Cambridge University Press

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Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press logo.svg
Parent company Cambridge University Press & Assessment
StatusDepartment of the University of Cambridge
Founded1534;488 years ago (1534)
Founder King Henry VIII of England
Country of origin Kingdom of England (since 1534)
Headquarters location Cambridge, England
Distribution
Key people Stephen Toope, Peter Andrew Jestyn Phillips
Nonfiction topicsHumanities; social sciences; science; medicine; engineering and technology; English language teaching and learning; education; Bibles
Fiction genres
  • Academic
  • Educational
Imprints Cambridge University Press
Revenue £336 million (2020)
No. of employees3,039; 58% are outside the UK
Official website cambridge.org
Logo on the front cover of "The Victorian Age by William Ralph Inge" used by Cambridge University Press Cambridge Press Cover Emblem.jpg
Logo on the front cover of "The Victorian Age by William Ralph Inge" used by Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press in the world. It is also the King's Printer. [2]

Contents

Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. It became part of Cambridge University Press & Assessment, following a merger with Cambridge Assessment in 2021. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries. [3] Its publishing includes more than 380 academic journals, monographs, reference works, school and university textbooks, and English language teaching and learning publications. It also publishes Bibles, runs a bookshop in Cambridge, sells through Amazon, and has a conference venues business in Cambridge at the Pitt Building and the Sir Geoffrey Cass Sports and Social Centre.

Being part of the University of Cambridge gives Cambridge University Press a non-profit status. It transfers a minimum of 30% of any annual surplus back to the University of Cambridge.

History

Cambridge University Press head office in Cambridge Cambridge University Press building.jpg
Cambridge University Press head office in Cambridge
Cambridge University Press building in Cambridge Cambridge University Press building2.jpg
Cambridge University Press building in Cambridge

Cambridge University Press is the oldest university press in the world. It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, and Stephen Hawking. [4]

University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house in 1584. [5] The first publication was a book, "Two Treatises of the Lord His Holie Supper". [6] [7] In 1591 the first Cambridge Bible was printed by John Legate and in 1629 Cambridge folio edition of the King James Bible is printed by Thomas and John Buck. [6] [7]

In July 1697, the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and press" and James Halman, Registrary of the university, lent £100 for the same purpose. [8]

A new home for the press, The Pitt Building, on Trumpington Street in the centre of Cambridge was completed in 1833, which was designed by Edward Blore. It became a listed building in 1950. [9]

In the early 1800s, the press pioneers the development of stereotype printing, allowing successive printings from one setting. [10] [6] The press began using steam-powered machine presses by the 1850s. It was in this period that the press turned down what later became the Oxford English Dictionary – a proposal for which was brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. [4]

The press journals publishing programme began in 1893 with the Journal of Physiology and then The Journal of Hygiene and Biometrika. By 1910 the press had become a well-established journal publisher with a successful list which includes its first humanities title, Modern Language Review. 1956 sees the first issue of the Journal of Fluid Mechanics.

In 1895, the first title by a Nobel Laureate is published. It has published 170+ Nobel Prize winners.

In 1913, the Monotype system of hot-metal mechanised typesetting is introduced at the press.

In 1949, the press opens its first international branch in New York. [5]

The press moved to its current site in Cambridge in 1963. The mid-century modern building, University Printing House, was constructed 1961–3. The building was designed by Beard, Bennett, Wilkins and Partners. [11]

In 1975, the press launched its English language teaching publishing business. [12]

In 1981, the press moved to a new site on Shaftsbury Road. The Edinburgh Building was purpose-built with an adjoining warehouse to accommodate the press's expansion. It was built 1979-80 by International Design and Construction. [11] This site was sold to Cambridge Assessment in 2015 for the construction of The Triangle Building.[ citation needed ]

In 1986, the press acquired the long-established Bible and prayer-book publisher Eyre & Spottiswoode, which gave the press the ancient and unique title of 'The Queen's Printer'. [7]

In 1992, the press opened a bookshop at 1, Trinity Street, Cambridge which is the oldest-known bookshop site in Britain as books had been sold there since 1581. [13] In 2008 the shop expanded into 27 Market Hill where its specialist Education and English Language Teaching shop opened the following year.[ citation needed ] The press bookshop sells Press books as well as Cambridge souvenirs such as mugs, diaries, bags, postcards, maps. [14]

In 1993, the Cass Centre was opened to provide sports and social facilities for employees and their families. [11]

In 1999, Cambridge Dictionaries Online is launched. [12]

In 2012, the press sold its printing operation to MPG Books Group [15] and now uses third parties around the world to provide its print publications.

In 2019, the press released a new concept in scholarly publishing through Cambridge Elements where authors whose works are either too short to be printed as a book or too long to qualify as a journal article could have these published within 12 weeks. [16]

In 2021, Cambridge University Press merged with Cambridge Assessment. The new organisation is called Cambridge University Press & Assessment. [17] [18] [19]

People

Publications

Current publications

Open access

Cambridge University Press has stated its support for a sustainable transition to open access. [20] It offers a range of open access publishing options under the heading of Cambridge Open, allowing authors to comply with the Gold Open Access and Green Open Access requirements of major research funders. It publishes Gold Open Access journals and books and works with publishing partners such as learned societies to develop Open Access for different communities. It supports Green Open Access (also called Green archiving) across its journals and monographs, allowing authors to deposit content in institutional and subject-specific repositories. It also supports sharing on commercial sharing sites through its Cambridge Core Share service.

In recent years it has entered into several Read & Publish Open Access agreements with university libraries and consortia in several countries, including a landmark agreement with the University of California. [21] [22] In its 2019 Annual Report, Cambridge University Press stated that it saw such agreements "as an important stepping stone in the transition to Open Access." [23]

In 2019, the press joined with the University of Cambridge's research and teaching departments to give a unified response to Plan S, which calls for all publications resulting from publicly funded research to be published in compliant open access journals or platforms from 2020. The response emphasized Cambridge's commitment to an open access goal which works effectively for all academic disciplines, is financially sustainable for institutions and high-quality peer review, and which leads to an orderly transition. [24]

The press is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association and the International Association of STM Publishers.

Nobel prize winners published by Cambridge University Press

[25]

Organisational governance and operational structure

Relationship with the University of Cambridge

The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which used to be the headquarters of Cambridge University Press, is now a conference venue Pitt Building Picture 21 07 2010.jpg
The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which used to be the headquarters of Cambridge University Press, is now a conference venue

Cambridge University Press is a non-teaching department of the University of Cambridge. The press has, since 1698, been governed by the press 'Syndics' (originally known as the 'Curators'), [26] 18 senior members of the University of Cambridge who, along with other non-executive directors, bring a range of subject and business expertise. [27] The Chair of the Syndicate is currently Professor Stephen Toope (Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge). The Syndicate has delegated its powers to a Press & Assessment Board; and to an Academic Publishing Committee and an English Language Teaching & Education Publishing Committee. [28]

The Press & Assessment Board is responsible for setting overarching strategic direction. [28] The Publishing Committees provide quality assurance and formal approval of the publishing strategy. [28]

The operational responsibility of the press is delegated by the Syndics to the Secretary of the Syndicate and Chief Executive.

In 2020 the university announced its decision to merge Cambridge University Press with Cambridge Assessment. [17]

Operational structure

Until August 2021, Cambridge University Press had three publishing groups:

From 1 August 2021 onwards, Cambridge University Press became solely the academic and bible publishing division of Cambridge University Press & Assessment. With the English and education arms of the organisation forming new, merged divisions with the equalivalent departments of Cambridge Assessment.

Cambridge University Press partnerships and acquisitions

Digital developments

Cambridge University Press sign at the Cambridge HQ Cambridge University Press sign.jpg
Cambridge University Press sign at the Cambridge HQ

In 2011, Cambridge University Press adopted SAP. Cambridge University Press works closely with IT services firm Tech Mahindra on SAP, and with Cognizant and Wipro on other systems. [36] [37]

In 2016, Cambridge Books Online and Cambridge Journals Online were replaced by Cambridge Core - a single platform to access its publishing. It provided significantly enhanced interfaces and upgraded navigation capabilities, as well as article-level and chapter-level content selection. [38] A year after Cambridge Core went live, the press launched Cambridge Core Share, functionality to allow users to generate and share links with free access to selected journal articles, an early sign of the press's commitment to open research. [39]

In 2020, partnered with online library Perlego to offer students access to digital textbooks. [34]

In 2021, the press acquired CogBooks. The technology adapts and responds to users, "recommending course material needed to optimise learning". [40]

In 2021 the press began migrating its website onto Drupal. [41]

Controversies

Tax Exemption Controversy

In May 1940 CUP applied to the Inland Revenue for the exemption of its printing and publishing profits from taxation, equivalent to charitable status. After a November 1940 Inland Revenue hearing, CUP's application was refused "on the ground that, since the Press was printing and publishing for the outside world and not simply for the internal use of the University, the Press's trade went beyond the purpose and objects of the University and (in terms of the Act) was not exercised in the course of the actual carrying out of a primary purpose of the University". [42] In November 1975, with CUP facing financial collapse, [43] CUP's chief executive Geoffrey Cass wrote a 60-page "preliminary letter" to the Inland Revenue again seeking tax-exemption. A year later Cass's application was granted in a letter from the Inland Revenue, though the decision was not made public. [44] [45] After consulting CUP, Cambridge's 'sister' press, the giant Oxford University Press presented their own submission and received similar exemption. In 2003 OUP's tax-exemption was publicly attacked by Joel Rickett of The Bookseller in The Guardian. [46] In 2007, with the new 'public benefit' requirement of the revised Charities Act, the issue was re-examined [47] with particular reference to the OUP. [48] In 2008 CUP's and OUP's privilege was attacked by rival publishers. [49] [50] In 2009 The Guardian invited author Andrew Malcolm to write an article on the subject. [51]

Alms for Jihad

In 2007, controversy arose over the press's decision to destroy all remaining copies of its 2006 book Alms for Jihad: Charity and Terrorism in the Islamic World , by Burr and Collins, as part of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by Saudi billionaire Khalid bin Mahfouz. [52] Within hours, Alms for Jihad became one of the 100 most sought after titles on Amazon.com and eBay in the United States. The press sent a letter to libraries asking them to remove copies from circulation. The press subsequently sent out copies of an "errata" sheet for the book.

The American Library Association issued a recommendation to libraries still holding Alms for Jihad: "Given the intense interest in the book, and the desire of readers to learn about the controversy first hand, we recommend that U.S. libraries keep the book available for their users." The publisher's decision did not have the support of the book's authors and was criticized by some who claimed it was incompatible with freedom of speech and with freedom of the press and that it indicated that English libel laws were excessively strict. [53] [54] In a New York Times Book Review (7 October 2007), United States Congressman Frank R. Wolf described Cambridge's settlement as "basically a book burning". [55] The press pointed out that, at that time, it had already sold most of its copies of the book.

The press defended its actions, saying it had acted responsibly and that it is a global publisher with a duty to observe the laws of many different countries. [56]

Cambridge University Press v. Patton

In this case, originally filed in 2008, CUP et al. accused Georgia State University of infringement of copyright. [57] The case closed on 29 September 2020, with GSU as the prevailing party. [58]

The China Quarterly

On 18 August 2017, following an "instruction" from a Chinese import agency, Cambridge University Press used the functionality that had been built into Cambridge Core to temporarily delete politically sensitive articles from The China Quarterly on its Chinese website. The articles focused on topics China regards as taboo, including the 1989 Tiananmen massacre, Chairman Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution, Hong Kong's fight for democracy and ethnic tensions in Xinjiang and Tibet. [59] [60] [61] [62] On 21 August 2017, in the face of growing international protests, Cambridge University Press announced it would immediately repost the articles to uphold the principle of academic freedom on which the university's work is founded. [63] [64]

The Cambridge Handbook of Privatization

In February 2021, the forthcoming Cambridge Handbook of Privatization was found to have included a chapter by John Mark Ramseyer in which he described Koreans murdered in the Kantō Massacre as "gangs" that "torched buildings, planted bombs, [and] poisoned water supplies." Editors Avihay Dorfman and Alon Harel acknowledged the historical distortions of the chapter, but gave Ramseyer a chance to revise. Harel described the inclusion of the original chapter as an "innocent and very regrettable" mistake on the part of the editors. [65] [66]

Corporate social responsibility

Cambridge University Press's stand at the Frankfurt Book Fair 2018 Cambridge University Press's stand at the Frankfurt Book Fair 2018.jpg
Cambridge University Press's stand at the Frankfurt Book Fair 2018

Community

The press undertakes community engagement in Cambridge and around the world where there are Press employees. Annually, the press selects a UK Charity of the Year, which has included local charities Centre 33 (2016 and 2017), Rowan Humberstone (2018) and Castle School (2019). In 2016, some of the press's community works included its continued support to Westchester Community College in New York, the installation of hygienic facilities in an Indonesian rural school, raising funds to rehabilitate earthquake-stricken schools in Nepal and guiding students from Coleridge Community College, Cambridge in a CV workshop. On World Book Day 2016, the press held a digital Shakespeare publishing workshop for students and their teachers. Similarly, their Indian office conducted a workshop for teachers and students in 17 schools in Delhi to learn the whole process of book publishing. The press donated more than 75,000 books in 2016. [67]

An apprenticeship program for people interested in careers in publishing was established in 2016 [68] by 2022 it had 200 active apprenices in the UK in a wide range of roles. [69] [70]

Environment

The press monitors its emissions annually, has converted to energy-saving equipment, minimizes plastic use and ensures that their paper is sourced ethically. [71]

In 2019, the World Wildlife Fund awarded its highest score to the press of Three Trees, based on the press's timber purchasing policy, performance statement and its responsible sourcing of timber. [72] The press works hard to minimise the number of books that are sent for pulping each year.[ citation needed ]

The press won the Independent Publishers Guild Independent Publishing Awards for sustainability in 2020 and in 2021. [73] [74] Its public commitments to sustainability include being a signatory of the UN Global Compact [75] and to the goals of the Cambridge Zero initiative run by the University of Cambridge - to being carbon zero on all energy-related emissions by 2048. [76]

Related Research Articles

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of the University of Oxford. It is the largest university press in the world, and its printing history dates back to the 1480s. Having been officially granted the legal right to print books by decree in 1586, it is the second oldest university press after Cambridge University Press.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Publishing</span> Process of production and dissemination of literature, music, or information

Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as books, newspapers, and magazines. With the advent of digital information systems, the scope has expanded to include electronic publishing such as ebooks, academic journals, micropublishing, websites, blogs, video game publishing, and the like.

The history of copyright starts with early privileges and monopolies granted to printers of books. The British Statute of Anne 1710, full title "An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned", was the first copyright statute. Initially copyright law only applied to the copying of books. Over time other uses such as translations and derivative works were made subject to copyright and copyright now covers a wide range of works, including maps, performances, paintings, photographs, sound recordings, motion pictures and computer programs.

The Net Book Agreement (NBA) was a fixed book price agreement in the United Kingdom and Ireland between The Publishers Association and booksellers which set the prices at which books were to be sold to the public. The agreement was concerned solely with price maintenance. It operated in the UK from 1900 until the 1990s when it was abandoned by some large bookshop chains and was then ruled illegal. It also operated in Ireland until shortly before its final demise.

Blackwell UK, also known as Blackwell's and Blackwell Group, is a British academic book retailer and library supply service owned by Waterstones. It was founded in 1879 by Benjamin Henry Blackwell, after whom the chain is named, on Broad Street, Oxford. The brand now has a chain of 18 shops, and an accounts and library supply service. It employs around 1000 staff in its divisions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plantin Press</span>

The Plantin Press at Antwerp was one of the focal centers of the fine printed book in the 16th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bookselling</span> Business of selling and dealing with books

Bookselling is the commercial trading of books which is the retail and distribution end of the publishing process. People who engage in bookselling are called booksellers, bookdealers, bookpeople, bookmen, or bookwomen. The founding of libraries in c.300 BC stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bowes & Bowes</span>

Bowes & Bowes was a bookselling and publishing company based in Cambridge, England. It was established by Robert Bowes (1835–1919), a nephew of Daniel Macmillan (1813–1857) — the founder, with his brother Alexander, in 1843, of a firm which by 1850 was a thriving bookshop with the official name ‘Macmillan & Co.’ The same bookshop was eventually owned by Alexander Macmillan in partnership with Robert Bowes. The company became known as ‘Bowes & Bowes’ only in 1907, George Brimley Bowes having become a partner in the business in 1899. The firm continued as a family business until 1953 when it was acquired by W H Smith, who continued to operate it under the original name until 1986. In that year the business’s name was changed to Sherratt & Hughes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Global spread of the printing press</span>

The global spread of the printing press began with the invention of the printing press with movable type by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany c. 1439. Western printing technology was adopted in all world regions by the end of the 19th century, displacing the manuscript and block printing.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">University press</span> Publisher associated with a university

A university press is an academic publishing house specializing in monographs and scholarly journals. Most are nonprofit organizations and an integral component of a large research university. They publish work that has been reviewed by scholars in the field. They produce mainly academic works but also often have trade books for a lay audience. These trade books also get peer reviewed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Barley</span> English bookseller and publisher (1565?–1614)

William Barley (1565?–1614) was an English bookseller and publisher. He completed an apprenticeship as a draper in 1587, but was soon working in the London book trade. As a freeman of the Drapers' Company, he was embroiled in a dispute between it and the Stationers' Company over the rights of drapers to function as publishers and booksellers. He found himself in legal tangles throughout his life.

Humphrey Toy was a British bookseller and publisher, and the son of bookseller Robert Toy. In 1567, he published the first translation of New Testament in Welsh from the original Greek, translated by his close friend William Salesbury. Along with the Bible, Toy published the first translation of the Book of Common Prayer in Welsh, also translated by Salesbury.

The Good Book Company (TGBC) is an evangelical Christian publisher, located in Epsom, Surrey, England. They are structured as a large unquoted, private company, limited by share capital. Their practices include publishing, mission outreach and training. The Publisher was declared runner up in the Christian Publisher of the Year Award by the Trade Body for Christian Publishing and Retailing in the UK.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samuel Kneeland (printer)</span> American printer

Samuel Kneeland (c.1696–1769) was an American printer and publisher of The Boston Gazette and Weekly Journal. Kneeland obtained much of his work printing laws and other official documents for the Province of Massachusetts Bay colonial government for about two decades. He printed the first Bible in the English language ever produced in the American colonies, along with many other religious and spiritual works, including the Book of Psalms. He was also noted for introducing a number of innovations to newspaper printing and journalism. He was one of many colonial printers who were strongly opposed to and outspoken against the Stamp Act in 1765. Kneeland, primarily, along with his sons, were responsible for printing the greater majority of books, magazines and pamphlets published in Boston during his lifetime.

<i>Eliot Indian Bible</i> First Bible published in British North America

The Eliot Indian Bible was the first translation of the Christian Bible into an indigenous American language, as well as the first Bible published in British North America. It was prepared by English Puritan missionary John Eliot by translating the Geneva Bible into the Massachusett language. Printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the work first appeared in 1661 with only the New Testament. An edition including all 66 books of both the Old and New Testaments was printed in 1663.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Book trade in the United Kingdom</span> People and business in the trade of books in Britain

The book trade in the United Kingdom has its roots as far back as the 14th century, however the emergence of internet booksellers such as Amazon partnered with the introduction of the e-Book has drastically altered the scope of the industry. Book retailers such as the Borders Group have failed to adjust to these changes, thus there has been a steep decline in the number of operating traditional and independent bookshops. However, still heavily influential on the trade globally, British publishers such as Penguin Books and Pearson remain dominant players within the industry and continue to publish titles globally.

As of 2018, several firms in the United States rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: Cengage Learning, HarperCollins, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, McGraw-Hill Education, Scholastic, Simon & Schuster, and Wiley.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of bookselling</span>

The selling of books dates back to ancient times. The founding of libraries in c.300 BC stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers. In Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library, and Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade.

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Citations

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Sources

  • Anonymous; The Student's Guide to the University of Cambridge. Third Edition, Revised and Partly Re-written; Deighton Bell, 1874 (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009; ISBN   978-1-108-00491-6)
  • Anonymous; War Record of the Cambridge University Press 1914–1919; Cambridge University Press, 1920; (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009; ISBN   978-1-108-00294-3)
  • A History of Cambridge University Press, Volume 1: Printing and the Book Trade in Cambridge, 1534–1698; McKitterick, David; 1992; ISBN   978-0-521-30801-4
  • A History of Cambridge University Press, Volume 2: Scholarship and Commerce, 1698–1872; McKitterick, David; 1998; ISBN   978-0-521-30802-1
  • A History of Cambridge University Press, Volume 3: New Worlds for Learning, 1873–1972; McKitterick, David; 1998; ISBN   978-0-521-30803-8
  • A Short History of Cambridge University Press; Black, Michael; 2000; ISBN   978-0-521-77572-4
  • Cambridge University Press 1584–1984; Black, Michael, foreword by Gordon Johnson; 2000; ISBN   978-0-521-66497-4, Hardback ISBN   978-0-521-26473-0

Coordinates: 52°11′18″N0°07′55″E / 52.1882°N 0.1320°E / 52.1882; 0.1320