Cover of the first volume of the first series (discontinued 1882)
|Edited by||Jeremy M. Berg|
American Association for the Advancement of Science (United States)
|ISSN|| 0036-8075 (print)|
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine,is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals. It was first published in 1880, is currently circulated weekly and has a subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is 570,400 people.
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences."
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world's largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members, and is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science, which had a weekly circulation of 138,549 in 2008.
The major focus of the journal is publishing important original scientific research and research reviews, but Science also publishes science-related news, opinions on science policy and other matters of interest to scientists and others who are concerned with the wide implications of science and technology. Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a specific field, Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines. According to the Journal Citation Reports , Science's 2015 impact factor was 34.661.
Science policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for the conduct of science towards the goal of best serving the public interest. Topics include the funding of science, the careers of scientists, and the translation of scientific discoveries into technological innovation to promote commercial product development, competitiveness, economic growth and economic development. Science policy focuses on knowledge production and role of knowledge networks, collaborations and the complex distributions of expertise, equipment and know-how. Understanding the processes and organizational context of generating novel and innovative science and engineering ideas is a core concern of science policy. Science policy topics include weapons development, health care and environmental monitoring.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. It is one of the most recognizable scientific journals in the world, and was ranked the world's most cited scientific journal by the Science Edition of the 2010 Journal Citation Reports and is ascribed an impact factor of 40.137, making it one of the world's top academic journals. It is one of the few remaining academic journals that publishes original research across a wide range of scientific fields.
Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is an annual publication by Clarivate Analytics. It has been integrated with the Web of Science and is accessed from the Web of Science-Core Collections. It provides information about academic journals in the natural sciences and social sciences, including impact factors. The JCR was originally published as a part of Science Citation Index. Currently, the JCR, as a distinct service, is based on citations compiled from the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Science Citation Index.
Although it is the journal of the AAAS, membership in the AAAS is not required to publish in Science. Papers are accepted from authors around the world. Competition to publish in Science is very intense, as an article published in such a highly cited journal can lead to attention and career advancement for the authors. Fewer than 7% of articles submitted are accepted for publication.
Science is based in Washington, D.C., United States, with a second office in Cambridge, UK.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately 50 miles (80 km) north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, and there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not officially conferred until 1951.
Science was founded by New York journalist John Michels in 1880 with financial support from Thomas Edison and later from Alexander Graham Bell. [ citation needed ](Edison received favorable editorial treatment in return, without disclosure of the financial relationship, at a time when his reputation was suffering due to delays producing the promised commercially viable light bulb. ) However, the journal never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Entomologist Samuel H. Scudder resurrected the journal one year later and had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS. However, by 1894, Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500.
Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor. He is credited with developing many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures. These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb, had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He is often credited with establishing the first industrial research laboratory.
Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He also founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in 1885.
Samuel Hubbard Scudder was an American entomologist and paleontologist. He was a leading figure in entomology during his lifetime and the founder of insect paleontology in America. In addition to fossil insects, he was an authority on butterflies (Lepidoptera) and grasshoppers (Orthoptera).
In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, Science became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900.During the early part of the 20th century important articles published in Science included papers on fruit fly genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan, gravitational lensing by Albert Einstein, and spiral nebulae by Edwin Hubble. After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS.
Leland Ossian Howard, Ph.D., M.D., was an American entomologist.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly in the family Drosophilidae. The species is known generally as the common fruit fly or vinegar fly. Starting with Charles W. Woodworth's proposal of the use of this species as a model organism, D. melanogaster continues to be widely used for biological research in genetics, physiology, microbial pathogenesis, and life history evolution. As of 2017, eight Nobel prizes had been awarded for research using Drosophila.
Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
After Cattell's death in 1944, the journal lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShane's leadership, Science absorbed The Scientific Monthly , thus increasing the journal's circulation by over 60% from 38,000 to more than 61,000.Physicist Philip Abelson, a co-discoverer of neptunium, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency of the review process was improved and the publication practices were brought up to date. During this time, papers on the Apollo program missions and some of the earliest reports on AIDS were published.
The Scientific Monthly was a science magazine published from 1915 to 1957. Psychologist James McKeen Cattell, the former publisher and editor of The Popular Science Monthly, was the original founder and editor. In 1958, The Scientific Monthly was absorbed by Science.
Philip Hauge Abelson was an American physicist, a scientific editor, and a science writer.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93. A radioactive actinide metal, neptunium is the first transuranic element. Its position in the periodic table just after uranium, named after the planet Uranus, led to it being named after Neptune, the next planet beyond Uranus. A neptunium atom has 93 protons and 93 electrons, of which seven are valence electrons. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. The element occurs in three allotropic forms and it normally exhibits five oxidation states, ranging from +3 to +7. It is radioactive, poisonous, pyrophoric, and can accumulate in bones, which makes the handling of neptunium dangerous.
Biochemist Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd E. Bloom held that position.Biologist Donald Kennedy became the editor of Science in 2000. Biochemist Bruce Alberts took his place in March 2008. Geophysicist Marcia McNutt became editor-in-chief in June 2013. During her tenure the family of journals expanded to include Science Robotics and Science Immunology , and open access publishing with Science Advances . Jeremy M. Berg became editor-in-chief on July 1, 2016.
In February 2001, draft results of the human genome were simultaneously published by Nature and Science with Science publishing the Celera Genomics paper and Nature publishing the publicly funded Human Genome Project. In 2007 Science (together with Nature) received the Prince of Asturias Award for Communications and Humanity.In 2015 Rush D. Holt, Jr., chief executive officer of the AAAS and executive publisher of Science, stated that the journal was becoming increasingly international: "[I]nternationally co-authored papers are now the norm—they represent almost 60 percent of the papers. In 1992, it was slightly less than 20 percent."
The Science family of journals includes Science, Science Translational Medicine , Science Signaling , and Science Advances . In 2015, Holt announced another expansion: Science Robotics and Science Immunology would begin publication in mid-2016.
The latest editions of the journal are available online, through the main journal website, only to subscribers, AAAS members, and for delivery to IP addresses at institutions that subscribe; students, K–12 teachers, and some others can subscribe at a reduced fee. However, research articles published after 1997 are available for free (with online registration) one year after they are published i.e. delayed open access.Significant public-health related articles are also available for free, sometimes immediately after publication. AAAS members may also access the pre-1997 Science archives at the Science website, where it is called "Science Classic". Institutions can opt to add Science Classic to their subscriptions for an additional fee. Some older articles can also be accessed via JSTOR and ProQuest.
The journal also participates in initiatives that provide free or low-cost access to readers in developing countries, including HINARI, OARE, AGORA, and Scidev.net.
Other features of the Science website include the free "ScienceNow" section with "up to the minute news from science",and "ScienceCareers", which provides free career resources for scientists and engineers.
Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal article, book or thesis form. The part of academic written output that is not formally published but merely printed up or posted on the Internet is often called "grey literature". Most scientific and scholarly journals, and many academic and scholarly books, though not all, are based on some form of peer review or editorial refereeing to qualify texts for publication. Peer review quality and selectivity standards vary greatly from journal to journal, publisher to publisher, and field to field.
Elsevier is a Dutch information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information. It was established in 1880 as a publishing company. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journals such as The Lancet and Cell, the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, the Trends and Current Opinion series of journals, the online citation database Scopus, and the ClinicalKey solution for clinicians. Elsevier's products and services include the entire academic research lifecycle, including software and data-management, instruction and assessment tools.
The Council of Science Editors (CSE) is a United States-based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice among scientific writers. In 2008, the CSE adopted the slogan "CSE: Education, Ethics, and Evidence for Editors (E4)".
A retraction in academic publishing is a statement published in an academic journal stating that a peer-reviewed article previously published in the journal should be considered invalid as a source of knowledge. Online journals typically remove the retracted article from online access.
Popular Science is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 and 2004. With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries.
Psychological Review is a scientific journal that publishes articles on psychological theory. It was founded by Princeton University psychologist James Mark Baldwin and Columbia University psychologist James McKeen Cattell in 1894 as a publication vehicle for psychologists not connected with the Clark laboratory of G. Stanley Hall. Psychological Review soon became the most prominent and influential psychology journal in North America, publishing important articles by William James, John Dewey, James Rowland Angell, and many others.
Journal of Experimental Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Rockefeller University Press that publishes research papers and commentaries on the physiological, pathological, and molecular mechanisms that encompass the host response to disease. The journal prioritizes studies on intact organisms and has made a commitment to publishing studies on human subjects. Topics covered include immunology, inflammation, infectious disease, hematopoiesis, cancer, stem cells and vascular biology. The journal has no single editor-in-chief, but thirteen academic editors.
Frontiers Media SA is an academic publisher of peer-reviewed open access scientific journals currently active in science, technology, and medicine. It was founded in 2007 by a group of neuroscientists, including Henry and Kamila Markram, and later expanded to other academic fields. Frontiers is based in Lausanne, Switzerland.
William T. Golden was an American investment banker, philanthropist, and science adviser.
The Golden Goose Award is a United States award established in 2012 that officially recognizes scientists whose federally funded basic research has led to innovations or inventions which have a significant impact on humanity or society. The results have been significant health and economic benefits. The award has bi-partisan support in Congress and is sponsored by a number of notable organizations and legislators.
Science & Diplomacy is a quarterly magazine published by the Center for Science Diplomacy of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The publication includes articles, short comments (perspectives), and letters on issues in the field of science diplomacy, diplomacy about scientific issues.
The AAAS Philip Hauge Abelson Prize is awarded by The American Association for the Advancement of Science for public servants, recognized for sustained exceptional contributions to advancing science or scientists, whose career has been distinguished both for scientific achievement and for other notable services to the scientific community. The award consists of an engraved medallion and an honorarium of $5,000.
The AAAS Award for Science Diplomacy, formerly Award for International Scientific Cooperation, is awarded by The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), with collaboration with its affiliated organizations, seeks to recognize an individual or a limited number of individuals working together in the scientific or engineering community for making an outstanding contribution to furthering international cooperation in science and engineering. The award offers a monetary prize of $2,500, a certificate of citation, and travel expenses to attend the AAAS annual meeting to receive the award.
Science Advances is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary open-access scientific journal established in early 2015. It is the fourth journal published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the first that is gold open access and online only. The journal's scope includes all areas of science, including the life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, computer sciences, and environmental sciences.
The Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials was one of the first peer-reviewed online-only journals, publishing research articles, reviews, meta-analyses and letters relating to clinical trials from 1992-96. It was founded by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and Online Computer Library Center (OCLC). Access to the articles was lost when the journal closed in 1996 after being sold, but some access was restored in 2018.
Original research papers are freely accessible with registration on the Science Journal’s website 12 months after publication
The paper, meanwhile, had been published in Science, one of the world's top scientific journals, which gave it even more apparent gravitas.
a weekly journal devoted mainly to physical science and invention, entitled Science, and Mr. [A. Graham] Bell purchased from Mr. John Michels for $5,000 the title and good will of this journal. Continuity of the publication was not, however, maintained, and the present journal [Science] dates from 1883. Mr. Thomas A. Edison had been responsible for the foundation of the earlier Science
In 1881, the old rivalry between Bell and Thomas Edison spilled over into the field of publishing. Science Magazine had been founded the year before with funding from Edison, but the frugal inventor soon tired of the deficits and withheld support. Bell had written for the magazine and respected its editorial quality. He felt that Science, like the British Nature, appealed to a broad audience interested in current research. In 1882, he and Gardiner Hubbard acquired the rights to Science and hired as editor a respected young entomologist and riter named Sam Scudder, who happened to be a Hubbard cousin.
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