Science (journal)

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The major focus of the journal is publishing important original scientific research and research reviews, but Science also publishes science-related news, opinions on science policy and other matters of interest to scientists and others who are concerned with the wide implications of science and technology. Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a specific field, Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines. According to the Journal Citation Reports , Science's 2020 impact factor was 47.728. [5]

Studies of methodological quality and reliability have found that some high-prestige journals including Science "publish significantly substandard structures", and overall "reliability of published research works in several fields may be decreasing with increasing journal rank". [6]

Although it is the journal of the AAAS, membership in the AAAS is not required to publish in Science. Papers are accepted from authors around the world. Competition to publish in Science is very intense, as an article published in such a highly cited journal can lead to attention and career advancement for the authors. Fewer than 7% of articles submitted are accepted for publication. [7]


Title page of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February-June 1883) Science, vol. 1, 1883, title page.png
Title page of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February–June 1883)

Science was founded by New York journalist John Michels in 1880 with financial support from Thomas Edison and later from Alexander Graham Bell. [8] [9] (Edison received favorable editorial treatment in return, without disclosure of the financial relationship, at a time when his reputation was suffering due to delays producing the promised commercially viable light bulb.) [10] However, the journal never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard bought the magazine rights and hired young entomologist Samuel H. Scudder to resurrect the journal one year later. They had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS. [AAAS 3] However, by 1894, Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500(equivalent to $16,910 in 2022).[ citation needed ]

In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, Science became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900. [AAAS 4] During the early part of the 20th century important articles published in Science included papers on fruit fly genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan, gravitational lensing by Albert Einstein, and spiral nebulae by Edwin Hubble. [AAAS 4] After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS. [AAAS 5]

After Cattell's death in 1944, the journal lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShane's leadership, Science absorbed The Scientific Monthly , thus increasing the journal's circulation by over

Biochemist Daniel E. Koshland Jr. served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd E. Bloom held that position. [AAAS 7] Biologist Donald Kennedy became the editor of Science in 2000. Biochemist Bruce Alberts took his place in March 2008. [11] Geophysicist Marcia McNutt became editor-in-chief in June 2013. [12] During her tenure the family of journals expanded to include Science Robotics and Science Immunology, [13] and open access publishing with Science Advances . [14] Jeremy M. Berg became editor-in-chief on July 1, 2016. [15] Former Washington University in St. Louis Provost Holden Thorp was named editor-in-chief on Monday, August 19, 2019. [16] [17]

In February 2001, draft results of the human genome were simultaneously published by Nature and Science with Science publishing the Celera Genomics paper and Nature publishing the publicly funded Human Genome Project. In 2007, Science (together with Nature) received the Prince of Asturias Award for Communications and Humanity. [18] In 2015 Rush D. Holt Jr., chief executive officer of the AAAS and executive publisher of Science, stated that the journal was becoming increasingly international: "[I]nternationally co-authored papers are now the norm—they represent almost 60 percent of the papers. In 1992, it was slightly less than 20 percent." [19]


The latest editions of the journal are available online, through the main journal website, only to subscribers, AAAS members, and for delivery to IP addresses at institutions that subscribe; students, K–12 teachers, and some others can subscribe at a reduced fee. However, research articles published after 1997 are available for free (with online registration) one year after they are published i.e. delayed open access. [AAAS 1] Significant public-health related articles are also available for free, sometimes immediately after publication. AAAS members may also access the pre-1997 Science archives at the Science website, where it is called "Science Classic". Institutions can opt to add Science Classic to their subscriptions for an additional fee. Some older articles can also be accessed via JSTOR and ProQuest.

The journal also participates in initiatives that provide free or low-cost access to readers in developing countries, including HINARI, OARE, AGORA, and

Other features of the Science website include the free "ScienceNow" section with "up to the minute news from science", [20] and "ScienceCareers", which provides free career resources for scientists and engineers. Science Express (Sciencexpress) provides advance electronic publication of selected Science papers. [21]


Science received funding for COVID-19-related coverage from the Pulitzer Center and the Heising-Simons Foundation. [22]

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Nature</i> (journal) British scientific journal

Nature is a British weekly scientific journal founded and based in London, England. As a multidisciplinary publication, Nature features peer-reviewed research from a variety of academic disciplines, mainly in science and technology. It has core editorial offices across the United States, continental Europe, and Asia under the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature. Nature was one of the world's most cited scientific journals by the Science Edition of the 2022 Journal Citation Reports, making it one of the world's most-read and most prestigious academic journals. As of 2012, it claimed an online readership of about three million unique readers per month.

<i>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America</i> Academic journal of the National Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal. It is the official journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915, and publishes original research, scientific reviews, commentaries, and letters. According to Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2021 impact factor of 12.779. PNAS is the second most cited scientific journal, with more than 1.9 million cumulative citations from 2008 to 2018. In the mass media, PNAS has been described variously as "prestigious", "sedate", "renowned" and "high impact".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American Association for the Advancement of Science</span> International nonprofit organization

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. AAAS was the first permanent organization to promote science and engineering nationally and to represent the interests of American researchers from across all scientific fields. It is the world's largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members, and is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Elsevier</span> Dutch publishing and analytics company

Elsevier is a Dutch academic publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. Its products include journals such as The Lancet, Cell, the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, Trends, the Current Opinion series, the online citation database Scopus, the SciVal tool for measuring research performance, the ClinicalKey search engine for clinicians, and the ClinicalPath evidence-based cancer care service. Elsevier's products and services include digital tools for data management, instruction, research analytics, and assessment.

The Council of Science Editors (CSE), formerly the Council of Biology Editors and originally the Conference of Biology Editors, is a United States–based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice among scientific writers. In 2008, the CSE adopted the slogan "CSE: Education, Ethics, and Evidence for Editors (E4)".

Popular Science is an American popular science website, covering science and technology topics geared toward general readers. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in 2003, 2004, and 2019. Its print magazine, which ran from 1872 to 2020, was translated into over 30 languages and distributed to at least 45 countries. In 2021, Popular Science switched to an all-digital format and abandoned the magazine format in 2023. A Verge article published November 27, 2023, referred to a statement from the communications director of PopSci's owner, Recurrent Ventures, Cathy Hebert, indicating that Popular Science "will no longer be available to purchase as a magazine".

<i>Mankind Quarterly</i> Pseudo-scientific White Supremacist journal

Mankind Quarterly is a peer-reviewed journal that has been described as a "cornerstone of the scientific racism establishment", a "white supremacist journal", and "a pseudo-scholarly outlet for promoting racial inequality". It covers physical and cultural anthropology, including human evolution, intelligence, ethnography, linguistics, mythology, archaeology, and biology. It is published by the Ulster Institute for Social Research, which was presided over by Richard Lynn.

Ciência e Cultura is a science magazine published by the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science. The magazine is published three times a year.

<i>PLOS One</i> Peer-reviewed open-access scientific journal

PLOS One is a peer-reviewed open access mega journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006. The journal covers primary research from any discipline within science and medicine. The Public Library of Science began in 2000 with an online petition initiative by Nobel Prize winner Harold Varmus, formerly director of the National Institutes of Health and at that time director of Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center; Patrick O. Brown, a biochemist at Stanford University; and Michael Eisen, a computational biologist at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

<i>The Scientific Monthly</i>

The Scientific Monthly was a science magazine published from 1915 to 1957. Psychologist James McKeen Cattell, the former publisher and editor of The Popular Science Monthly, was the original founder and editor. In 1958, The Scientific Monthly was absorbed by Science.

<i>Philosophy of Science</i> (journal) Academic journal

Philosophy of Science is dedicated to the furthering of studies and free discussion from diverse standpoints in the philosophy of science. It is a peer-reviewed academic journal.

<i>Science Signaling</i> Academic journal

Science Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is focused on mechanisms of cell communication. It is published online weekly by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The editor-in-chief is John F. Foley, the Chief Scientific Advisor is Michael B. Yaffe, and the journal is part of the Science Family of Journals of which Holden Thorp is the Editor-in-Chief.

Scientific Research Publishing (SCIRP) is a predatory academic publisher of open-access electronic journals, conference proceedings, and scientific anthologies that are considered to be of questionable quality. As of December 2014, it offered 244 English-language open-access journals in the areas of science, technology, business, economy, and medicine.

Jaques (Jack) Cattell was an American publisher and founder of a company bearing his name, "Jaques Cattell Press, Inc.," based in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

<i>Science & Diplomacy</i>

Science & Diplomacy is a quarterly magazine published by the Center for Science Diplomacy of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The publication includes articles, short comments (perspectives), and letters on issues in the field of science diplomacy, diplomacy about scientific issues.

The Journal of Molecular Endocrinology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published eight times per year. Its focus is on molecular and cellular mechanisms in endocrinology, including gene regulation, cell biology, signalling, mutations and transgenesis.

The AAAS Philip Hauge Abelson Prize is awarded by The American Association for the Advancement of Science for public servants, recognized for sustained exceptional contributions to advancing science or scientists, whose career has been distinguished both for scientific achievement and for other notable services to the scientific community. The prize is named after nuclear physicist Philip Abelson.The award consists of an engraved medallion and an honorarium of $5,000.

The AAAS David and Betty Hamburg Award for Science Diplomacy (2022-) formerly the AAAS Award for Science Diplomacy (2010-2021) and Award for International Scientific Cooperation (1992-2009), is awarded by The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). After the 2021 presentation, the award was renamed in honor of psychiatrists David A. Hamburg and Beatrix Hamburg.

<i>Science Advances</i> American academic journal

Science Advances is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary open-access scientific journal established in early 2015 and published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The journal's scope includes all areas of science.

<i>Science Robotics</i> American academic journal

Science Robotics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The editor-in-chief is Holden Thorp of AAAS. Subjects covered are Artificial intelligence, Mathematics, Computer science, Mechanical Engineering, macro, micro and nano robots, advanced materials, and biologically influenced designs. Its scope includes theoretical research and real world applications. The 2022 impact factor is 25.0.


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  16. "Thorp named editor-in-chief of Science | The Source | Washington University in St. Louis". The Source. August 19, 2019. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  17. Brainard, Jeffrey (August 19, 2019). "AAAS names chemist Holden Thorp as editor-in-chief of Science". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaz1817. S2CID   202388761 . Retrieved August 19, 2019.
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  22. Cohen, Jon (November 18, 2020). "'Incredible milestone for science.' Pfizer and BioNTech update their promising COVID-19 vaccine result". Science. Archived from the original on May 29, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.

AAAS references

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