where it is called "Science Classic". Institutions can opt to add Science Classic to their subscriptions for an additional fee. Some older articles can also be accessed via JSTOR and ProQuest.

The journal also participates in initiatives that provide free or low-cost access to readers in developing countries, including HINARI, OARE, AGORA, and Scidev.net.

Other features of the Science website include the free "ScienceNow" section with "up to the minute news from science", [27] and "ScienceCareers", which provides free career resources for scientists and engineers. Science Express (Sciencexpress) provides advance electronic publication of selected Science papers. [28]

See also

Related Research Articles

Elsevier commercial academic publishing company that publishes medical and scientific literature

Elsevier is a Dutch information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information. It was established in 1880 as a publishing company. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journals such as The Lancet and Cell, the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, the Trends and Current Opinion series of journals, the online citation database Scopus, and the ClinicalKey solution for clinicians. Elsevier's products and services include the entire academic research lifecycle, including software and data-management, instruction and assessment tools.

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) is a United States–based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice among scientific writers. In 2008, the CSE adopted the slogan "CSE: Education, Ethics, and Evidence for Editors (E4)".

<i>Popular Science</i> American monthly magazine about science

Popular Science is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 and 2004. With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries.

<i>Psychological Review</i> journal

Psychological Review is a scientific journal that publishes articles on psychological theory. It was founded by Princeton University psychologist James Mark Baldwin and Columbia University psychologist James McKeen Cattell in 1894 as a publication vehicle for psychologists not connected with the Clark laboratory of G. Stanley Hall. Psychological Review soon became the most prominent and influential psychology journal in North America, publishing important articles by William James, John Dewey, James Rowland Angell, and many others.

<i>Journal of Experimental Medicine</i> peer-reviewed scientific journal

Journal of Experimental Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Rockefeller University Press that publishes research papers and commentaries on the physiological, pathological, and molecular mechanisms that encompass the host response to disease. The journal prioritizes studies on intact organisms and has made a commitment to publishing studies on human subjects. Topics covered include immunology, inflammation, infectious disease, hematopoiesis, cancer, stem cells and vascular biology. The journal has no single editor-in-chief, but thirteen academic editors.

Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (CVI) is a peer-reviewed journal published by the American Society for Microbiology. CVI enhances our understanding of the immune response in health and disease by showcasing important clinically relevant research, including new animal models for human immunologic diseases, viral immunology, immunopathogenesis, and clinical laboratory immunology. In particular, the journal highlights important discoveries in immunization and vaccine research, such as the development and evaluation of vaccines, human and animal immune responses to vaccines, vaccine vectors, adjuvants and immunomodulators, quantitative assays of vaccine efficacy, and clinical trials. The journal publishes primary research articles, editorials, commentaries, minireviews, and case reports. Articles are freely accessible after 6 months. Through its "Global Outreach Program," free online access is available to qualified microbiologists in eligible developing countries.

<i>Science Signaling</i> journal

Science Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published weekly by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The editor-in-chief is Michael B. Yaffe, and the journal is part of the Science Family of Journals of which Jeremy Berg is the Editor-in-Chief.

Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal, conference proceedings or as a book. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected.

Frontiers Media SA is an academic publisher of peer-reviewed open access scientific journals currently active in science, technology, and medicine. It was founded in 2007 by a group of neuroscientists, including Henry and Kamila Markram, and later expanded to other academic fields. Frontiers is based in Lausanne, Switzerland, with other offices in London, Madrid, Seattle and Brussels. All Frontiers journals are published under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY).

Jacques (Jack) Cattell was an American publisher and founder of a company bearing his name, "Jacques Cattell Press, Inc.," based in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

William T. Golden American banker

William T. Golden was an American investment banker, philanthropist, and science adviser.

The Golden Goose Award is a United States award established in 2012 that officially recognizes scientists whose federally funded basic research has led to innovations or inventions which have a significant impact on humanity or society. The results have been significant health and economic benefits. The award has bi-partisan support in Congress and is sponsored by a number of notable organizations and legislators.

<i>Science & Diplomacy</i>

Science & Diplomacy is a quarterly magazine published by the Center for Science Diplomacy of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The publication includes articles, short comments (perspectives), and letters on issues in the field of science diplomacy, diplomacy about scientific issues.

The AAAS Philip Hauge Abelson Prize is awarded by The American Association for the Advancement of Science for public servants, recognized for sustained exceptional contributions to advancing science or scientists, whose career has been distinguished both for scientific achievement and for other notable services to the scientific community. The award consists of an engraved medallion and an honorarium of $5,000.

The AAAS Award for Science Diplomacy, formerly Award for International Scientific Cooperation, is awarded by The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with collaboration with its affiliated organizations, seeks to recognize an individual or a limited number of individuals working together in the scientific or engineering community for making an outstanding contribution to furthering international cooperation in science and engineering. The award offers a monetary prize of $2,500, a certificate of citation, and travel expenses to attend the AAAS annual meeting to receive the award.

Kathleen Kay Treseder is an American ecologist who specializes in the interplay between global warming and climate change and fungal ecology. She is currently a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Irvine. She is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Microbiology, and the Ecological Society of America.

References

  1. 1 2 "Science Journals: editorial policies". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. January 31, 2018. Retrieved May 13, 2018. Original research papers are freely accessible with registration on the Science Journal's website 12 months after publication
  2. "Science Magazine". Aaas.org. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  3. "AAAS – AAAS News Release". Aaas.org. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  4. "AAAS Annual Report-Science". Aaas.org. Archived from the original on May 25, 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  5. Lemonick, Michael D. (March 7, 2011). "Alien Life Discovered in a Meteorite! Or Maybe No" (online web page). Time magazine online. Retrieved October 3, 2011. The paper, meanwhile, had been published in Science, one of the world's top scientific journals, which gave it even more apparent gravitas.
  6. AAAS, "2014 Science Media Kit"
  7. "Science". 2018 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2019.
  8. "Thomas A. Edison and the Founding of Science: 1880". Science. 105 (2719): 142–148. February 7, 1947. doi:10.1126/science.105.2719.142. PMID   17813458. a weekly journal devoted mainly to physical science and invention, entitled Science, and Mr. [A. Graham] Bell purchased from Mr. John Michels for $5,000 the title and good will of this journal. Continuity of the publication was not, however, maintained, and the present journal [Science] dates from 1883. Mr. Thomas A. Edison had been responsible for the foundation of the earlier Science
  9. Grosvenor, Edwin S; Wesson, Morgan (May 13, 2016). Alexander Graham Bell. New Word City. ISBN   978-1612309842. In 1881, the old rivalry between Bell and Thomas Edison spilled over into the field of publishing. Science Magazine had been founded the year before with funding from Edison, but the frugal inventor soon tired of the deficits and withheld support. Bell had written for the magazine and respected its editorial quality. He felt that Science, like the British Nature, appealed to a broad audience interested in current research. In 1882, he and Gardiner Hubbard acquired the rights to Science and hired as editor a respected young entomologist and writer named Sam Scudder, who happened to be a Hubbard cousin.
  10. David Baron (2017). American Eclipse. Liveright. p. 224. ISBN   9781631490163.
  11. AAAS, "150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS. Origins: 1848–1899", 2004
  12. AAAS, "150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS. AAAS and Science: 1900–1940", 2004
  13. "150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS. AAAS and Science: 1900–1940". American Association for the Advancement of Science . Retrieved August 27, 2006.
  14. "Online Exhibits". American Association for the Advancement of Science . Retrieved August 27, 2006.
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  17. Pinholster, Ginger (December 17, 2007). "Bruce Alberts Named New Editor-in-Chief of Science". American Association for the Advancement of Science.
  18. Gramling, Carolyn (April 2, 2013). "Marcia McNutt Bringing Her 'Intellectual Energy' to Science". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  19. Pinholster, Ginger (October 20, 2015). "AAAS to Expand the Science Family of Journals by Launching Two New Journals: Science Robotics and Science Immunology" (Press release). American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
  20. Van Noorden, Richard (February 12, 2014). "AAAS announces open-access journal". Nature . Retrieved February 12, 2015.
  21. Kaiser, Jocelyn (May 25, 2016). "Jeremy Berg named Science editor-in-chief". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  22. Journal Science. Fundacionprincipedeasturias.org. Retrieved on 2013-06-20.
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  28. "Science Express". AAAS / Phys.org . Retrieved April 25, 2019.