Science (journal)

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Cover of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February-June 1883) Science 1883 Cover.png
Cover of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February–June 1883)

Science was founded by New York journalist John Michels in 1880 with financial support from Thomas Edison and later from Alexander Graham Bell. [6] [7] (Edison received favorable editorial treatment in return, without disclosure of the financial relationship, at a time when his reputation was suffering due to delays producing the promised commercially viable light bulb.) [8] However, the journal never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard bought the magazine rights and hired young entomologist Samuel H. Scudder to resurrect the journal one year later. They had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS. [AAAS 3] However, by 1894, Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500(equivalent to $15,660 in 2021).[ citation needed ]

In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, Science became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900. [AAAS 4] During the early part of the 20th century important articles published in Science included papers on fruit fly genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan, gravitational lensing by Albert Einstein, and spiral nebulae by Edwin Hubble. [AAAS 4] After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS. [AAAS 5]

After Cattell's death in 1944, the journal lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShane's leadership, Science absorbed The Scientific Monthly , thus increasing the journal's circulation by over

Biochemist Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd E. Bloom held that position. [AAAS 7] Biologist Donald Kennedy became the editor of Science in 2000. Biochemist Bruce Alberts took his place in March 2008. [9] Geophysicist Marcia McNutt became editor-in-chief in June 2013. [10] During her tenure the family of journals expanded to include Science Robotics and Science Immunology, [11] and open access publishing with Science Advances . [12] Jeremy M. Berg became editor-in-chief on July 1, 2016. [13]

In February 2001, draft results of the human genome were simultaneously published by Nature and Science with Science publishing the Celera Genomics paper and Nature publishing the publicly funded Human Genome Project. In 2007 Science (together with Nature) received the Prince of Asturias Award for Communications and Humanity. [14] In 2015 Rush D. Holt, Jr., chief executive officer of the AAAS and executive publisher of Science, stated that the journal was becoming increasingly international: "[I]nternationally co-authored papers are now the norm—they represent almost 60 percent of the papers. In 1992, it was slightly less than 20 percent." [15]

Former Washington University in St. Louis Provost Holden Thorp was named editor-in-chief on Monday, August 19, 2019. [16] [17]


The latest editions of the journal are available online, through the main journal website, only to subscribers, AAAS members, and for delivery to IP addresses at institutions that subscribe; students, K–12 teachers, and some others can subscribe at a reduced fee. However, research articles published after 1997 are available for free (with online registration) one year after they are published i.e. delayed open access. [AAAS 1] Significant public-health related articles are also available for free, sometimes immediately after publication. AAAS members may also access the pre-1997 Science archives at the Science website, where it is called "Science Classic". Institutions can opt to add Science Classic to their subscriptions for an additional fee. Some older articles can also be accessed via JSTOR and ProQuest.

The journal also participates in initiatives that provide free or low-cost access to readers in developing countries, including HINARI, OARE, AGORA, and

Other features of the Science website include the free "ScienceNow" section with "up to the minute news from science", [18] and "ScienceCareers", which provides free career resources for scientists and engineers. Science Express (Sciencexpress) provides advance electronic publication of selected Science papers. [19]


Science received funding for COVID-19-related coverage from the Pulitzer Center and the Heising-Simons Foundation. [20]

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Nature</i> (journal) British scientific journal since 1869

Nature is a British weekly scientific journal founded and based in London, England. As a multidisciplinary publication, Nature features peer-reviewed research from a variety of academic disciplines, mainly in science and technology. It has core editorial offices across the United States, continental Europe, and Asia under the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature. Nature was one of the world's most cited scientific journals by the Science Edition of the 2019 Journal Citation Reports, making it one of the world's most-read and most prestigious academic journals. As of 2012, it claimed an online readership of about three million unique readers per month.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American Association for the Advancement of Science</span> International non-profit organization promoting science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world's largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members, and is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Elsevier</span> Dutch publishing and analytics company

Elsevier is a Netherlands-based academic publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. Its products include journals such as The Lancet, Cell, the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, Trends, the Current Opinion series, the online citation database Scopus, the SciVal tool for measuring research performance, the ClinicalKey search engine for clinicians, and the ClinicalPath evidence-based cancer care service. Elsevier's products and services also include digital tools for data management, instruction, research analytics and assessment.

The Council of Science Editors (CSE), formerly the Council of Biology Editors and originally the Conference of Biology Editors, is a United States-based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice among scientific writers. In 2008, the CSE adopted the slogan "CSE: Education, Ethics, and Evidence for Editors (E4)".

<i>Popular Science</i> American quarterly magazine

Popular Science is an American digital magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in 2003, 2004, and 2019. With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries.

<i>Mankind Quarterly</i> Pseudo-scientific White Supremacist journal

Mankind Quarterly is a peer-reviewed journal that has been described as a "cornerstone of the scientific racism establishment", a "white supremacist journal", and "a pseudo-scholarly outlet for promoting racial inequality". It covers physical and cultural anthropology, including human evolution, intelligence, ethnography, linguistics, mythology, archaeology, and biology. It is published by the Ulster Institute for Social Research, which is presided over by Richard Lynn.

Ciência e Cultura is a science magazine published by the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science. The magazine is published three times a year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hindawi (publisher)</span> Scientific and medical journal publisher

Hindawi is a commercial publisher of scientific, technical, and medical (STM) literature. It currently publishes more than 230 peer-reviewed scientific journals as well as a number of scholarly monographs, with an annual output of roughly 20,000 articles each year.

<i>PLOS One</i> Peer-reviewed open access scientific journal

PLOS One is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006. The journal covers primary research from any discipline within science and medicine. The Public Library of Science began in 2000 with an online petition initiative by Nobel Prize winner Harold Varmus, formerly director of the National Institutes of Health and at that time director of Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center; Patrick O. Brown, a biochemist at Stanford University; and Michael Eisen, a computational biologist at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

<i>The Scientific Monthly</i>

The Scientific Monthly was a science magazine published from 1915 to 1957. Psychologist James McKeen Cattell, the former publisher and editor of The Popular Science Monthly, was the original founder and editor. In 1958, The Scientific Monthly was absorbed by Science.

<i>Philosophy of Science</i> (journal) Academic journal

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<i>Science Signaling</i> Academic journal

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<i>Nature Communications</i> Academic journal

Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed, open access, scientific journal published by Nature Portfolio since 2010. It is a multidisciplinary journal and it covers the natural sciences, including physics, chemistry, earth sciences, medicine, and biology. The founding editor-in-chief was Lesley Anson, followed by Joerg Heber, Magdalena Skipper, and Elisa De Ranieri. The journal has editorial offices in London, Berlin, New York City, and Shanghai.

Scientific Research Publishing (SCIRP) is a predatory academic publisher of open-access electronic journals, conference proceedings, and scientific anthologies that are considered to be of questionable quality. As of December 2014, it offered 244 English-language open-access journals in the areas of science, technology, business, economy, and medicine.


eLife is a not-for-profit, peer-reviewed, open access, scientific journal for the biomedical and life sciences. It was established at the end of 2012 by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Max Planck Society, and Wellcome Trust, following a workshop held in 2010 at the Janelia Farm Research Campus. Together, these organizations provided the initial funding to support the business and publishing operations. In 2016, the organizations committed US$26 million to continue publication of the journal.

Jaques (Jack) Cattell was an American publisher and founder of a company bearing his name, "Jaques Cattell Press, Inc.," based in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

<i>Science & Diplomacy</i>

Science & Diplomacy is a quarterly magazine published by the Center for Science Diplomacy of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The publication includes articles, short comments (perspectives), and letters on issues in the field of science diplomacy, diplomacy about scientific issues.

<i>Science Advances</i> American academic journal

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<i>Science Robotics</i> American academic journal

Science Robotics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The editor-in-chief is Holden Thorp of AAAS. Subjects covered are Artificial intelligence, Mathematics, Computer science, Mechanical Engineering, macro, micro and nano robots, advanced materials, and biologically influenced designs. Its scope includes theoretical research and real world applications. The 2020 impact factor is 23.748.


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  2. "AAAS Annual Report-Science". Archived from the original on May 25, 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  3. Lemonick, Michael D. (March 7, 2011). "Alien Life Discovered in a Meteorite! Or Maybe No". Time magazine online. Archived from the original on March 9, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011. The paper, meanwhile, had been published in Science, one of the world's top scientific journals, which gave it even more apparent gravitas.
  4. "Print Advertising Products & Services". Science. AAAS. Retrieved November 1, 2021. 129,558 qualified weekly circulation; 400,000+ readers each week
  5. "Science". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021.
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  7. Grosvenor, Edwin S; Wesson, Morgan (May 13, 2016). Alexander Graham Bell. New Word City. ISBN   978-1612309842. In 1881, the old rivalry between Bell and Thomas Edison spilled over into the field of publishing. Science Magazine had been founded the year before with funding from Edison, but the frugal inventor soon tired of the deficits and withheld support. Bell had written for the magazine and respected its editorial quality. He felt that Science, like the British Nature, appealed to a broad audience interested in current research. In 1882, he and Gardiner Hubbard acquired the rights to Science and hired as editor a respected young entomologist and writer named Sam Scudder, who happened to be a Hubbard cousin.
  8. Baron, David (2017). American Eclipse. Liveright. p. 224. ISBN   9781631490163.
  9. Pinholster, Ginger (December 17, 2007). "Bruce Alberts Named New Editor-in-Chief of Science". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
  10. Gramling, Carolyn (April 2, 2013). "Marcia McNutt Bringing Her 'Intellectual Energy' to Science". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  11. Pinholster, Ginger (October 20, 2015). "AAAS to Expand the Science Family of Journals by Launching Two New Journals: Science Robotics and Science Immunology" (Press release). American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
  12. Van Noorden, Richard (February 12, 2014). "AAAS announces open-access journal". Nature . Retrieved February 12, 2015.
  13. Kaiser, Jocelyn (May 25, 2016). "Jeremy Berg named Science editor-in-chief". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaf5749 . Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  14. Journal Science. Retrieved on 2013-06-20.
  15. Holt, Rush (June 29, 2015). "Scientific Drivers for Diplomacy". Science and Diplomacy.
  16. "Thorp named editor-in-chief of Science | The Source | Washington University in St. Louis". The Source. August 19, 2019. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  17. Brainard, Jeffrey (August 19, 2019). "AAAS names chemist Holden Thorp as editor-in-chief of Science". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaz1817. S2CID   202388761 . Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  18. "ScienceNow". Science. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  19. "Science Express". AAAS / . Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  20. Cohen, Jon (November 18, 2020). "'Incredible milestone for science.' Pfizer and BioNTech update their promising COVID-19 vaccine result". Science. Archived from the original on May 29, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.

AAAS references

  1. 1 2 "Science Journals: editorial policies". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021. Original research papers are freely accessible with registration on the Science Journal's website 12 months after publication
  2. Pinholster, Ginger (4 July 2007). "EurekaAlert! Science earns top honor from Spain's Crown Prince" (Press release). American Association for the Advancement of Science. Archived from the original on 8 July 2007. Retrieved 29 January 2021. 'Science' is an editorially independent, weekly general science journal whose articles consistently rank among the world's most often cited research reports, as monitored by the Institute for Scientific Information.
  3. "Origins: 1848-1899". American Association for the Advancement of Science . Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
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  5. "150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS (1848-1998)". American Association for the Advancement of Science . Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
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