Germans

Last updated

Germans
German: Deutsche
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 72,650,269 [lower-alpha 1]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 534,000 [lower-alpha 2]
c. 40,000,000 [3]
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 357,000 [lower-alpha 3]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 310,000 [lower-alpha 4]
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 233,000 [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 211,000 [lower-alpha 6]
Flag of France.svg  France 203,000 [lower-alpha 7]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 201,000 [lower-alpha 8]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 157,000 [lower-alpha 9]
c. 3,322,405 [4]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 142,000 [lower-alpha 10]
c. 840,000 [5]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 125,000 [lower-alpha 11]
982,226 [6]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 101,000 [lower-alpha 12]
c. 700,000 [5]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 36,000 [lower-alpha 13]
c. 250,000 [5]
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 25,000 [lower-alpha 14]
c. 200,000 [lower-alpha 15]
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 21,000 [lower-alpha 16]
c. 3,000,000 [8]
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 17,000 [lower-alpha 17]
c. 75,000 [8]
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 9,000 [lower-alpha 18]
c. 500,000 [8]
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 7,000 [lower-alpha 19]
c. 90,000 [lower-alpha 20]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan c. 900,000 [5]
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 8,537 [10] [11]

Germans (German : Deutsche, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃə] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) are the natives or inhabitants of Germany, and sometimes more broadly any people who are of German descent or native speakers of the German language. [12] [13] The constitution of Germany defines a German as a German citizen. [14] During the 19th and much of the 20th century, discussions on German identity were dominated by concepts of a common language, culture, descent and history. [15] Today, the German language is widely seen as the primary though not exclusive criterion of German identity. [16] Estimates on the total number of Germans in the world range from 100 to 150 million, and most of them live in Germany. [17]

Contents

The history of Germans as an ethnic group began with the separation of a distinct Kingdom of Germany from the eastern part of the Frankish Empire under the Ottonian dynasty in the 10th century, forming the core of the Holy Roman Empire. In subsequent centuries the political power and population of this empire grew considerably. It expanded eastwards, and eventually a substantial number of Germans migrated further eastwards into Eastern Europe. The empire itself was politically divided between many small princedoms, cities and bishoprics. Following the Reformation in the 16th century, many of these states found themselves in bitter conflict concerning the rise of protestantism. The 19th century saw the dismemberment of the Holy Roman Empire and the growth of German nationalism. The kingdom of Prussia incorporated most of the Germans into its German Empire in 1871, while a substantial number of Germans also inhabited the multiethnic kingdom of Austria-Hungary. During this time a large number of Germans emigrated to the New World, particularly to the United States, Canada and Brazil, as well as establishing prominent communities in New Zealand and Australia. The Russian Empire also contained a substantial German population.

In the aftermath of World War I, Austria-Hungary and the German Empire were partitioned, resulting in many Germans becoming ethnic minorities in newly established countries. In the chaotic years that followed, Adolf Hitler became the dictator of Nazi Germany and embarked on a genocidal campaign to unify all Germans under his leadership. This endeavour resulted in World War II and the Holocaust. In the aftermath of Germany's defeat in the war, the country was occupied and partitioned. Millions of Germans were expelled from Eastern Europe. In 1990, the states of West and East Germany were reunified. In modern times, remembrance of the Holocaust has become an integral part of German identity ( Erinnerungskultur ).

Owing to their long history of political fragmentation, the Germans are culturally diverse and often have strong regional identities. The arts and sciences are an integral part of German culture, and the Germans have produced a large number of prominent personalities in a number of disciplines.

Names

The German endonym Deutsche is derived from the High German term diutisc , which means "ethnic" or "relating to the people". This name was used for Germanic peoples in Central Europe since the 8th century, during which a distinct German ethnic identity began to emerge among them. [18]

The English term Germans is derived from the ethnonym Germani , which was used for Germanic peoples in ancient times. [18] [19] Since the early modern period, it has been the most common name for the Germans in English. The term "Germans" may also be applied to any citizen, native or inhabitant of Germany, a person of German descent, [13] [12] or member of the Germanic peoples, [12] [20] [21] [22] [23] regardless of whether they are of German ethnicity.

History

Expansion of early Germanic tribes into previously mostly Celtic Central Europe:
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Settlements before 750 BC
New settlements by 500 BC
New settlements by 250 BC
New settlements by AD 1 Germanic tribes (750BC-1AD).png
Expansion of early Germanic tribes into previously mostly Celtic Central Europe:
   Settlements before 750 BC
   New settlements by 500 BC
   New settlements by 250 BC
   New settlements by AD 1

Ancient history

The German ethnicity emerged among Germanic peoples of Central Europe, particularly the Franks, Frisians, Saxons, Thuringii, Alemanni and Baiuvarii. [25] Germanic culture originated in parts of what is now Northern Germany, and has been associated with the Nordic Bronze Age and the Jastorf culture, which flourished in Northern Germany and Scandinavia during the Bronze Age and early Iron Age. [25] [ failed verification ] The Germanic peoples have inhabited Central Europe since at least the Iron Age. [18]

From their northern homeland, the Germanic peoples expanded southwards in a series of great migrations. [26] Much of Central Europe was at that time inhabited by Celts, who are associated with the La Tène culture. [25] Since at least the 2nd century BC the Germanic peoples began displacing Celts. [27] It is likely that many of these Celts were Germanized by migrating Germanic peoples. [25]

Germanic Kingdoms in Europe and Africa c. 476 AD Europe and the Near East at 476 AD.png
Germanic Kingdoms in Europe and Africa c. 476 AD

The first information about the Germanic peoples is provided by the Roman general Julius Caesar, who campaigned in Germania in the 1st century BC. Under Caesar's successor Augustus, the Romans sought to conquer the Germanic peoples and colonize Germania, but these efforts were significantly hampered by the victory of Arminius at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD, which is considered a defining moment in German history. [25] The early Germanic peoples are famously described in Germania by the 1st century Roman historian Tacitus. At this time, the Germanic peoples were fragmented into a large number of tribes who were frequently in conflict with both the Roman Empire and one another. [28] They are believed to have dominated an area stretching from the Rhine in the west to the Vistula in the east, and the Danube in the south to Scandinavia in the north. By the 3rd century, Germanic peoples were beginning to form into great coalitions, and had begun conquering and settling areas within the Roman Empire. During the 4th and 5th centuries, in what is known as the Migration Period, Germanic peoples seized control of the decaying Roman Empire and established new kingdoms within it. Meanwhile, formerly Germanic areas in parts of Eastern Europe were settled by Slavs. [27]

Medieval history

Extent of Holy Roman Empire in 972 (red line) and 1035 (red dots) with Kingdom of Germany marked in blue HRR 10Jh.jpg
Extent of Holy Roman Empire in 972 (red line) and 1035 (red dots) with Kingdom of Germany marked in blue

The beginnings of the German states can be traced back to the Frankish king Clovis I, who established the kingdom of Francia in the 5th century. In subsequent centuries the power of the Franks grew considerably. [27] By the 8th century AD, the West Germanic speaking populations of continental Europe were known as diutisc , meaning "ethnic" or "relating to the people". The endonym of the Germans is derived from this word. [18]

By the early 9th century AD, large parts of Europe had been united under the rule of the Frankish leader Charlemagne, who expanded the Frankish empire in several directions including east of the Rhine, where he conquered Saxons and Frisians, thus establishing the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo I in 800. [27] During the rule of Charlemagne's successors, this realm descended into civil war. The empire was partitioned at the Treaty of Verdun (843), resulting in the eventual separation between the states of West Francia, Middle Francia and East Francia. Beginning with Henry the Fowler, Saxon dynasties dominated the German lands, and under his son Otto I, Middle Francia and East Francia, which were mostly German, became part of the Kingdom of Germany, which constituted the core of the Holy Roman Empire. [29] Leaders of the "Stem duchies" which constituted it — Bavaria, Franconia, Swabia, and Saxony continued to wield considerable power independent of the king. [27] German kings were elected by members of the noble families, who often sought to have weak kings elected in order to preserve their own independence. This prevented an early unification of the Germans. [30] [31]

A warrior nobility dominated the feudal German society of the Middle Ages, while most of the German population consisted of peasants with few political rights. [27] The church played an important role among Germans in the Middle Ages, and competed with the nobility for power. [32] Between the 11th and 13th centuries, Germans actively participated in five Crusades to "liberate" the Holy Land. [32]

During the Middle Ages, German political power was imposed on Slavic populations in the east. This process was accompanied by the migration of Germans into conquered territories, in what is known as the Ostsiedlung. Over time, some Slavic populations were assimilated by Germans, resulting in many Germans acquiring substantial Slavic ancestry. [29] From the 11th century, the German lands came under the domination of the Swabian Hohenstaufen family. The German population expanded significantly during this time. [31] Trade increased and there was a specialization of the arts and crafts. [32] From the 12th century, many Germans settled as merchants and craftsmen in the Kingdom of Poland, were they came to constitute a significant proportion of the population in many urban centers such as Gdańsk. [29]

The Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648 Holy Roman Empire 1648.svg
The Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648

The late 13th century saw the election of Rudolf I of the House of Habsburg to the German throne, and the Habsburg family would continue to play an important role in German history for centuries afterwards. They competed for power in the German lands with several noble families, most notably the Limburg-Luxemburg dynasty and the House of Wittelsbach. During the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights began conquering the Old Prussians, and established what would eventually become the powerful German state of Prussia. [31]

The German territories continued to grow in the late Middle Ages. Great urban centers increased in size and wealth and formed powerful leagues, such as the Hanseatic League and the Swabian League, in order to protect their interests, often through supporting the German kings in their struggles with the nobility. [31] These urban leagues significantly contributed to the development of German commerce and banking. German merchants of Hanseatic cities settled in cities throughout Northern Europe beyond the German lands. [33]

Modern history

Boundaries of the German Confederation in red, Prussia in blue, Austria in yellow, and other member states in grey. Note that large parts of Austria and some parts of Prussia did not belong to the Confederation. Map-GermanConfederation.svg
Boundaries of the German Confederation in red, Prussia in blue, Austria in yellow, and other member states in grey. Note that large parts of Austria and some parts of Prussia did not belong to the Confederation.

The introduction of printing by the German inventor Johannes Gutenberg contributed to the formation of a new understanding of faith and reason. At this time, the German monk Martin Luther pushed for reforms within the Catholic Church. Luther's efforts culminated in the Protestant Reformation. [32] The resulting religious schism was a leading cause of the Thirty Years' War, a conflict that tore apart the Holy Roman Empire and led to the death of millions of Germans. The terms of the Peace of Westphalia (1648) ending the war, included a major reduction in the central authority of the Holy Roman Emperor. [34] Among the most powerful German states to emerge in the aftermath was Protestant Prussia, under the rule of the House of Hohenzollern. [35]

In the 18th century, German culture was significantly influenced by the Enlightenment. [34]

After centuries of political fragmentation, a sense of German unity began to emerge in the 18th century. [18] The Holy Roman Empire continued to decline until being dissolved altogether by Napoleon in 1806. In central Europe, the Napoleonic wars ushered in great social, political and economic changes, and catalyzed a national awakening among the Germans. By the late 18th century, German intellectuals such as Johann Gottfried Herder articulated the concept of a German identity rooted in language, and this notion helped spark the German nationalist movement, which sought to unify the Germans into a single nation state. [30] Eventually, shared ancestry, culture and language (though not religion) came to define German nationalism. [28] The Napoleonic Wars ended with the Congress of Vienna (1815), and left most of the German states loosely united under the German Confederation. The confederation came to be dominated by the Catholic Austrian Empire, to the dismay of many German nationalists, who saw the German Confederation as an inadequate answer to the German Question. [35]

Victims of the Holocaust in a mass grave at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Mass Grave at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp - Fritz Klein - IWM BU4260.jpg
Victims of the Holocaust in a mass grave at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.

Throughout the 19th century, Prussia continued to grow in power. [36] In 1848, German revolutionaries set up the temporary Frankfurt Parliament, but failed in their aim of forming a united German homeland. The Prussians proposed an Erfurt Union of the German states, but this effort was torpedoed by the Austrians through the Punctation of Olmütz (1850), recreating the German Confederation. In response, Prussia sought to use the Zollverein customs union to increase its power among the German states. [35] Under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, Prussia expanded its sphere of influence and together with its German allies defeated Denmark in the Second Schleswig War and soon after Austria in the Austro-Prussian War, subsequently establishing the North German Confederation. In 1871, the Prussian coalition decisively defeated the Second French Empire in the Franco-Prussian War, annexing the German speaking region of Alsace-Lorraine. After taking Paris, Prussia and their allies proclaimed the formation of a united German Empire. [30]

In the years following unification, German society was radically changed by numerous processes, including industrialization, rationalization, secularization and the rise of capitalism. [36] German power increased considerably and numerous overseas colonies were established. [37] During this time, the German population grew considerably, and many emigrated to other countries (mainly North America), contributing to the growth of the German diaspora. Competition for colonies between the Great Powers contributed to the outbreak of World War I, in which the German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires formed the Central Powers, an alliance that was ultimately defeated, with none of the empires comprising it surviving the aftermath of the war. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires were both dissolved and partitioned, resulting in millions of Germans becoming ethnic minorities in other countries. [38] The monarchical rulers of the German states, including the German emperor Wilhelm II, were overthrown in the November Revolution which led to the establishment of the Weimar Republic. The Germans of the Austrian side of the Dual Monarchy proclaimed the Republic of German-Austria, and sought to be incorporated into the German state, but this was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles and Treaty of Saint-Germain. [37]

Germans expelled from Poland in 1948. Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2003-0703-500, Ruckfuhrung deutscher Kinder aus Polen.jpg
Germans expelled from Poland in 1948.

What many Germans saw as the "humiliation of Versailles", [39] continuing traditions of authoritarian and antisemitic ideologies, [36] and the Great Depression all contributed to the rise of Austrian-born Adolf Hitler and the Nazis, who after coming to power democratically in the early 1930s, abolished the Weimar Republic and formed the totalitarian Third Reich. In his quest to subjugate Europe, six million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust. WWII resulted in widespread destruction and the deaths of tens of millions of soldiers and civilians, while the German state was partitioned. About 12 million Germans had to flee or were expelled from Eastern Europe. [40] Significant damage was also done to the German reputation and identity, [38] which became far less nationalistic than it previously was. [39]

The German states of West Germany and East Germany became focal points of the Cold War, but were reunified in 1990. Although there were fears that the reunified Germany might resume nationalist politics, the country is today widely regarded as a "stablizing actor in the heart of Europe" and a "promoter of democratic integration". [39]

Language

German is the native language of most Germans. It is the key marker of German ethnic identity. [18] [28] German is a West Germanic language closely related to Frisian, English and Dutch. [18] The main dialects of German are High German and Low German. Standard literary German is based on High German, and is the first or second language of most Germans, but notably not the Volga Germans. [26]

Culture

Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin, Germany. Remembering the Holocaust is an essential part of modern German culture. Holocaust Memorial Berlin.JPG
Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin, Germany. Remembering the Holocaust is an essential part of modern German culture.

The Germans are marked by great regional diversity, which makes identifying a single German culture quite difficult. [41] The arts and sciences have for centuries been an important part of German identity. [42] The Age of Enlightenment and the Romantic era saw a notable flourishing of German culture. Germans of this period who contributed significantly to the arts and sciences include the writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Johann Gottfried Herder, Friedrich Hölderlin, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Heinrich Heine, Novalis and the Brothers Grimm, the philosopher Immanuel Kant, the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, the painter Caspar David Friedrich, and the composers Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Johannes Brahms, Franz Schubert, Richard Strauss and Richard Wagner. [41]

Popular German dishes include brown bread and stew. Germans consume a high amount alcohol, particularly beer, compared to other European peoples. Obesity is relatively widespread among Germans. [41]

Carnival is an important part of German culture, particularly in Southern Germany. An important German festival is the Oktoberfest. [41]

A steadily shrinking majority of Germans are Christians. About a third are Roman Catholics, while one third adheres to Protestantism. Another third does not profess any religion. [28] Christian holidays such as Christmas and Easter are celebrated by many Germans. [43] The number of Muslims is growing. [43] There is also a notable Jewish community, which was decimated in the Holocaust. [44] Remembering the Holocaust is an important part of German culture. [36]

Geographic distribution

The German language in Europe:
German Sprachraum: German is the official language (de jure or de facto) and first language of most of the population
German is a co-official language but not the first language of most of the population
German (or a German dialect) is a legally recognized minority language (squares: geographic distribution too dispersed/small for map scale)
German (or a variety of German) is spoken by a sizeable minority but has no legal recognition Legal statuses of German in Europe.svg
The German language in Europe:
  German Sprachraum : German is the official language (de jure or de facto) and first language of most of the population
  German is a co-official language but not the first language of most of the population
  German (or a German dialect) is a legally recognized minority language (squares: geographic distribution too dispersed/small for map scale)
  German (or a variety of German) is spoken by a sizeable minority but has no legal recognition

It is estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million Germans today, most of whom live in Germany, where they constitute the majority of the population. [45] There are also sizable populations of Germans in Austria, Switzerland, the United States, Brazil, France, Kazakhstan, Russia, Argentina, Canada, Poland, Italy, Hungary, Australia, South Africa, Chile, Paraguay, and Namibia. [5] [8] German-speaking peoples such as the Austrians and the German-speaking Swiss are sometimes referred to by scholars as Germans,[ citation needed ] although most of them do not identify as such these days. [46]

Identity

A German ethnic identity began to emerge during the Early Medieval Period. [47] These peoples came to be referred to by the High German term diutisc, which means "ethnic" or "relating to the people". The German endonym Deutsche is derived from this word. [18] In subsequent centuries, the German lands were relatively decentralized, leading to the maintenance of a number of strong regional identities. [30] [31]

The German nationalist movement emerged among German intellectuals in the late 18th century. They saw the Germans as a people united by language and advocated the unification of all Germans into a single nation state, which was partially achieved in 1871. By the late 19th and early 20th century, German identity came to be defined by a shared descent, culture, and history. [15] Völkisch elements identified Germanness with "a shared Christian heritage" and "biological essence", to the exclusion of the notable Jewish minority. [48] After the Holocaust and the downfall of Nazism, "any confident sense of Germanness had become suspect, if not impossible". [49] East Germany and West Germany both sought to build up an identity on historical or ideological lines, distancing themselves both from the Nazi past and each other. [49] After German reunification in 1990, the political discourse was characterized by the idea of a "shared, ethnoculturally defined Germanness", and the general climate became increasingly xenophobic during the 1990s. [49] Today, discussion on Germanness may stress various aspects, such as commitment to pluralism and the German constitution (constitutional patriotism), [50] or the notion of a Kulturnation (nation sharing a common culture). [51] The German language remains the primary criterion of modern German identity. [15]

See also

Notes

  1. Citizens of Germany living there on 30 November 2020 according to official census data [1]
  2. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  3. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  4. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  5. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  6. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  7. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  8. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  9. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  10. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  11. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  12. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  13. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  14. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  15. People living in New Zealand having German ancestry [7]
  16. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  17. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  18. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  19. Citizens of Germany living there [2]
  20. About 15,000 citizens of Germany plus 75,000 people of German descent [9]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Germanic peoples</span> Historical group of European people

The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th century, they have traditionally been defined by the use of ancient and early medieval Germanic languages and are thus equated at least approximately with Germanic-speaking peoples, although different academic disciplines have their own definitions of what makes someone or something "Germanic". The Romans named the area belonging to North-Central Europe in which Germanic peoples lived Germania, stretching East to West between the Vistula and Rhine rivers and north to south from Southern Scandinavia to the upper Danube. In discussions of the Roman period, the Germanic peoples are sometimes referred to as Germani or ancient Germans, although many scholars consider the second term problematic, since it suggests identity with present-day Germans. The very concept of "Germanic peoples" has become the subject of controversy among contemporary scholars. Some scholars call for its total abandonment as a modern construct since lumping "Germanic peoples" together implies a common group identity for which there is little evidence. Other scholars have defended the term's continued use and argue that a common Germanic language allows one to speak of "Germanic peoples", regardless of whether these ancient protagonists saw themselves as having a common identity.

Pan-Germanism, also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea. Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify all the German-speaking people – and possibly also Germanic-speaking peoples – in a single nation-state known as the Greater Germanic Reich, fully styled the Greater Germanic Reich of the German Nation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Slavs</span> European ethno-linguistic group

Slavs are the largest European ethnolinguistic group. They speak the various Slavic languages, belonging to the larger Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. Slavs are geographically distributed throughout northern Eurasia, mainly inhabiting Central and Eastern Europe, and the Balkans to the west; and Siberia to the east. A large Slavic minority is also scattered across the Baltic states and Central Asia, while a substantial Slavic diaspora is found throughout the Americas, as a result of immigration.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">German diaspora</span> Group of ethnic germans

The German diaspora consists of German people and their descendants who live outside of Germany. The term is used in particular to refer to the aspects of migration of German speakers from central Europe to different countries around the world. This definition describes the "German" term as a sociolinguistic group as opposed to the national one since the emigrant groups came from different regions with diverse cultural practices and different varieties of German. For instance, the Alsatians and Hessians were simply called Germans once they set foot in their new homelands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Migration Period</span> Period from the fourth to the sixth centuries

The migration period was a period in European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes. The term refers to the important role played by the migration, invasion and settlement of various tribes, notably the Franks, Goths, Alemanni, Alans, Huns, the early Slavs, Pannonian Avars, Magyars, and Bulgars within or into the former Western Empire and Eastern Europe. The period is traditionally taken to have begun in AD 375 and ended in 568. Various factors contributed to this phenomenon of migration and invasion, and their role and significance are still widely discussed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Austrians</span> People of Austria

Austrians are the citizens and nationals of Austria. The English term Austrians was applied to the population of Habsburg Austria from the 17th or 18th century. Subsequently, during the 19th century, it referred to the citizens of the Empire of Austria (1804–1867), and from 1867 until 1918 to the citizens of Cisleithania. In the closest sense, the term Austria originally referred to the historical March of Austria, corresponding roughly to the Vienna Basin in what is today Lower Austria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romanians</span> Ethnic group native to Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe

The Romanians are a Romance-speaking ethnic group. Sharing a common Romanian culture and ancestry, and speaking the Romanian language, they live primarily in Romania and Moldova. The 2011 Romanian census found that just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Danes</span> Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark

Danes are a North Germanic ethnic group and nationality native to Denmark and a modern nation identified with the country of Denmark. This connection may be ancestral, legal, historical, or cultural.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bavarians</span> Ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region

Bavarians are an ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany. The group's dialect or speech is known as the Bavarian language, native to Altbayern, roughly the territory of the Electorate of Bavaria in the 17th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">French people</span> Nation and ethnic group native to France

The French people are an ethnic group and nation primarily located in Western Europe that share a common French culture, history, and language, identified with the country of France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spaniards</span> Ethnic group

Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group native to Spain. Within Spain, there are a number of national and regional ethnic identities that reflect the country's complex history, including a number of different languages, both indigenous and local linguistic descendants of the Roman-imposed Latin language, of which Spanish is the largest and the only one that is official throughout the whole country.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dutch people</span> Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands

The Dutch are a Germanic ethnic group and nation native to the Netherlands. They share a common ancestry and culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Aruba, Suriname, Guyana, Curaçao, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand and the United States. The Low Countries were situated around the border of France and the Holy Roman Empire, forming a part of their respective peripheries and the various territories of which they consisted had become virtually autonomous by the 13th century. Under the Habsburgs, the Netherlands were organised into a single administrative unit, and in the 16th and 17th centuries the Northern Netherlands gained independence from Spain as the Dutch Republic. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a relatively early date. During the Republic the first series of large-scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Luxembourgers</span> Germanic ethnic group

Luxembourgers are a Germanic ethnic group and nation native to their nation state of Luxembourg, where they make up around half of the population. They share the culture of Luxembourg and speak Luxembourgish.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Swiss people</span> Citizens of Switzerland, people of Swiss ancestry

The Swiss people are the citizens of Switzerland or people of Swiss ancestry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Walter Pohl</span> Austrian historian

Walter Pohl is an Austrian historian who is Professor of Auxiliary Sciences of History and Medieval History at the University of Vienna. He is a leading member of the Vienna School of History

Europeans are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the states of Europe. Groups may be defined by common genetic ancestry, common language, or both. Pan and Pfeil (2004) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. The Russians are the most populous among Europeans, with a population over 135 million. There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms "ethnic group" and "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people, nationality and ethno-linguistic group, are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe.

The English people are an ethnic group and nation native to England, who speak the English language, a West Germanic language, and share a common history and culture. The English identity is of Anglo-Saxon origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn. Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Germanic-speaking world</span> Geolinguistic region

The Germanic-speaking world is the part of the world where Germanic languages are either official, co-official, or significantly used, comprising Germanic-speaking Europe as well as parts of North America, Germanic-speaking Africa, Oceania and Germanic-speaking Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Swedes</span> Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden

Swedes are a North Germanic ethnic group native to the Nordic region, primarily their nation state of Sweden, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and language. They mostly inhabit Sweden and the other Nordic countries, in particular Finland where they are an officially recognized minority, with a substantial diaspora in other countries, especially the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Roman people</span> Historical national/ethnic group

The Romans were a cultural group, variously referred to as an ethnicity or a nationality, that in classical antiquity, from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD, came to rule large parts of Europe, the Near East and North Africa through conquests made during the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire. Originally only referring to the Italic Latin citizens of Rome itself, the meaning of "Roman" underwent considerable changes throughout the long history of Roman civilisation as the borders of the Roman state expanded and contracted. At times, different groups within Roman society also had different ideas as to what it meant to be Roman. Aspects such as geography, language, and ethnicity could be seen as important by some, whereas others saw Roman citizenship and culture or behaviour as more important. At the height of the Roman Empire, Roman identity was a collective geopolitical identity, extended to nearly all subjects of the Roman emperors and encompassing vast regional and ethnic diversity.

References

  1. "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht 2020" (in German). Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination". Migration Policy Institute . 10 February 2014.
  3. "U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". data.census.gov. Archived from the original on 25 April 2021. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  4. Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (17 June 2019). "Ethnic Origin (279), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age (12) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Haarmann 2015 , p. 313. "Of the 100 million German speakers worldwide, about three quarters (76 million) live in Germany, where they account for 92 percent of the population. Populations of Germans live elsewhere in Central and Western Europe, with the largest communities in Austria (7.6 million), Switzerland (4.2 million), France (1.2 million), Kazakhstan (900,000), Russia (840,000), Poland (700,000), Italy (280,000), and Hungary (250,000). Some 1.6 million U.S. citizens speak German as their first language, the largest number of German speakers overseas."
  6. "Ancestry | Australia | Community profile". Archived from the original on 21 June 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  7. Bade, James N. (2015). "Germans". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021. In the early 2000s, about 200,000 New Zealanders were likely to have German heritage.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Moser 2011 , pp. 171–172. "The Germans live in Central Europe, mostly in Germany... The largest populations outside of these countries are found in the United States (5 million), Brazil (3 million), the former Soviet Union (2 million), Argentina (500,000), Canada (450,000), Spain (170,000), Australia (110,000), the United Kingdom (100,000), and South Africa (75,000). "
  9. Burchard, Gretha (April 2010). "The German Population in Mexico: Maintenance of German culture and integration into Mexican society" (PDF). p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 May 2021. Retrieved 12 June 2021. the German embassy in Mexico City reports an estimated number of 15.000 Germans and 75.000 people of German origin living in Mexico
  10. "SODB2021 - Obyvatelia - Základné výsledky". www.scitanie.sk. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  11. "SODB2021 - Obyvatelia - Základné výsledky". www.scitanie.sk. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  12. 1 2 3 "Definition of German by Merriam-Webster". Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  13. 1 2 "German". Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford University Press. 2010. p. 733. ISBN   978-0199571123. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  14. Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz (ed.). "Article 116". Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2021. Unless otherwise provided by a law, a German within the meaning of this Basic Law is a person who possesses German citizenship or who has been admitted to the territory of the German Reich within the boundaries of 31 December 1937 as a refugee or expellee of German ethnic origin or as the spouse or descendant of such person.
  15. 1 2 3 Moser 2011 , p. 172. "German identity developed through a long historical process that led, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to the definition of the German nation as both a community of descent (Volksgemeinschaft) and shared culture and experience. Today, the German language is the primary though not exclusive criterion of German identity."
  16. Haarmann 2015 , p. 313. "After centuries of political fragmentation, a sense of national unity as Germans began to evolve in the eighteenth century, and the German language became a key marker of national identity."
  17. Moser 2011 , p. 171. "The Germans live in Central Europe, mostly in Germany... Estimates of the total number of Germans in the world range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is defined, but it is probably more appropriate to accept the lower figure."
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Haarmann 2015, p. 313.
  19. Hoad, T. F. (2003). "German". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780192830982.001.0001. ISBN   9780192830982. Archived from the original on 24 September 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  20. "Germans". Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia . Columbia University Press. 2013. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  21. Drinkwater, John Frederick (2012). "Germans". In Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Eidinow, Esther (eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 613. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199545568.001.0001. ISBN   9780191735257. Archived from the original on 9 June 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  22. Todd, Malcolm (2004b). "Germans and Germanic Invasions". In Fagan, Brian M. (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology (1 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 250–251. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195076189.001.0001. ISBN   9780199891085. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  23. Wells, Peter S. (2010). "Germans". In Gagarin, Michael (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford University Press. ISBN   9780195388398. Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  24. Kinder, Hermann (1988), Penguin Atlas of World History, vol. I, London: Penguin, p. 108, ISBN   0-14-051054-0 .
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 Heather, Peter. "Germany: Ancient History". Encyclopædia Britannica Online . Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2020. Within the boundaries of present-day Germany... Germanic peoples such as the eastern Franks, Frisians, Saxons, Thuringians, Alemanni, and Bavarians—all speaking West Germanic dialects—had merged Germanic and borrowed Roman cultural features. It was among these groups that a German language and ethnic identity would gradually develop during the Middle Ages.
  26. 1 2 Minahan 2000, p. 288.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Minahan 2000, pp. 288–289.
  28. 1 2 3 4 Moser 2011, p. 172.
  29. 1 2 3 Haarmann 2015, pp. 313–314.
  30. 1 2 3 4 Haarmann 2015, p. 314.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 Minahan 2000, pp. 289–290.
  32. 1 2 3 4 Moser 2011, p. 173.
  33. Minahan 2000, p. 290.
  34. 1 2 Moser 2011, pp. 173–174.
  35. 1 2 3 Minahan 2000, pp. 290–291.
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 Moser 2011, p. 174.
  37. 1 2 Minahan 2000, pp. 291–292.
  38. 1 2 Haarmann 2015, pp. 314–315.
  39. 1 2 3 Haarmann 2015, p. 316.
  40. Troebst, Stefan (2012). "The Discourse on Forced Migration and European Culture of Remembrance". The Hungarian Historical Review. 1 (3/4): 397–414. JSTOR   42568610.
  41. 1 2 3 4 Moser 2011, pp. 176–177.
  42. Waldman & Mason 2005, pp. 334–335.
  43. 1 2 Moser 2011, p. 176.
  44. Minahan 2000, p. 174.
  45. Moser 2011, pp. 171–172.
  46. Austrians: "Österreicher fühlen sich heute als Nation". Der Standard . 12 March 2008. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  47. Haarmann 2015 , p. 313 "Germans are a Germanic (or Teutonic) people that are indigenous to Central Europe... Germanic tribes have inhabited Central Europe since at least Roman times, but it was not until the early Middle Ages that a distinct German ethnic identity began to emerge."
  48. Rock 2019, p. 32.
  49. 1 2 3 Rock 2019, p. 33.
  50. Rock 2019, pp. 33–34.
  51. Rock 2019, p. 34.

Bibliography

Further reading