Science (journal)

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History

Cover of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February-June 1883) Science 1883 Cover.png
Cover of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February–June 1883)

Science was founded by New York journalist John Michels in 1880 with financial support from Thomas Edison and later from Alexander Graham Bell. [9] [10] (Edison received favorable editorial treatment in return, without disclosure of the financial relationship, at a time when his reputation was suffering due to delays producing the promised commercially viable light bulb.) [11] However, the journal never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard bought the magazine rights and hired young entomologist Samuel H. Scudder to resurrect the journal one year later. They had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS. [12] However, by 1894, Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500.[ citation needed ]

In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, Science became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900. [13] During the early part of the 20th century important articles published in Science included papers on fruit fly genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan, gravitational lensing by Albert Einstein, and spiral nebulae by Edwin Hubble. [14] After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS. [15]

After Cattell's death in 1944, the journal lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShane's leadership, Science absorbed The Scientific Monthly , thus increasing the journal's circulation by over 60% from 38,000 to more than 61,000. [16] Physicist Philip Abelson, a co-discoverer of neptunium, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency of the review process was improved and the publication practices were brought up to date. [16] During this time, papers on the Apollo program missions and some of the earliest reports on AIDS were published. [17]

Biochemist Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd E. Bloom held that position. [17] Biologist Donald Kennedy became the editor of Science in 2000. Biochemist Bruce Alberts took his place in March 2008. [18] Geophysicist Marcia McNutt became editor-in-chief in June 2013. [19] During her tenure the family of journals expanded to include Science Robotics and Science Immunology, [20] and open access publishing with Science Advances . [21] Jeremy M. Berg became editor-in-chief on July 1, 2016. [22]

In February 2001, draft results of the human genome were simultaneously published by Nature and Science with Science publishing the Celera Genomics paper and Nature publishing the publicly funded Human Genome Project. In 2007 Science (together with Nature) received the Prince of Asturias Award for Communications and Humanity. [23] In 2015 Rush D. Holt, Jr., chief executive officer of the AAAS and executive publisher of Science, stated that the journal was becoming increasingly international: "[I]nternationally co-authored papers are now the norm—they represent almost 60 percent of the papers. In 1992, it was slightly less than 20 percent." [24]

Former Washington University in St. Louis Provost Holden Thorp was named editor-in-chief on Monday, August 19th, 2019. [25] [26]

Family of journals

The Science family of journals includes Science, Science Translational Medicine , Science Signaling , and Science Advances . In 2015, Holt announced another expansion: Science Robotics and Science Immunology would begin publication in mid-2016. [27]

Availability

The latest editions of the journal are available online, through the main journal website, only to subscribers, AAAS members, and for delivery to IP addresses at institutions that subscribe; students, K–12 teachers, and some others can subscribe at a reduced fee. However, research articles published after 1997 are available for free (with online registration) one year after they are published i.e. delayed open access. [1] Significant public-health related articles are also available for free, sometimes immediately after publication. AAAS members may also access the pre-1997 Science archives at the Science website, where it is called "Science Classic". Institutions can opt to add Science Classic to their subscriptions for an additional fee. Some older articles can also be accessed via JSTOR and ProQuest.

The journal also participates in initiatives that provide free or low-cost access to readers in developing countries, including HINARI, OARE, AGORA, and Scidev.net.

Other features of the Science website include the free "ScienceNow" section with "up to the minute news from science", [28] and "ScienceCareers", which provides free career resources for scientists and engineers. Science Express (Sciencexpress) provides advance electronic publication of selected Science papers. [29]

See also

Related Research Articles

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American Association for the Advancement of Science international non-profit organization promoting science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world's largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members, and is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science.

The Council of Science Editors (CSE), formerly Council of Biology Editors (CBE), is a United States–based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice among scientific writers. In 2008, the CSE adopted the slogan "CSE: Education, Ethics, and Evidence for Editors (E4)".

<i>Popular Science</i> American monthly magazine about science

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<i>Psychological Review</i> Academic journal

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<i>Mankind Quarterly</i> Academic journal

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The Journal of Biological Chemistry (JBC) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1905. Since 1925, it is published by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It covers research in areas of biochemistry and molecular biology. The editor-in-chief is Lila Gierasch. All its articles are available free after one year of publication. In press articles are available free on its website immediately after acceptance.

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<i>The Scientific Monthly</i>

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Marcia McNutt American geophysicist

Marcia Kemper McNutt, ForMemRS, is an American geophysicist and the 22nd president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of the United States. Previously, she served as editor-in-chief of the peer-reviewed journal Science from 2013 to 2016. McNutt holds a visiting appointment at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. She is a member of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine advisory committee for the Division on Earth and Life Studies and the Forum on Open Science. McNutt chaired the NASEM climate intervention committee who delivered two reports in 2015.

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<i>Science Signaling</i> Academic journal

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<i>Science & Diplomacy</i>

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<i>Science Advances</i> Academic journal

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