Home appliance

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Home appliance
Breville.jpg
Numerous home appliances may be used in kitchens
IndustryFood and Beverages, Health Care
ApplicationKitchens and laundry rooms
WheelsIn some cases
ExamplesRefrigerator, toaster, kettle, microwave, blender

Home appliances, also known as domestic appliances, are electrical machines which help in household functions, [1] such as cooking, cleaning or food preservation.

Machine tool using energy to perform an intended action

A machine is a mechanical structure that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action. Machines can be driven by animals and people, by natural forces such as wind and water, and by chemical, thermal, or electrical power, and include a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement. They can also include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement, often called mechanical systems.

Household group of one or more people living in the same dwelling and sharing meals or living accommodation; may consist of a single family or other grouping of people

A household consists of one people who live in the same dwelling and share meals. It may also consist of a single family or another group of people. A dwelling is considered to contain multiple households if meals or living spaces are not shared. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models, and is important to economics and inheritance.

Cooking art of preparing food for consumption with the use of heat

Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, from grilling food over an open fire to using electric stoves, to baking in various types of ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends. The ways or types of cooking also depend on the skill and type of training an individual cook has. Cooking is done both by people in their own dwellings and by professional cooks and chefs in restaurants and other food establishments. Cooking can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat, such as in ceviche, a traditional South American dish where fish is cooked with the acids in lemon or lime juice.

Contents

Home appliances can be divided into three classifications, which includes, small appliances, major appliances, or white goods [2] and consumer electronics, or brown goods in the United Kingdom. [3]

Small appliance

A small appliance, small domestic appliance, or small electrics are portable or semi-portable machines, generally used on table-tops, counter-tops, or other platforms, to accomplish a household task. Examples include microwave ovens, toasters, humidifiers, and coffeemakers. They contrast with major appliances, such as the refrigerator and washing machine, which cannot be easily moved and are generally placed on the floor. Small appliances also contrast with consumer electronics which are for leisure and entertainment rather than purely practical tasks.

A major appliance, or domestic appliance, is a large machine in home appliance used for routine housekeeping tasks such as cooking, washing laundry, or food preservation. An appliance is different from a plumbing fixture because it uses electricity or fuel.

Consumer electronics Electronic equipment intended for everyday home use

Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes. Consumer electronics include devices used for entertainment, communications, and home-office activities. In British English, they are often called brown goods by producers and sellers, to distinguish them from "white goods" which are meant for housekeeping tasks, such as washing machines and refrigerators, although nowadays, these would be considered brown goods, some of these being connected to the Internet. In the 2010s, this distinction is not always present in large big box consumer electronics stores, such as Best Buy, which sell both entertainment, communication, and home office devices and kitchen appliances such as refrigerators.

The division is noticeable in the maintenance and repair of these kinds of products too. Brown goods usually require high technical knowledge and skills (which get more complex with time, such as going from a soldering iron to a hot-air soldering station), while white goods may need more practical skills and force to manipulate the devices and heavy tools required to repair them.

Soldering iron

A soldering iron is a hand tool used in soldering. It supplies heat to melt solder so that it can flow into the joint between two workpieces.

Definition

Given a broad usage, the domestic application attached to "home appliance" is tied to the definition of appliance as "an instrument or device designed for a particular use or function". [4] More specifically, Collins English Dictionary defines "home appliance" as: "devices or machines, usually electrical, that are in your home and which you use to do jobs such as cleaning or cooking." [5] The broad usage, afforded to the definition allows for nearly any device intended for domestic use to be a home appliance, including consumer electronics as well as stoves, [6] refrigerators, toasters [6] and air conditioners.

<i>Collins English Dictionary</i> Printed and online dictionary of English, published by HarperCollins in Glasgow

The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow.

Stove enclosed heated space

A stove is an enclosed space in which fuel is burned to heat either the space in which the stove is situated, or items placed on the heated stove.

Refrigerator household appliance for preserving food at a low temperature

A refrigerator consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries. The lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C. A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. The refrigerator replaced the icebox, which had been a common household appliance for almost a century and a half.

History

Early 20th century electric toaster Toaster, Universal, Model E947, c. 1915, Landers, Frary and Clark, New Britain, Connecticut, Wolfsonian-FIU Museum.JPG
Early 20th century electric toaster

While many appliances have existed for centuries, the self-contained electric or gas powered appliances are a uniquely American innovation that emerged in the twentieth century. The development of these appliances is tied to the disappearance of full-time domestic servants and the desire to reduce the time-consuming activities in pursuit of more recreational time. In the early 1900s, electric and gas appliances included washing machines, water heaters, refrigerators, kettles and sewing machines. The invention of Earl Richardson's small electric clothes iron in 1903 gave a small initial boost to the home appliance industry. In the Post–World War II economic expansion, the domestic use of dishwashers, and clothes dryers were part of a shift for convenience. Increasing discretionary income was reflected by a rise in miscellaneous home appliances. [7] [8]

Washing machine Wash clothes automatically

A washing machine is a home appliance used to wash laundry. The term is mostly applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning or ultrasonic cleaners. The user adds laundry detergent which is sold in liquid or powder form to the wash water.

Kettle appliance for boiling water

A kettle, sometimes called a tea kettle or teakettle, is a type of pot, specialized for boiling water, with a lid, spout, and handle, or a small kitchen appliance of similar shape that functions in a self-contained manner. Kettles can be heated either by placing on a stove, or by their own internal electric heating element in the appliance versions.

Sewing machine machine used to stitch fabric

A sewing machine is a machine used to sew fabric and other materials together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. Since the invention of the first working sewing machine, generally considered to have been the work of Englishman Thomas Saint in 1790, the sewing machine has greatly improved the efficiency and productivity of the clothing industry.

In America during the 1980s, the industry shipped $1.5 billion worth of goods each year and employed over 14,000 workers, with revenues doubling between 1982 and 1990 to $3.3 billion. Throughout this period companies merged and acquired one another to reduce research and production costs and eliminate competitors, resulting in anti-trust legislation.

The United States Department of Energy reviews compliance with the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987, which required manufacturers to reduce the energy consumption of the appliances by 25% every five years. [7]

In the 1990s, the appliance industry was very consolidated, with over 90% of the products being sold by just five companies. For example, in 1991, dishwasher manufacturing market share was split between General Electric with 40% market share, Whirlpool with 31% market share, Electrolux with 20% market share, Maytag with 7% market share and Thermador with just 2% of market share. [7]

Major appliances

Swedish washing machine, 1950s Wascator.jpg
Swedish washing machine, 1950s

Major appliances, also known as white goods, comprise major household appliances and may include: air conditioners, [9] dishwashers, [9] clothes dryers, drying cabinets, freezers, refrigerators, [9] kitchen stoves, water heaters, [9] washing machines, [9] trash compactors, microwave ovens, and induction cookers. White goods were typically painted or enameled white, and many of them still are. [10]

Small appliances

Small appliances are typically small household electrical machines, also very useful and easily carried and installed. Yet another category is used in the kitchen, including: juicers, electric mixers, [11] [11] meat grinders, coffee grinders, deep fryers, [11] herb grinders, food processors, [11] [12] electric kettles, waffle irons, coffee makers, blenders [12] and dough blenders, rice cookers, [6] toasters and exhaust hoods.

Entertainment and information appliances such as: home electronics, [9] radio receivers, TV sets, [6] CD, VCRs and DVD players, [6] digital cameras, camcorders, still cameras, clocks, alarm clocks, computers, video game consoles, HiFi and home cinema, telephones and answering machines are classified as "brown goods". Some such appliances were traditionally finished with genuine or imitation wood, hence the name. This has become rare but the name has stuck, even for goods that are unlikely ever to have had a wooden case (e.g. camcorders).

Life spans

See Life spans of home appliances

Networking of home appliances

There is a trend of networking home appliances together, and combining their controls and key functions. [13] For instance, energy distribution could be managed more evenly so that when a washing machine is on, an oven can go into a delayed start mode, or vice versa. Or, a washing machine and clothes dryer could share information about load characteristics (gentle/normal, light/full), and synchronize their finish times so the wet laundry does not have to wait before being put in the dryer.

Additionally, some manufacturers of home appliances are quickly beginning to place hardware that enables Internet connectivity in home appliances to allow for remote control, automation, communication with other home appliances, and more functionality enabling connected cooking. [13] [14] [15] [16] Internet-connected home appliances were especially prevalent during recent Consumer Electronic Show events. [17]

Recycling

New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: mounds of trashed appliances with a few smashed automobiles mixed in, waiting to be scrapped Low9AppliancePiles2 (1).jpg
New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: mounds of trashed appliances with a few smashed automobiles mixed in, waiting to be scrapped

Appliance recycling consists of dismantling waste home appliances and scrapping their parts for reuse. The main types of appliances that are recycled are T.V.s, refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, and computers. It involves disassembly, removal of hazardous components and destruction of the equipment to recover materials, generally by shredding, sorting and grading. [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

Homemaking act of overseeing the organizational, financial, day-to-day operations of a house or estate

Homemaking is a mainly American term for the management of a home, otherwise known as housework, housekeeping, or household management. It is the act of overseeing the organizational, day-to-day operations of a house or estate, and the managing of other domestic concerns. A person in charge of the homemaking, who is not employed outside the home, is in the United States is called a homemaker, a term for a housewife or a househusband. The term "homemaker", however, may also refer to a social worker who manages a household during the incapacity of the housewife or househusband.

Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. There are many aspects of domestic technology. On one level, there are home appliances, home automation and other devices commonly used in the home, such as clothes dryers and washing machines. These things are itemized below. On another level, domestic technology recognizes the use of applied science to construct homes to achieve a particular goal, such as energy efficiency or self-sufficiency. For more information, read about self-sufficient homes. It has been claimed that domestic technology has led to decreases in the time people spend on household work, although the factual basis of this claim is disputed . There are many technologies now routinely used around modern homes, itemized below.

Haier Chinese multinational consumer electronics and home appliances company

Haier Group Corporation is a Chinese collective multinational consumer electronics and home appliances company headquartered in Qingdao, Shandong province, China. It designs, develops, manufactures and sells products including air conditioners, mobile phones, computers, microwave ovens, washing machines, refrigerators, and televisions.

Maytag American home and commercial appliance brand owned by Whirlpool Corporation

The Maytag Corporation is an American home and commercial appliance brand owned by Whirlpool Corporation after the April 2006 acquisition of Maytag.

Miele German manufacturer of high-end domestic appliances and commercial equipment

Miele is a German manufacturer of high-end domestic appliances and commercial equipment, headquartered in Gütersloh, Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Germany. The company was founded in 1899 by Carl Miele and Reinhard Zinkann, and has always been a family owned and run company.

The Hotpoint Electric Heating Company is an American and European brand of domestic appliances. Ownership of the brand is split between the American company Whirlpool, which has European rights, and Chinese company Haier, which has North American rights since its purchase of GE Appliances.

Arçelik A.Ş. is a household appliances manufacturer from Turkey. The Company engages in the production and marketing of durable goods, components, consumer electronics and after-sale services. Its products include white goods, electronic products, small home appliances and kitchen accessories, such as refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers, aspirators, vacuum cleaners, coffee makers and blenders.

Fisher & Paykel major appliance manufacturing company

Fisher & Paykel is a major appliance manufacturing company based in East Tamaki, New Zealand.

Smeg (appliances)

Smeg is an Italian manufacturer of upmarket domestic appliances. Vittorio Bertazzoni founded the company in 1948 in the town of Guastalla, Reggio Emilia, Italy. The name is an acronym for Smalterie Metallurgiche Emiliane Guastalla.

Asko Cylinda Swedish appliance manufacturer

Asko Appliances AB is a Swedish company producing household appliances such as refrigerators, dishwashers and washing machines. It is based in Jung in Vara Municipality in Västergötland. The products continue to be sold in Sweden under the brand Cylinda, and are exported under the name Asko. In North America Asko only imports dishwashers and laundry appliances. Asko is upscale and competes against Bosch, Miele, SMEG, Viking Range, Fulgor and Kitchen Aid.

Candy is a European domestic appliance company originally based in Brugherio, near Milan. It is a subsidiary of Haier..

Orion Electronics Ltd is a consumer electronics company headquartered in Budapest, Hungary. Orion supplies a wide range of brown and white goods including televisions, DVD players/recorders/with HDD, home theatre systems, Navigation Systems, Portable DVD Players, active speaker systems, computer monitors, MP3/MP4 players, washing machines, dishwashers, cooking ranges, microwave ovens and the full range of small domestic appliances. The company is owned and managed by the Thakral Corporation of Singapore.

Household goods are goods and products used within households. They are the tangible and movable personal property placed in the living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, family rooms, great rooms, bedrooms, bathrooms, recreation rooms, hallways, attics, and basements and other rooms of a house.

Thor washing machine

The Thor washing machine was the first electric clothes washer sold commercially in the United States. Produced by the Chicago-based Hurley Electric Laundry Equipment Company, the 1907 Thor is believed to be the first electrically powered washer ever manufactured, crediting Hurley as the inventor of the first automatic washing machine. Designed by Hurley engineer Alva J. Fisher, a patent for the new electric Thor was issued on August 9, 1910, three years after its initial invention.

Defy Appliances South African white goods manufacturing company

Defy Appliances is a South African white goods manufacturing company and is the largest manufacturer and distributor of major domestic appliances in southern Africa. The company manufactures and develops a range of large appliances from gas stoves, refrigerators, washing machines and tumble dryers to continuous clean ovens and convection ovens.

Bauknecht, formally Bauknecht Hausgeräte GmbH, was one of Germany's leading manufacturers of household appliances, and since 1989 has been a brand of Whirlpool Corporation. The headquarters of the company was formerly in Schorndorf in Baden-Württemberg until 2006 when it relocated to Stuttgart. Whirlpool has closed its three plants in Calw, Neunkirchen (dishwashers) and Schorndorf. Since 2012 all Bauknecht branded products have been manufactured outside Germany.

References

  1. "appliance (definition)". Merriam-Webster . Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  2. "white goods". Collins English Dictionary . Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  3. "brown goods". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  4. "Appliance". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  5. "Definition of household appliances". Collins Dictionary. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Bulletin, Manila (9 November 2014). "Tips to ensure safety of home appliances". Manila Bulletin . Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  7. 1 2 3 Encyclopedia of American Industries Volume 1. Gale Research. 1994.
  8. William George (2003). Antique Electric Waffle Irons 1900-1960: A History of the Appliance Industry in 20th Century America. Trafford Publishing. p. 1. ISBN   978-1-55395-632-7.[ self-published source ]
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Efficient Appliances Save Energy -- and Money". Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  10. "White Goods". www.icfdc.com. Data monitor, Static.scrib. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Jubis, Vanessa (23 December 2012). "Unclutter Your Life: Clearing the Kitchen Counter of Unnecessary Small Appliances". Huffington Post . Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  12. 1 2 "Best Small Appliances - Small Appliance Reviews". Consumer Reports . 29 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  13. 1 2 Michelle, Bangert (1 September 2014). "Getting Smarter All the Time: The Appliance Landscape Continues to Evolve with the Rise of Internet-Connected Devices". Appliance Design. BNP Media. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015 via HighBeam.
  14. Essers, Loek. "Home appliance makers connect with open source 'Internet of things' project". Computerworld . Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  15. Baguley, Richard; McDonald, Colin. "Appliance Science: The Internet of Toasters (and other things)". CNET . Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  16. Hitchcox, Alan (February 2015). "The Internet of uncertainty". Hydraulics & Pneumatics. 68 (2): 8.
  17. "Appliances of the Future Will Be Able to 'Talk' over Internet". The Mercury . 15 January 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015 via HighBeam.
  18. Buekens, A.; Yang, J. (2014). "Recycling of WEEE plastics: A review". The Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 16 (3): 415–434. doi:10.1007/s10163-014-0241-2.

Further reading