Timeline of German history

Last updated

This is a timeline of German history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Germany and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Germany. See also the list of German monarchs and list of chancellors of Germany and the list of years in Germany.


Centuries: 1st  · 3rd  · 4th  · 5th  · 6th  · 7th  · 8th  · 9th  · 10th  · 11th  · 12th  · 13th  · 14th  · 15th  · 16th  · 17th  · 18th  · 19th  · 20th  · 21st


609,000 ± 40,000 BP The hominid to whom the Mauer 1 mandible (discovered in 1907 in Mauer) belonged, the type specimen of Homo heidelbergensis, dies. [1] :19727
~225,000 BPThe hominid to whom the Steinheim skull (discovered in 1933 in Steinheim an der Murr) belonged (previously sometimes dubbed Homo steinheimensis) dies. [2] :740
~130,000 BPThe Neanderthal (named after its initial site of discovery, the Neandertal valley) emerges in Europe. [3]
~45,000 BP Homo sapiens first appears in Europe (sometimes called EEMH or Cro-Magnon). [4] [5] [6]
35,000–45,000 BPThe Venus of Hohle Fels is made. [7]
>32,000 BPThe Löwenmensch figurine is made. [8]
~23,000 BPThe Venus of Willendorf is made. [9]
~11,500 BPThe Pleistocene (Last Glacial Period (LGP)) ends. [10] :1ff.
~10,000 B.C.The Ahrensburg culture prospers in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia. [11] :43
5,500–5,000 B.C.Sedentary agriculture is adopted in central Europe, following a southeastern-to-northwestern trajectory of spread. The Linear Pottery culture is present in central Europe. [12]
~4,500 B.C.The Linear Pottery culture disintegrates into more distinct regional styles, such as the Michelsberg culture and the Funnelbeaker culture. [13]
3rd Millennium BCE The Corded Ware culture (emerging from Poland around 2,800 BCE) and the Bell Beaker culture are present in central Europe. [12]
Late 3rd Millennium BCEWith the discovery of Bronze, the Neolithic ends and the Bronze Age begins. The Unetice culture spreads. [13]
~1,300 B.C.The Urnfield culture (also known as Tumulus period) spreads. [13]
~800 B.C.The Hallstatt culture (named for Hallstatt, Austria) spreads. [13]
5th century BCE The Hallstatt culture develops into the La Tène culture, the first distinctly Celtic cultural group. [14] :392
390 B.C. Battle of the Allia: Rome, then the capital of the growing Roman Republic, is sacked by Celtic warriors. [15] :11
113–101 B.C. Cimbrian War : The Cimbri and Teutons undertake migratory movements during which they clash with Roman forces (Battle of Noreia, Battle of Arausio, Battle of Aquae Sextiae, Battle of Vercellae). The Cimbri and Teutons are later added by Julius Caesar to the category of "Germans", even though they were perceived as Celts by the Romans of their own time. [16] :11
58–50 B.C. Gallic Wars : Julius Caesar marches his forces into Gaul for purposes of conquest, broadly categorizing the people he encountered into "Gauls", "Aquitani", "Belgae", and "Germans" (using the Rhine river as a boundary between Germania and Gaul). He classifies Ariovistus as "King of the Germans", and defeats the forces of Ariovistus at the Battle of Vosges. Caesar documents his military campaigns in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico. [16] :3f.

1st century

9 Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: An alliance of Germanic tribes under the leadership of Arminius ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus. [17]
15 Battle at Pontes Longi
16 Battle of the Angrivarian Wall fought near Porta Westfalica between the Roman general Germanicus and an alliance of Germanic tribes commanded by Arminius. [18] :35
16 Battle of Idistaviso fought between Roman legions commanded by Roman emperor Tiberius' heir and adopted son Germanicus, and an alliance of Germanic peoples commanded by Arminius. [17] :90f.
98The Roman historian Tacitus finishes his influential Germania (in the original: "De origine et situ Germanorum"), describing Ancient Germany and its inhabitants. [19] [20]

3rd century

235 Battle at the Harzhorn
260The Romans make Cologne their capital city.
297The Roman emperor allowed the Salian Franks to settle among the Batavi.

4th century

310A bridge was constructed near Cologne.
313The Roman Catholic Diocese of Cologne was founded.
314The Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainz was founded.
357The Battle of Strasbourg took place.
368The Battle of Solicinium took place.

5th century

406December 21 Battle of Mainz, Crossing of the Rhine
450 King Chlodio of the Salian Franks died.
Chlodio's son Merovech became king of the Salian Franks with the support of the Western Roman dux Flavius Aetius.
45120 June Battle of the Catalaunian Plains: The Franks joined a coalition led by the Western Roman Empire which defeated the Huns in modern northeastern France.
457 Merovech died. He was succeeded as king of the Salian Franks by his son Childeric I.
463 Battle of Orleans (463): The Salian Franks and forces loyal to the magister militum Aegidius defeated an attack by the Visigothic Kingdom at Orléans.
481 Childeric died. He was succeeded as king of the Salian Franks by his son Clovis I.
486 Battle of Soissons (486): An alliance of Franks led by Clovis defeated the Kingdom of Soissons. Syagrius, the king of Soissons and son of Aegidius, fled to the Visigothic Kingdom.
The Visigoths surrendered Syagrius to the Salian Franks to be executed.
496 Battle of Tolbiac: A Frankish force under Clovis defeated the Alemanni in modern Zülpich. The former credited his victory to Jesus. [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
Clovis was baptized Catholic at Reims.
500 Clovis commissioned the Salic Law, the first written code of civil law among the Franks. The law forbade women from inheriting land.

6th century

507 Battle of Vouillé: A Frankish force led by Clovis defeated the Visigothic Kingdom at Vouillé. The Visigothic king Alaric II was killed. Clovis annexed Aquitaine. [26]
508 Clovis was crowned king of the Franks with his capital at Paris.
511 First Council of Orléans: A synod of Catholic bishops called by Clovis at Orléans granted some legal powers and immunities to the Catholic Church.
28 November Clovis died. His domain was split among his four sons Theuderic I, Chlodomer, Childebert I and Chlothar I the Old, who became kings ruling at Reims, Orléans, Paris, and Soissons, respectively.
52425 June Battle of Vézeronce: A Frankish invasion of Burgundy was halted near modern Vézeronce-Curtin. The Burgundian king Sigismund of Burgundy was captured and Chlodomer was killed.
Chlodomer's wife Guntheuc married Chlothar.
Chlothar had two of Chlodomer's sons killed. The third, Clodoald, fled to Provence.
531 Battle of the Unstrut River (531): Theuderic conquered the Thuringii near the Unstrut.
532 Battle of Autun: Childebert and Chlothar defeated Burgundy near Autun.
534 Theuderic died. His son Theudebert I inherited his throne.
The Burgundian king Godomar was killed by Frankish forces.
30 AprilThe pro-Byzantine regent of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, Amalasuntha, was murdered on the orders of her cousin and coregent Theodahad.
Gothic War: The Byzantine Empire invaded the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
535 Council of Clermont (535): A synod was held in modern Clermont-Ferrand which limited the rights of Catholic bishops to appeal to the state and which condemned marriage between Christians and Jews and between relatives.
539 Frankish forces under Theudebert I drove Byzantine and Ostrogothic armies from their encampments on the Po.
NovemberThe Frankish army on the Po, suffering from dysentery, surrendered to the Byzantines.
548 Theudebert I died. His son Theudebald inherited his kingdom.
549October Fifth Council of Orléans: A synod presided over by Sacerdos of Lyon in Orléans condemned Nestorianism and simony.
554 Battle of the Volturnus (554): A Byzantine force cut off and destroyed a joint Frankish-Ostrogothic army at their camp on the Volturno.
555 Theudebald died, childless. His kingdom passed to Chlothar.
Garibald, head of the frankisch Agilolfing noble family becomes the first Duke of Bavaria
55813 December Childebert I died without male heirs. Chlothar inherited his kingdom. [27]
560December Conomor, king of Domnonée, who had allied with Chlothar's son Chram against him, was killed in battle by Chlothar's forces.
561 Chram was captured and executed.
29 November Chlothar died of pneumonia. His kingdom was divided among his surviving sons Charibert I, Guntram, Sigebert I and Chilperic I.
567December Charibert I died. His kingdom was divided among his brothers Guntram, Chilperic I and Sigebert I, the latter of whose domains become known as Austrasia, the eastern land, with its capital at Metz.
575 Sigebert I died. He was succeeded by his young son Childebert II, with his wife Brunhilda of Austrasia acting as regent.
577 Guntram's sons died of dysentery.
584September Chilperic I was stabbed to death. His infant son Chlothar II the Great, the Young inherited his kingdom under the regency of his mother Fredegund.
587 Guntram and Brunhilda agreed to the Treaty of Andelot, according to which the former adopted Childebert II as his son and heir.
591 Childebert II appointed Tassilo I of Bavaria king of Bavaria.
59228 January Guntram died. His kingdom passed to Childebert II.
595 Childebert II died. Austrasia was divided between his two sons Theudebert II and Theuderic II.
599 Theudebert II expelled Brunhilda from his kingdom.
Theuderic II declared war on Theudebert II.

7th century

602The Duchy of Gascony was created as a buffer state against the Vascones and the Visigothic Kingdom.
612 Theuderic II captured Theudebert II in battle in modern Zülpich.
Theudebert II was killed in captivity along with his son on Brunhilda's orders. Theuderic II inherited his kingdom as king of unified Austrasia.
613 Theuderic II died of dysentery. His young bastard son Sigebert II became king of Austrasia under the regency of Brunhilda.
Chlothar the Great invaded Austrasia. The Austrasian mayor of the palace Warnachar II recognized him as regent and ordered the army not to resist.
Brunhilda, Sigebert II and Sigebert's brother were executed on Chlothar the Great's orders. The latter annexed Austrasia.
61418 October Chlothar the Great issued the Edict of Paris. Among its provisions, the edict banned Jews from holding royal office and granted the nobility the exclusive power to appoint royal officers.
617 Chlothar the Great made the office of the mayor of the palace a lifetime appointment.
623 Chlothar the Great donated Austrasia to his son Dagobert I.
Dagobert I took Arnulf of Metz, the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz, as an adviser and appointed the Austrasian noble Pepin of Landen his mayor of the palace.
62918 October Chlothar the Great died.
Dagobert I laid claim to Chlothar the Great's territory with the exception of Aquitaine, which he left to his half-brother Charibert II.
Dagobert I dismissed Pepin of Landen as mayor of the palace.
631 Battle of Wogastisburg : An invading Frankish army was defeated by Samo's Empire.
Dagobert I established the Duchy of Thuringia on the former territory of the Thuringii.
632 Charibert II was killed on the orders of Dagobert I.
Charibert II's infant son Chilperic of Aquitaine was killed on the orders of Dagobert I, who established the Duchy of Aquitaine on his territories with the patrician Felix of Aquitaine as duke.
The nobility of Austrasia joined a revolt led by Pepin of Landen.
634January Dagobert I ceded Austrasia to his young son Sigebert III, with Adalgisel acting as coregent and mayor of the palace of Austrasia and the bishop Cunibert acting as coregent.
63919 January Dagobert I died. His kingdom passed to his young son Clovis II, with his wife Nanthild acting as regent.
Pepin of Landen replaced Adalgisel as mayor of the palace of Austrasia.
64027 February Pepin of Landen died.
Otto (mayor of the palace) was appointed mayor of the palace of Austrasia.
643 Otto was murdered by duke Leuthari II on the orders of Pepin of Landen's son Grimoald the Elder, who succeeded him as mayor of the palace of Austrasia.
650 Synod of Rouen: A Catholic synod was held in Rouen which again condemned simony.
6561 February Sigebert III died. Grimoald the Elder tonsured Sigebert's son Dagobert II and declared his own son Childebert the Adopted, whom Sigebert III had adopted while still childless, king of Austrasia.
65727 November Clovis II died. His kingdom passed to his young son Chlothar III, under the regency of his wife Balthild.
661 Chlothar III conquered Austrasia and executed Grimoald the Elder and Childebert the Adopted.
662 Chlothar III ceded Austrasia to his young brother Childeric II and appointed Wulfoald his regent and mayor of the palace.
673 Chlothar III died. His younger brother Theuderic III inherited his kingdom with the support of his mayor of the palace Ebroin.
Childeric II invaded and annexed Theuderic III's kingdom.
675 Childeric II was killed along with his wife Bilichild and a son, Dagobert, by a conspiracy of nobles.
Theuderic III reclaimed his kingdom.
Clovis III became king of Austrasia.
676 Clovis III died.
Dagobert II became king of Austrasia with the support of Wulfoald.
67923 December Dagobert II was murdered, probably on Ebroin's orders. Theuderic III inherited his kingdom.
680 Wulfoald died.
Pepin of Herstal, the son of Arnulf's son Ansegisel and Pepin of Landen's daughter Begga, became mayor of the palace of Austrasia.
687 Battle of Tertry: Austrasian forces loyal to Pepin of Herstal defeated the invading army of Theuderic III at modern Tertry, Somme. Pepin of Herstal accepted Theuderic's unification of the Frankish kingdoms on the condition that he replace Berchar as his mayor of the palace.
Pepin of Herstal took the title Duke of the Franks.
690 Battle of Dorestad: A Frankish force conquered Dorestad from the Frisian Kingdom.
691 Theuderic III died. He was succeeded by his young son Clovis IV.
695 Clovis IV died. He was succeeded by his young brother Childebert III the Just.
Pepin of Herstal appointed his sons Drogo of Champagne and Grimoald the Younger mayors of the palaces in Neustria and Burgundy, respectively.

8th century

708 Drogo died.
71124 April Childebert the Just died. His young son Dagobert III succeeded him as king of the Franks.
714 Grimoald the Younger was assassinated.
16 December Pepin of Herstal died. His son Theudoald succeeded him as mayor of the palace of Austrasia and in the west, with his mother Plectrude as regent.
715 Dagobert III appointed Ragenfrid mayor of the palace in the west.
26 September Battle of Compiègne : Forces loyal to Ragenfrid defeated an army loyal to the young Theudoald, forcing him to flee to Cologne.
Pepin of Herstal's illegitimate son Charles Martel was acclaimed mayor of the palace of Austrasia by the Austrasian nobility.
Dagobert III died. He was succeeded by Chilperic II, his cousin and a son of Childeric II.
716 Battle of Cologne: A Frisian army joined by the forces of Chilperic II conquered Cologne in Austrasia, forcing Charles to flee to the Eifel and compelling Plectrude to accept Chilperic II as king.
Battle of Amblève: Charles defeated the forces of Frisia and Chilperic II at Amel.
71721 March Battle of Vincy: Charles dealt Chilperic II a decisive defeat at modern Les Rues-des-Vignes and subsequently declared Chlothar IV king of Austrasia.
718 Battle of Soissons (718): Charles defeated the armies of Chilperic II and Aquitaine at Soissons. Chilperic II fled to Aquitaine.
Charles recognized Chilperic II as king of the Franks in exchange for his appointment as mayor of the palace with extensive powers.
Chlothar IV died.
719 Umayyad invasion of Gaul: The Umayyad Caliphate conquered Narbonne.
72113 February Chilperic II died. He was succeeded by Dagobert III's son Theuderic IV.
Battle of Toulouse (721): An Aquitainian force broke an Umayyad siege of Toulouse.
732 Battle of the River Garonne: An Umayyad army wiped out an Aquitainian force on the Garonne.
10 October Battle of Tours: Charles, joined by the Duchy of Aquitaine and the Kingdom of the Lombards, dealt a decisive defeat to the Umayyad Caliphate near modern Vouneuil-sur-Vienne. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, the Umayyad governor of al-Andalus, was killed.
734 Battle of the Boarn: A Frankish army led by Charles defeated and annexed the Frisian Kingdom and killed its king, Bubo, Duke of the Frisians.
736 Battle of Nîmes: Charles destroyed the Umayyad Septimanian cities of Nîmes, Agde, Béziers and what is now Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone.
737 Battle of Avignon: Charles breached and burned the Umayyad-held city of Avignon.
Battle of Narbonne (737): Charles besieged but failed to capture the Umayyad-held city of Narbonne.
Battle of the River Berre: Charles intercepted and destroyed an Umayyad army sent to relieve his siege of Narbonne near the Étang de Berre.
Theuderic IV died. Charles prevented his succession.
740 Charles divided his lands between his two elder sons Carloman and Pepin the Short, the former ruling as king in the east and the latter in the west.
74122 October Charles died.
74221 April Concilium Germanicum: A synod called by Carloman and presided over by Saint Boniface settled some issues of Catholic ritual and organization. The Rule of Saint Benedict became mandatory in Frankish monasteries.
743 Childeric III was appointed king of the Franks.
746 Council of Cannstatt : Carloman executed the Alemanni nobility, numbering in the thousands, in modern Stuttgart.
74715 August Carloman retired to live as a monk in Rome. His son Drogo succeeded him as mayor of the palace.
751MarchThe pope Pope Zachary deposed Childeric III as king of the Franks at the urging of Pepin the Short.
An assembly of Frankish nobles elected Pepin the Short king.
752 Siege of Narbonne (752–59): Pepin the Short laid siege to Narbonne, still held by forces loyal to Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, governor of Al-Andalus under the defunct Umayyad Caliphate.
753 Drogo was tonsured and forced to live in a monastery.
755 Pepin the Short closed or nationalized the private mints and fixed pence and shillings to the silver French denier.
756 Pepin the Short gave the Donation of Pepin, territories ceded by the Kingdom of the Lombards under military pressure, to the pope, Pope Stephen II.
759Siege of Narbonne: The defenders of Narbonne opened the city gates to the Franks.
76824 September Pepin the Short died. His kingdom was divided between his sons Charlemagne and Carloman I, with the latter receiving territories including the Paris Basin, the Massif Central, Provence, southern Austrasia and Alsace.
770 Charlemagne married Desiderata of the Lombards, a daughter of Desiderius, the king of the Kingdom of the Lombards.
7714 December Carloman I died. His widow Gerberga, wife of Carloman I fled with his two sons to the Kingdom of the Lombards.
Charlemagne repudiated his marriage to Desiderata.
7721 February Pope Stephen III died. Pope Adrian I was elected to succeed him as pope.
Adrian demanded that Desiderius cede to the Papal States the territory surrendered in 756.
Saxon Wars : Charlemagne invaded the territory of the Saxons and destroyed their sacred symbol Irminsul near Paderborn.
773September Siege of Pavia (773–74): Charlemagne laid siege to the Lombard capital Pavia.
774JuneSiege of Pavia (773–74): Desiderius opened the gates of Pavia and surrendered to Charlemagne.
10 July Charlemagne was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy king of the Lombards at Pavia.
776 Charlemagne established the March of Friuli on the territory of the old Duchy of Friuli.
77815 August Battle of Roncevaux Pass: A Basque force attacked and decimated Charlemagne's army in the Roncevaux Pass.
78115 April Charlemagne appointed his son Pepin of Italy king of Italy.
782 Battle of Süntel: A Saxon force led by Widukind defeated a Frankish expedition.
October Massacre of Verden: Charlemagne had some forty-five hundred Saxon captives murdered at modern Verden an der Aller.
785Saxon Wars: The Saxon leader Widukind converted to Christianity and pledged fealty to Charlemagne.
Charlemagne issued the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae , a legal code which, among other clauses, prescribed the death penalty for any Saxons who refused to convert to Christianity.
Council of Paderborn: A council held at Paderborn outlawed idolatry and called for the death penalty for anyone who had caused another to be executed for witchcraft.
789 Charlemagne issued the Admonitio generalis , reforming the Christian liturgy in his empire and calling for the establishment of schools.
795 Charlemagne established the Marca Hispanica between the Pyrenees and the Ebro.
799 Siege of Trsat: Eric of Friuli, the duke of Friuli and an officer of Charlemagne, was killed during a failed siege of Trsat, in Croatia.
26 DecemberThe pope Pope Leo III was assaulted in Rome and nearly mutilated before his rescue and flight to the Duchy of Spoleto.
800November Charlemagne arrived in Rome.
23 December Leo took an oath of innocence of the charges of his political enemies. Charlemagne ordered them exiled.
25 December Leo crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor.

9th century

802 Charlemagne issued the Capitularia missorum specialia , defining the office of the missus dominicus , a salaried emissary to the kingdom.
803 Charlemagne issued the Lex Saxonum , allowing Saxon customs which were not contradictory to Christianity and granting some rights and protections to the church in the Saxon lands.
804 Charlemagne organized the Duchy of Saxony on the territories of the conquered Saxons.
8108 July Pepin of Italy died. He was succeeded as king of Italy by his illegitimate son Bernard of Italy.
811 Charlemagne and Hemming of Denmark, the king of Denmark, signed the Treaty of Heiligen, promising peace and fixing their border at the Eider.
812 Charlemagne established the March of Tuscany.
81313 September Charlemagne crowned his son Louis the Pious, the Fair, the Debonaire co-Holy Roman Emperor.
81428 January Charlemagne died.
816 Battle of Pancorbo (816): Forces loyal to the Frankish vassal Velasco the Gascon were routed by the Emirate of Córdoba at Pancorbo.
August Synods of Aachen (816–819): A synod was called at the Palace of Aachen in Aachen which would conform monks to the Rule of Saint Benedict and separate them from canons, who were called to live according to the Institutio canonicorum Aquisgranensis .
817 Louis the Pious appointed his son Pepin I of Aquitaine king of Aquitaine, his son Louis the German king of Bavaria, and his son Lothair I co-Holy Roman Emperor with the promise of receiving his other domains.
81817 April Bernard died, two days after being blinded with a hot poker on Louis the Pious's orders. Lothair I inherited Italy.
819 Louis the Pious issued the Notitia de servitio monasteriorum , which listed monasteries in his kingdom and the services they owed the crown.
8235 April Lothair I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome by the pope Pope Paschal I.
824 Battle of Roncevaux Pass (824) : A combined Basque-Banu Qasi force defeated a Frankish pacifying expedition at Roncevaux Pass.
829 Louis the Pious promised the inheritance of Alamannia to his son Charles the Bald.
830MayA rebellion of Pepin I of Aquitaine, Louis the German and Lothair I, instigated in part by Wala of Corbie, the abbot of Corbie Abbey, captured their father Louis the Pious at Compiègne and forced their stepmother, Charles the Bald's mother Judith of Bavaria (died 843), into a nunnery.
Pepin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German declared their loyalty to their father Louis the Pious against Lothair I in exchange for the promise of a greater portion of his inheritance. Wala was deposed as abbot of Corbie Abbey and Judith returned to her husband's court.
832 Louis the Pious declared Charles the Bald king of Aquitaine and promised Lothair I the rest of his kingdom in the face of an uprising by Pepin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German.
833 Lothair I joined the rebellion of his brothers Pepin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German against his father Louis the Pious.
Louis the Pious met his sons Pepin I of Aquitaine, Louis the German and Lothair I and their armies, as well as the pope, Pope Gregory IV, at the Field of Lies near Colmar.
13 November Ebbo, archbishop of the archdiocese of Reims, presided over a synod in Soissons which deposed Louis the Pious as Holy Roman Emperor.
8341 April Louis the Pious was restored as Holy Roman Emperor with the support of the Frankish nobility.
8352 February Synod of Thionville: Ebbo publicly recanted his charges against Louis the Pious at a synod at Thionville.
836 Louis the Pious appointed Lothair I king only of Italy; all else was divided between Pepin I of Aquitaine, Louis the German and Charles the Bald.
837 Louis the Pious crowned Charles the Bald king of Alamannia and Burgundy, granting him some lands which were before promised to Louis the German. Louis the German rose in revolt; Louis the Pious responded by promising all his lands save Bavaria to Charles the Bald.
83813 December Pepin I of Aquitaine died. Louis the Pious appointed Charles the Bald king of Aquitaine.
839The Aquitainian nobility rebelled in favor of Pepin I of Aquitaine's son Pepin II the Younger of Aquitaine. Louis the German invaded Swabia.
840 Louis the Pious and Lothair I agreed to a division of the empire after the former's death, with Charles the Bald inheriting the western part and Lothair I inheriting the eastern, including Italy.
Defeated by the forces of Louis the Pious and Lothair I, the Aquitainian nobility accepted Charles the Bald as king of Aquitaine.
Louis the Pious and Lothair I defeated the armies of Louis the German.
23 February Lothair I and Pietro Tradonico, doge of the Republic of Venice, signed the Pactum Lotharii, reiterating earlier agreements between the Franks and the Byzantine Empire.
20 June Louis the Pious died. Lothair I claimed the whole inheritance of his territories as Holy Roman Emperor.
84125 June Battle of Fontenoy: The forces of Charles the Bald and Louis the German dealt a decisive defeat to Lothair I and Pepin the Younger at Fontenoy.
An uprising began among Saxon peasants who called themselves the Stellinga .
84212 February Louis the German and Charles the Bald took the Oaths of Strasbourg, in which each pledged to aid the other against Lothair I. Their soldiers pledged not to obey an order counter to this oath.
843AugustThe Treaty of Verdun was signed, ending the war between Charles the Bald, Lothair I, and Louis the German, who received West Francia, Middle Francia, and East Francia, respectively. Lothair I retained the title Holy Roman Emperor.
84415 June Lothair I's son Louis II of Italy was crowned Holy Roman Emperor jointly with his father in Rome by the pope Pope Sergius II.
85519 September Lothair I and his sons signed the Treaty of Prüm in Schüller. On his death Louis II of Italy was to become Holy Roman Emperor and king of Italy, Lothair II king of Lotharingia, and Charles of Provence king of the rest of his domains.
29 September Lothair I died.
8698 August Lothair II died. Lotharingia passed to his brother Louis II, at that time away at war with the Emirate of Bari.
8708 August Louis the German and Charles the Bald signed the Treaty of Meersen, under which they agreed to partition Lotharingia between themselves.
87512 August Louis II died. He left Italy and the title of Holy Roman Emperor to his cousin, Louis the German's son Carloman of Bavaria.
Charles the Bald was crowned king of Italy at Pavia with the Iron Crown of Lombardy with the support of the pope Pope John VIII.
29 December Charles the Bald was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome by the pope Pope John VIII.
87628 August Louis the German died. His kingdom was divided along ethnic lines among his sons Carloman of Bavaria, Louis the Younger and Charles the Fat, who received, roughly, Bavaria, Saxony, and Swabia, respectively.
Carloman of Bavaria appointed his illegitimate son Arnulf of Carinthia duke of Carinthia.
8 October Battle of Andernach (876) : Louis the Younger defeated an attempted West Frankish invasion of East Francia across the Rhine near Andernach.
8776 October Charles the Bald died. Carloman of Bavaria conquered Italy. West Francia Passed to his son, Louis the Stammerer.
879 Carloman of Bavaria was incapacitated, probably by a stroke.
November Carloman of Bavaria abdicated Bavaria and Italy to his brothers Louis the Younger and Charles the Fat, respectively.
880February Battle of Thimeon : Louis the Younger destroyed a Viking camp near modern Charleroi.
February Louis the Younger signed the Treaty of Ribemont with Louis III of France and Carloman II, kings ruling jointly in West Francia, recognizing some territorial gains he had made in Lotharingia.
88112 February Charles the Fat was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope Pope John VIII.
88220 January Louis the Younger died. His brother Charles the Fat inherited his kingdom.
Siege of Asselt: The Viking leader Godfrid, Duke of Frisia was besieged in his camp in the valley of the Meuse by East Frankish forces. After converting to Christianity he was granted the Kennemerland as a vassal of Charles the Fat.
Wilhelminer War: The Wilhelminers rebelled against Aribo of Austria, the margrave of the East Frankish March of Pannonia.
The Wilhelminers paid homage to Arnulf of Carinthia in exchange for his support against Aribo.
Frankish-Moravian War : Svatopluk I of Moravia, the king of Great Moravia, intervened in Pannonia on the side of Aribo.
88412 December King Carloman II of West Francia died on a hunting expedition. His cousin Charles the Fat inherited his kingdom.
88525 November Siege of Paris (885–86) : Some three hundred Viking ships arrived at Paris.
886OctoberSiege of Paris (885–86): The army of Charles the Fat arrived in Paris. He allowed the Viking fleet to sail to Burgundy, then in revolt.
887NovemberAn assembly of East Frankish nobles at Trebur deposed Charles the Fat in favor of his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia.
26 December Berengar I of Italy, the margrave of Friulu, was crowned king of Italy at Pavia by the Italian nobility.
88813 January Charles the Fat died.
The nobility in Upper Burgundy elected Rudolph I of Burgundy king.
FebruaryThe Count of Paris Odo of France was crowned king of France at Compiègne following his election by the French nobility.
89121 FebruaryThe pope Pope Stephen V crowned Guy III of Spoleto, his preferred claimant to the throne of Italy, Holy Roman Emperor.
September Battle of Leuven (891): An East Frankish force repelled a Viking invasion at modern Leuven.
89230 April Guy's son Lambert of Italy was crowned co-Holy Roman Emperor with his father at Ravenna by the pope, Pope Formosus.
89412 December Guy died.
895 Arnulf of Carinthia appointed his illegitimate son Zwentibold king of Lotharingia.
89621 February Arnulf of Carinthia, joined by Berengar, conquered Rome from Lambert and freed the pope Pope Formosus from his imprisonment in the Castel Sant'Angelo.
22 FebruaryThe pope Pope Formosus crowned Arnulf of Carinthia Holy Roman Emperor.
8998 December Arnulf of Carinthia died. His young son Louis the Child succeeded him as king of East Francia.
900 Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin: Hungary conquered the Great Hungarian Plain and the March of Pannonia.
13 August Zwentibold was killed by Reginar, Duke of Lorraine. His young half-brother Louis the Child inherited his kingdom.
12 OctoberThe king of Provence Louis the Blind conquered Pavia from Berengar, and had himself crowned there king of Italy with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

10th century

90122 February Louis the Blind was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope Pope Benedict IV.
903 Louis the Child issued the Raffelstetten customs regulations, regulating customs on a bridge in modern Asten.
90521 July Berengar ordered Louis the Blind stripped of his royal Italian and imperial titles and blinded in Verona.
9076 July Battle of Pressburg: An East Frankish army was wiped out by a Hungarian force at modern Bratislava during an attempted reconquest of Pannonia.
9083 August Battle of Eisenach (908): An East Frankish army was dealt a crushing defeat by a Hungarian force at Eisenach. Burchard, Duke of Thuringia, the duke of Thuringia, was killed. Thuringia was absorbed into Saxony.
91012 June Battle of Lechfeld (910): A Hungarian force decisively defeated an East Frankish army near Augsburg after a feigned retreat.
91120 September Louis the Child died. The Lotharingian nobility, led by Reginar, Duke of Lorraine, elected Charles the Simple, king of France, to succeed him.
10 November Conrad I the Younger of Germany, duke of Franconia, was elected king of East Francia by the rulers of the other East Frankish duchies, the so-called stem duchies of Bavaria, Saxony and Alamannia.
915December Berengar was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope Pope John X.
91823 December Conrad died from injuries sustained in battle with Arnulf the Bad, Duke of Bavaria, the duke of Bavaria. He was succeeded as duke of Franconia by his younger brother Eberhard of Franconia.
91924 May Henry the Fowler, the duke of Saxony and Conrad's choice, was crowned king of Germany after his election by the dukes of the stem duchies.
92315 June King Charles the Simple of Lotharingia was captured in battle by French forces.
9247 April Berengar was murdered by a member of his retinue.
925The Lotharingian nobility, led by Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine, elected Henry the Fowler their king.
932 Synod of Erfurt: A synod at Erfurt decided that Germany would cease paying tribute to Hungary.
93315 March Battle of Riade: A Hungarian force camped on the Unstrut was put to flight by a German army.
9362 July Henry died after a stroke. He was succeeded as duke of Saxony and king of Germany by his son Otto I the Great, Holy Roman Emperor.
Otto the Great created the Billung March, governed by Hermann Billung, and the Marca Geronis .
93711 July Rudolph II of Burgundy, the king of Burgundy, died.
Rudolph II's son Conrad I of Burgundy became king of Burgundy with the support of Otto the Great against Hugh of Italy, the king of Italy.
938 Otto the Great deposed the duke of Bavaria Eberhard, Duke of Bavaria, installing his uncle Berthold, Duke of Bavaria on the condition that as king he retain the right to appoint bishops and administer royal property in Bavaria.
9392 October Battle of Andernach: A rebellion of Franconia and Lotharingia against Otto the Great was decisively defeated at Andernach. The dukes of Franconia and Lotharingia Eberhard of Franconia and Gilbert were killed. Otto the Great prevented succession in both duchies and dissolved the former.
940 Otto the Great appointed his younger brother Henry I, Duke of Bavaria duke of Lotharingia.
95510 August Battle of Lechfeld (955) : Otto the Great repelled a Hungarian invasion on the flood plain of the Lech.
16 October Battle on the Raxa: A German army defeated an Obotrite rebellion in the Billung March, probably on the Recknitz.
9622 February Otto the Great was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
96520 May Gero, the margrave of the Marca Geronis , died. The march was divided into five: the Northern March, the Saxon Eastern March, the Margravate of Meissen, the March of Zeitz and the March of Merseburg.
96725 December Otto the Great's young son Otto II the Red, Holy Roman Emperor was crowned co-Holy Roman Emperor with his father by the pope Pope John XIII.
97224 June Battle of Cedynia: The forces of Odo I, Margrave of the Saxon Ostmark, the margrave of the Saxon Eastern March, were decisively repelled by the Polans near the Oder, possibly near Cedynia.
9737 May Otto the Great died.
8 MayThe Roman nobility acclaimed Otto the Red his father's successor as Holy Roman Emperor.
976 Otto the Great established the Margraviate of Austria, a march subordinate to Bavaria on the territory of the former March of Pannonia.
981 Wigger I, the margrave of Zeitz, died. Rikdag, the margrave of Meissen, inherited his territory.
98214 July Battle of Stilo: A Sicilian army dealt heavy casualties to a Roman force at Capo Colonna. Gunther, Margrave of Merseburg, the margrave of Merseburg, died. Rikdag inherited his territory.
983 Great Slav Rising: An uprising by the Polabian Slavs overthrew German authority in the Northern March and the Billung March.
9963 MayBruno of Carinthia was elected Pope Gregory V.

11th century

104625 December Clement II was elected pope.
104817 July Damasus II was elected pope.
104912 February Leo IX was elected pope.
105513 April Victor II was elected pope.
10573 August Stephen IX was elected pope.
1072 Agnes of Germany was born.
107528 February Investiture controversy: A council held at the Lateran Palace concluded that popes alone could appoint, remove and transfer bishops. [28]
107728 January Walk to Canossa: After fasting outdoors in a blizzard for three days, Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV was allowed to enter Canossa Castle and receive forgiveness from Pope Gregory VII for the illegitimate appointment of bishops.
109527 November First Crusade: Pope Urban II called on all Catholics to assist the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in repelling the invading Seljuk Empire.
1096 Rhineland massacres: Crusaders took part in anti-Jewish violence in the Rhineland.
1098 Hildegard of Bingen was born.

12th century

112223 SeptemberInvestiture Controversy: Pope Callixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V signed the Concordat of Worms, under which it was agreed that Holy Roman Emperors had the right to grant bishops secular authority but not religious authority.
114324 September Agnes died.
1147 Northern Crusades: A series of crusades began against the pagan peoples around the Baltic Sea.
11529 March Frederick I Barbarossa was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
1170 Walther von der Vogelweide was born.
1190A field hospital was established at Acre which would become the nucleus of the Teutonic Order.
The Nibelungenlied was written.

13th century

1201 Valdemar II of Denmark occupied Hamburg.
1210The Lübeck Cathedral was constructed.
121427 July Battle of Bouvines: The combined forces of Flanders, England, Boulogne and the Holy Roman Empire were dealt a decisive defeat by the French at Bouvines.
1230 St. Nicholas' Church was constructed in Berlin.
1241 Lübeck and Hamburg formed an alliance.
1244Freie Stadt Mainz was founded in Mainz.
1248A Fire started in Hamburg.
127329 September Rudolph I was crowned King of the Romans.
1290 Duchy of Cleves captured Duisburg.
1291 Crusades: The Crusades ended.
AugustThe people of Uri, Schwyz and the Lower Valley joined an alliance under the Federal Charter of 1291.
1298St. Lawrence church was constructed.

14th century

1338The prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire declared in the Declaration of Rhense that the election of the Holy Roman Emperor was not subject to the approval of the pope.
1356The Imperial Diet issued the Golden Bull of 1356, which fixed the offices of the seven prince-electors and established that the Holy Roman Emperor could be elected by a simple majority vote.
The Hanseatic League was established.
1370The Treaty of Stralsund was signed, ending a war between Denmark and the Hanseatic League.
1392The Victual Brothers were hired by the Duchy of Mecklenburg to assist in its fight against Denmark.
1400The period of Meistersinger lyric poets began.
The period of Minnesänger singers ended.

15th century

141015 July Battle of Grunwald: The Teutonic Order was decisively defeated by the combined forces of Poland and Lithuania at Grunwald.
1414 Council of Constance: An ecumenical council began which would condemn Jan Hus as a heretic, depose Antipopes John XXIII and Benedict XIII, and elect Pope Martin V.
1418Council of Constance: The council ended.
1455The Gutenberg Bible, one of the first books in the West made using moveable type, was first printed by Johann Gutenberg.
147121 May Albrecht Dürer was born.
148310 November Martin Luther was born.
1495The Imperial Diet established the Reichskammergericht , a permanent court of appeal with jurisdiction over the whole of the Holy Roman Empire.
1499 Swabian War: A war between the Old Swiss Confederacy and the House of Habsburg took place in which the Swiss would win an exemption from paying taxes to the Holy Roman Empire and participating in the Imperial Diet.

16th century

151731 October Luther posted the Ninety-Five Theses, a disputation condemning abuses in the Catholic Church, on the door of All Saint's Church in Wittenberg.
1521 Diet of Worms: An Imperial Diet was held at Worms which would condemn Luther as a heretic.
15229 January Adrian VI became pope.
1524 German Peasants' War: An uprising of German-speaking peasants began.
1525German Peasants' War: The war ended in the defeat of the peasant army.
10 April Prussian Homage: Grand Master Albert of the Teutonic Order resigned his position and was appointed duke of Prussia by the Polish king Sigismund I the Old.
152919 April Protestation at Speyer: Six princes and the representatives of fourteen free imperial cities read out their objection to the imperial ban on Luther and his works at the Imperial Diet at Speyer.
Siege of Vienna: The Ottoman Empire was forced to retreat after the failure of their siege of Vienna.
154610 July Schmalkaldic War: A war began between the Schmalkaldic League of Lutheran principalities and a coalition led by the Holy Roman Empire.
154723 MaySchmalkaldic War: The war ended in an imperial victory.
1554 Moritzbastei was constructed as a bastion.
155525 SeptemberThe Peace of Augsburg was signed, granting princes of the Holy Roman Empire the right to determine the state religion within their territories.
1583Beginning of the Cologne War.
1588End of the Cologne War.
1600The period of Meistersinger lyric poets ended.

17th century

160814 MayThe Protestant Union, a military alliance of Protestant German princes, was established under the command of Elector Frederick IV of the Palatinate.
160910 JulyThe Catholic League, an alliance of Catholic German princes, was established.
1613King James I of England, Ireland and Scotland married his daughter Elizabeth Stuart to Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate, leader of the Protestant Union.
1618 Thirty Years' War: A war began which would cause massive devastation and loss of life, primarily in Germany. [29] [30]
16296 March Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which demanded that lands expropriated since and in contradiction to the terms of the Peace of Augsburg be restored to the Catholic Church.
163120 May Sack of Magdeburg: Forces under the command of the Holy Roman Empire and the Catholic League breached the walls of the Protestant city of Magdeburg and murdered some twenty thousand of its thirty thousand inhabitants.
17 September Battle of Breitenfeld: The combined forces of Saxony and the Swedish Empire dealt a decisive defeat to the Holy Roman Empire and its allies near Breitenfeld.
163216 November Battle of Lützen: Forces led by the Swedish Empire defeated forces under the command of the Holy Roman Empire near Lützen. The Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus was killed.
164223 October Battle of Breitenfeld: The Swedish army dealt a decisive defeat to the Holy Roman Empire near Breitenfeld.
1648Thirty Years' War: The Peace of Westphalia was concluded, ending the war and granting Switzerland and the Netherlands independence from the Holy Roman Empire.
168311 September Battle of Vienna: The combined forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire and their allies broke an Ottoman siege of Vienna.
1686The League of Augsburg, a military alliance of European countries, was established to defend the Palatinate from France.
169715 SeptemberThe elector of Saxony was elected King Augustus II the Strong of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
170017 July Leibniz founded the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

18th century

170118 January Frederick I of Prussia crowned himself king; the Duchy of Prussia became the Kingdom of Prussia.
1706 Johann Pachelbel died.
171224 January Frederick II of Prussia, the Great, was born. [31]
171614 November Gottfried Leibniz died. [32]
174011 DecemberThe Prussian king Frederick the Great issued an ultimatum to Austria demanding the cession of Silesia according to the terms of an inheritance treaty.
16 December Silesian Wars: Prussia invaded Silesia.
174228 JulySilesian Wars: The Treaty of Berlin was signed, transferring most of Austria's Silesian territories to Prussia and ending the war.
17454 June Battle of Hohenfriedberg: A Prussian force led by Frederick the Great decisively defeated the allied armies of Austria and Saxony, halting the attempted reconquest of Silesia.
25 DecemberSilesian Wars: Prussia, Austria and Saxony signed the Treaty of Dresden, confirming Prussia's sovereignty over Silesia and ending the war.
175028 July Bach died.
175629 August Third Silesian War (Seven Years' War): Prussia invaded Saxony.
176315 FebruaryThird Silesian War: Prussia, Austria and Saxony signed the Treaty of Hubertusburg, ending the war and restoring the three states' prewar borders.
178617 August Frederick the Great died. [31]
1788The Abitur, a university admission exam, was established in Prussia.
178913 June French Revolution: The Third Estate of the French Estates General declared itself the National Assembly.
179127 August Prussia and the Holy Roman Empire issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, promising to join a coalition to restore Louis XVI of France to the French throne.
5 December Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died.
179220 April French Revolutionary Wars: France declared war on Austria.
25 July Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, commander of the allied armies of Prussia and Austria, issued the Brunswick Manifesto, which threatened reprisals against French civilians in the event that the French king Louis XVI or his family were harmed.
179620 May Rhine Campaign of 1796: Austria declared that its truce with French forces in the area of the Rhine was over effective 31 May.
179716 November Frederick William III of Prussia became king of Prussia.
17999 November Coup of 18 Brumaire: Three of the five members of the French Directory were persuaded to resign, the other two arrested.

19th century

180225 MarchFrench Revolutionary Wars: France and the United Kingdom signed the Treaty of Amiens, ending the war.
180327 April Francis II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, ratified the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss , consolidating the states of the Empire especially through the secularization of ecclesiastical lands and abolishment of free imperial cities.
18 May Napoleonic Wars : Great Britain declared war on France.
5 JulyThe Convention of Artlenburg, dissolved Hanover and incorporating its territory into France.
180412 February Kant died.
Friedrich Schiller published William Tell .
18059 May Schiller died.
Napoleonic Wars: Austria joined Britain, Sweden and Russia in the War of the Third Coalition against France.
180612 JulySixteen German states established the Confederation of the Rhine, a confederation and protectorate of France.
6 August Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire : Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, abdicated his title and released his subjects from their obligations to the empire.
Napoleonic Wars: Prussia declared war on France.
14 October Battle of Jena-Auerstedt : French forces dealt a decisive defeat to a numerically superior Prussian army at Jena and Auerstedt.
1807The Prussian minister Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein published the Nassauer Denkschrift, laying out his vision for the Prussian reforms. [33]
9 July France and Prussia signed the second of the Treaties of Tilsit, in which the latter ceded half of its territory to Russia and French client states. [34]
1808 Johann Gottlieb Fichte published his Addresses to the German Nation , arguing for German nationalism and unity. [35]
1810 Robert Schumann was born.
The Brothers Grimm published their first collection of fairy tales.
1812The Prussian Generalfeldmarschall Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg signed the Convention of Tauroggen, establishing an armistice with Russia in contravention of the Treaty of Paris.
181322 May Richard Wagner was born.
19 October Battle of Leipzig : The French army was encircled and forced to retreat from Leipzig in a battle in which some ninety thousand French and allied troops were killed or injured.
181430 May War of the Sixth Coalition : France signed the Treaty of Paris, under which it returned to its 1792 borders and the House of Bourbon was restored to the French throne, ending the war.
18151 April Otto von Bismarck was born.
9 June Congress of Vienna: A conference of twenty-three ambassadors signed a treaty reordering Europe's national boundaries and establishing freedom of navigation on the Rhine and the Danube. France was greatly expanded and a German Confederation of thirty-four states was established.
18 June Battle of Waterloo: The restored French emperor Napoleon was dealt a decisive defeat by the United Kingdom and its allies at Waterloo.
31 October Karl Weierstrass was born.
18165 MayThe constitution of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach was promulgated.
181718 October Wartburg Festival: A protest of liberal students took place at Wartburg.
18185 May Karl Marx was born.
26 MayThe Bavarian king Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria issued a constitution which established a bicameral legislature, the Landtag of Bavaria, and guaranteed freedom of religion.
22 AugustThe legislature of the Grand Duchy of Baden held its first meeting.
181918 MarchThe conservative writer August von Kotzebue was fatally stabbed by a liberal theology student, Karl Ludwig Sand.
20 SeptemberRepresentatives of the states of the German Confederation issued the Carlsbad Decrees, under which each resolved to become involved in instruction and hiring at universities, require prior restraint on all serial publications, and dissolve student organizations such as the liberal Burschenschaften .
182617 September Bernhard Riemann was born.
182726 March Beethoven died.
182819 November Schubert died.
18307 September Charles II, Duke of Brunswick was forced by an angry mob to flee the capital Braunschweig.
183114 November Hegel died.
183222 March Goethe died.
15 April Wilhelm Busch was born.
27 May Hambach Festival: A rally began at Hambach Castle where participants demonstrated for the liberalization and unification of the German states.
18337 May Johannes Brahms was born.
18341 JanuaryThe Zollverein came into existence, merging the Bavaria–Württemberg Customs Union, the Prussia–Hesse-Darmstadt Customs Union and the Thuringian Customs and Commerce Union into a single customs union.
1837The Göttingen Seven published a document opposing the decision of Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, to abrogate his country's 1833 constitution.
1839 Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Austria, France, Russia and the German Confederation signed the Treaty of London, recognizing Belgium's independence and guaranteeing its neutrality.
18407 June Frederick William died.
28 JuneThe educator Friedrich Fröbel coined the term kindergarten.
1841The economist Friedrich List published his National System of Political Economy.
184415 October Friedrich Nietzsche was born.
25 November Karl Benz was born
184827 February German revolutions of 1848–49: An assembly in Mannheim adopted a resolution demanding a bill of rights.
24 March First Schleswig War : Ethnic German rebels loyal to the provisional government in the Danish duchies of Schleswig and Holstein captured the government fortress at Rendsburg.
1 May German federal election, 1848: Elections were held in the thirty-nine states of the German Confederation to a national constituent assembly, the Frankfurt Parliament.
184918 JuneGerman revolutions of 1848–49: The chamber of the Frankfurt Parliament, since reduced to a rump parliament and moved to Stuttgart, was occupied by the Württemberg army. A repression began which would force the liberal Forty-Eighters into exile.
185030 MayThe Prussian three-class franchise, according to which all males over the age of 24 were allowed to vote for their representatives in the lower house of the Prussian parliament, with votes weighted by amount of taxes paid, was introduced.
29 November Prussia and Austria signed the Punctuation of Olmütz, under which the former agreed to the dissolution of the Prussian-led Erfurt Union and the revival of the German Confederation under Austrian leadership.
18528 MayFirst Schleswig War: Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom signed the London Protocol, guaranteeing the nominal independence of Schleswig and Holstein in personal union with Denmark and ending the war.
185523 February Gauss died.
1856August Neanderthal remains were discovered in Neandertal.
185823 April Max Planck was born.
1859The reformist Albrecht von Roon was appointed Prussian minister of war.
186323 MayThe General German Workers' Association was formed.
18641 February Second Schleswig War: Prussia invaded Schleswig.
30 OctoberSecond Schleswig War: Denmark, Austria and Prussia signed the Treaty of Vienna, placing the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein under Prussian and Austrian administration, respectively, and ending the war.
186614 June Austro-Prussian War: Prussia declared war on Austria.
3 July Battle of Königgrätz: Prussian forces broke an Austrian line and dealt them a decisive defeat at modern Hradec Králové.
20 July Riemann died.
18 August Prussia and fifteen smaller northern German states signed the North German Confederation Treaty, transferring their armed forces to the North German Confederation under the command of the Prussian king William I, German Emperor.
23 AugustAustro-Prussian War: Prussia and Austria signed the Peace of Prague, in which the latter agreed to some small territorial concessions and the dissolution of the German Confederation, ending the war.
187010 March Deutsche Bank was established.
16 July Franco-Prussian War: France declared war on Prussia.
10 DecemberThe Reichstag of the North German Confederation renamed the North German Confederation the German Empire.
187118 January William was crowned emperor of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.
21 March Minister President Otto von Bismarck of Prussia was appointed Chancellor of the German Empire. [36]
187211 March Kulturkampf: The School Supervision Act was passed, transferring all religious schools to state control. [37]
187322 OctoberGermany joined the League of the Three Emperors, a conservative alliance with Russia and Austria-Hungary aimed at preserving those nations' interests in Eastern Europe.
Roon resigned from the Prussian Ministry of War.
18756 June Thomas Mann was born.
187813 July Congress of Berlin: The United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, the German Empire, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Berlin (1878), granting independence to the former Ottoman territories of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and autonomy to a federal Bulgaria.
18797 OctoberGermany and Austria-Hungary joined a mutual defense treaty, the Dual Alliance.
1880JulyKulturkampf: The First Mitigation Law was passed, resuming government payments to Prussian dioceses.
16 December First Boer War: Boer rebels laid siege to a British fort at Potchefstroom.
188220 May Italy joined the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary. [38]
3 September Hugstetten rail disaster
188313 February Wagner died.
14 March Marx died.
188415 November Berlin Conference: A conference was convened in Berlin to formalize the practice of territorial claims in Africa by the participating powers Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden-Norway, the Ottoman Empire and the United States.
1886Automobiles with gasoline-powered internal combustion engines were produced independently by Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler.
188718 JuneGermany and Russia signed the secret Reinsurance Treaty, in which each promised benevolent neutrality in the event the other should go to war.
188920 April Adolf Hitler was born.
189020 March Bismarck was dismissed as Chancellor. [36]
1 JulyGermany and the United Kingdom signed the Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty, under which Germany renounced its claims over Zanzibar in exchange for the strategic island of Heligoland. [39]
1891The Pan-German League was established.
1892 Rudolf Diesel invented the Diesel engine.
18963 JanuaryThe German emperor Wilhelm II, German Emperor sent the Kruger telegram to president Paul Kruger of the South African Republic, congratulating him on the successful repulsion of the Jameson Raid.
189719 February Weierstrass died.
3 April Brahms died.
189830 July Bismarck died.
189911 October Second Boer War: The South African Republic and the Orange Free State declared war on the United Kingdom.
190025 August Nietzsche died.

20th century

190531 March First Moroccan Crisis: Wilhelm met with repreesentitives of the Moroccan sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco in Tangier in support of Moroccan sovereignty.
Field marshal Alfred von Schlieffen, chieif of the Germany General Stafff, developed the Schlieffen Plan, a plan for the quick invasion and conquest of France through Belgium and the Netherlands in the event of a two-front war.
19067 April Algeciras Conference: Germany, Austria-Hungary, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Spain, the United States, Italy, Morocco, the Netherlands, Sweden, Portugal and Belgium signed the final act of the conference, which limited Moroccan spending and placed French and Spanish officers in charge of its police.
19089 JanuaryPoet Wilhelm Busch died.
19111 July Agadir Crisis: The German gunboat SMS Panther arrived at the Moroccan port of Agadir.
19136 November Saverne Affair: Two local Saverne papers reported on offensive comments made by a local Prussian military officer.
1914 Albert Einstein moved to Berlin.
28 July World War I: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
4 AugustWorld War I: The United Kingdom declared war on Germany.
Blockade of Germany: The United Kingdom established a blockade of war materiel and foodstuffs bound for Germany.
30 August Battle of Tannenberg: The German 8th Army decisively defeated a Russian force near Olsztyn, practically destroying the Russian 2nd Army.
9 September First Battle of the Marne: French forces met the invading 1st and 2nd Armies of the German Empire at the Marne.
191522 April Second Battle of Ypres: The German army released chlorine gas against the French line at Ypres.
191631 May Battle of Jutland: The British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet met in battle in the North Sea, at a cost of some ten thousand lives and several ships sunk.
4 June Brusilov Offensive: The Russian Empire launched an offensive across the Eastern Front in the Austrian Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria which would cost some half million Russian casualties and over a million German and Austrian casualties.
1 July Battle of the Somme: A British force drove the German 2nd Army behind its first line of defense at a cost of some sixty thousand casualties.
24 October Battle of Verdun: The French Second Army consolidated control over Fort Douaumont in Douaumont, ending major operations in a battle which cost as many as one million French and German casualties.
The Turnip Winter begins—a period of famine in which the German people were driven to subsist on turnips.
19171 FebruaryThe German navy introduced unrestricted submarine warfare, in which submarines sought to destroy surface ships without warning.
The Turnip Winter ended.
191821 March German spring offensive: German forces attacked the British Fifth Army and broke their line in northern France.
8 August Hundred Days Offensive: An allied force of primarily French, British and American troops drove back the German line at Amiens.
9 November German Revolution of 1918–19: Wilhelm abdicated his titles as German Emperor and king of Prussia.
10 NovemberGerman Revolution of 1918–19: The Council of the People's Deputies, a body elected from the workers' councils of Berlin, introduced sweeping liberal reforms including the elimination of the Prussian three-class franchise and women's suffrage.
17 NovemberWorld War I: A German delegation signed the Armistice of 11 November 1918, promising an immediate cessation of hostilities, significant territorial concessions, and the surrender of Germany's war materiel.
191915 January Spartacist uprising: The Freikorps crushed a Berlin uprising by the Marxist Spartacus League, killing some hundred and fifty civilians and executing their leaders Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg.
11 February German presidential election, 1919: Friedrich Ebert of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) was elected president by the Weimar National Assembly, with seventy-three percent of the vote.
6 April Ernst Toller declared the establishment of a Bavarian Council Republic in Bavaria.
28 June Paris Peace Conference, 1919: Representatives of some thirty world powers signed the Treaty of Versailles, under which Germany was forced to disarm, give up its colonies, make substantial territorial concessions, and pay reparations to the Allies.
11 AugustThe Weimar Constitution came into force. The Weimar Republic succeeded the German Empire.
192013 March Kapp Putsch: The Freikorps Marinebrigade Ehrhardt occupied Berlin. Wolfgang Kapp of the national conservative German National People's Party (DNVP) declared himself chancellor.
Ruhr uprising: The Communist Party of Germany, the Communist Workers' Party of Germany, the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Free Workers' Union of Germany together established the Ruhr Red Army, which expelled the Freikorps from the valley of the Ruhr.
1921June Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic: Inflation of the Papiermark (Mark) began in response to the first reparations payment to the Allies under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
192216 AprilGermany and Russia signed the Treaty of Rapallo, in which each renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other and pledged to normalize relations.
192311 January Occupation of the Ruhr: France invaded the valley of the Ruhr.
13 August Gustav Stresemann of the national liberal German People's Party was appointed chancellor and minister for foreign affairs.
8 November Beer Hall Putsch: Nazi Party chairman Adolf Hitler led some six hundred Sturmabteilung (SA) to the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich, where they held Bavarian state officials Gustav Ritter von Kahr, Hans Ritter von Seisser and Otto von Lossow at gunpoint to demand they support a Nazi coup.
1924AugustGermany and the Triple Entente agreed to the Dawes Plan negotiated by head of the United States Bureau of the Budget chief Charles G. Dawes, under which the French and Belgian occupation of the Ruhr valley was ended and the reparation payment schedule restructured.
192516 OctoberThe last of the Locarno Treaties, under which France, Belgium and Germany settled their borders and pledged not to attack each other, was signed.
19268 SeptemberGermany joined the League of Nations.
192931 AugustThe Allies accepted the Young Plan, which reduced Germany's war reparations and allowed it to defer a greater portion, which would accrue interest due to a consortium of American banks.
3 October Stresemann died.
29 October Wall Street Crash of 1929: The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped twelve percent in a trading session of record volume.
193014 September German federal election, 1930: The SPD retained a plurality of seats in the Reichstag. The Nazi Party gained ninety-five seats.
193330 January Hitler was appointed chancellor at the head of a Nazi-DNVP coalition.
The process of Gleichschaltung , in which the government dismantled non-Nazi parties and societies, began.
27 February Reichstag fire: The Reichstag building was burned. The Dutch council communist Marinus van der Lubbe was caught at the scene and confessed.
28 February President Paul von Hindenburg issued the Reichstag Fire Decree, suspending most civil liberties.
24 MarchThe Enabling Act of 1933, which granted the cabinet the power to make laws, was passed and signed in the presence of armed members of the SA and Schutzstaffel (SS).
20 July Vice-chancellor Franz von Papen of Germany and cardinal secretary of state Pope Pius XII of the Holy See signed the Reichskonkordat, which required bishops to swear loyalty to the president of Germany.
193430 June Night of the Long Knives: SS paramilitaries killed at least eighty-five potential threats to Hitler's power, including SA head Ernst Röhm and Gregor Strasser, head of the left wing of the Nazi Party.
1 August Hitler issued a law merging the powers of the presidency into the office of the chancellor.
2 August Hindenburg died from lung cancer.
193516 March German re-armament: Hitler announced that Germany would rebuild its military, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
19367 March Remilitarisation of the Rhineland: German troops entered the Rhineland in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
1936 Summer Olympics: Germany won the greatest number of gold, silver and bronze medals at the Olympics, held in Berlin. Black American Jesse Owens won four gold medals, the highest individual total.
193812 March Anschluss : German troops entered Austria.
9 November Kristallnacht : A pogrom took place in which SA paramilitaries and German civilians destroyed Jewish businesses and at least ninety-one were killed.
193923 AugustThe Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was signed, promising mutual non-aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union and agreeing to a division of much of Eastern Europe between those two countries.
1 September Invasion of Poland: Germany invaded Poland.
22 December Genthin rail disaster
19409 April Operation Weserübung: Germany invades Denmark and Norway.
10 May Case Yellow: Germany invades the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France.
22 June Armistice of 22 June 1940 with France
1941 Konrad Zuse built the Z3.
6 April Invasion of Yugoslavia
German invasion of Greece
22 June Operation Barbarossa: German forces invade the Soviet Union.
194220 January Wannsee Conference: A government conference was held to discuss the implementation of the Final Solution, the extermination of European Jewry.
23 AugustThe Battle of Stalingrad begins.
19432 FebruaryThe Battle of Stalingrad ends, resulting in the destruction of the German 6th Army (Friedrich Paulus).
19446 June Normandy landings: Allied forces (including contingents from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada) disembark on five landing grounds in German-occupied Normandy, reopening the Western Front of World War II. [40]
194520 MarchThe first Arnsberg Forest massacre starts, killing 71 Polish and Russian prisoners of war. Two more massacres would occur over the next three days, killing 208 people in total.
30 April Death of Adolf Hitler: Hitler committed suicide by gunshot in the Führerbunker in Berlin.
8 May German Instrument of Surrender: World War II ends in Europe (VE Day).
23 MayThe Flensburg Government around Karl Dönitz and Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk is detained by British forces.
Heinrich Himmler commits suicide.
26 JuneThe Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) was founded.
2 August Potsdam Conference: British prime minister Clement Attlee, president Harry S. Truman of the United States and Joseph Stalin, the general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, issued the Potsdam Agreement at Cecilienhof in Potsdam. The parties agreed that Germany would be returned to its 1937 borders with some additional cessions to the Soviet Union and ratified its division into British, French, American and Soviet occupation zones.
194629 MarchThe first of the Allied plans for German industry after World War II, which called for the reduction of German industrial capacity, was issued by the Allied Control Council.
3 SeptemberU.S. President Harry S. Truman approves Operation Paperclip (de facto ongoing since 1945) in a secret directive.
6 September United States secretary of state James F. Byrnes read the speech Restatement of Policy on Germany, clarifying his nation's desire for economic recovery in Germany and guaranteeing its borders.
19474 October Planck died.
194820 June Ludwig Erhard, the appointed economic director of the Bizone, introduced the Deutsche Mark.
24 June Berlin Blockade : The Soviet Union blocked Western Bloc access to West Berlin by road and rail.
25 JuneBerlin Blockade: United States cargo planes began shipping food and medical supplies to West Berlin.
12 DecemberThe Free Democratic Party (FDP) was established.
194912 MayBerlin Blockade: The Soviet Union lifted the blockade. [41]
23 May West Germany was founded.
14 August West German federal election, 1949 : The CDU and Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU) won a narrow plurality of seats in the Bundestag.
15 September Konrad Adenauer of the CDU became chancellor of West Germany.
7 October East Germany was founded.
1950 Wirtschaftswunder : The Times first used the term Wirtschaftswunder to refer to the rapid postwar economic growth of West Germany and Austria.
195118 AprilThe Inner Six European nations including West Germany signed the Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, a single market in coal and steel governed by supranational institutions.
195226 May East Germany strengthened its border protection regime along the Inner German border.
The General Treaty, which granted West Germany the "authority of a sovereign state", was signed by West Germany, France, the United States and the United Kingdom.
195316 June Uprising of 1953 in East Germany : In response to a 10 percent increase in work quotas, between 60 and 80 construction workers went on strike in East Berlin. Their numbers quickly swelled and a general strike and protests were called for the next day.
17 JuneUprising of 1953 in East Germany: 100,000 protestors gathered at dawn, demanding the reinstatement of old work quotas and, later, the resignation of the East German government. At noon German police trapped many of the demonstrators in an open square; Soviet tanks fired on the crowd, killing hundreds and ending the protest.
19544 July 1954 FIFA World Cup Final : West Germany defeated the heavily favored Hungarian national team in the final match of the FIFA World Cup in Bern.
19559 MayWest Germany joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a collective defense organization.
14 May Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union established the Warsaw Pact, a collective defense organization.
12 August Mann died.
195920 June Lauffen bus crash
196113 AugustConstruction began on the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin.
196316 October Erhard became chancellor of West Germany.
1964NovemberThe National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) was established.
19661 December Erhard resigned.
Kurt Georg Kiesinger of the CDU was elected Chancellor of West Germany in coalition with the SPD.
19672 JuneThe unarmed student Benno Ohnesorg, a member of the German student movement, was shot and killed by Karl-Heinz Kurras, a Berlin Police inspector and East German spy, while protesting the state visit of shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran.
6 July Langenweddingen level crossing disaster
196830 MayThe German Emergency Acts were passed, amending the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany to allow for the restriction of certain freedoms in the event of an emergency, and marking a major political defeat for the German student movement.
196921 October Willy Brandt of the SPD was elected chancellor of West Germany.
19705 JuneThe Marxist–Leninist terrorist group the Red Army Faction (RAF) was founded.
19 JuneThe voting age for participation in West German federal elections was lowered from twenty-one to eighteen. [42]
12 August West Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Treaty of Moscow, in which the former recognized East Germany and renounced its claims on historical German territory east of the Oder–Neisse line.
7 December West Germany and Poland signed the Treaty of Warsaw, in which both parties pledged to remain at peace and the former again affirmed its recognition of the border at the Oder–Neisse line.
197127 May Dahlerau train disaster
3 September France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Four Power Agreement on Berlin, in which all parties pledged peace and the latter pledged to continue to allow trade and communication between West Berlin and West Germany.
197226 August 1972 Summer Olympics: The Olympic games opened in Munich, in West Germany.
5 September Munich massacre: Eight members of the Black September Organization snuck into the Olympic Village in Munich and took nine members of the Israeli team hostage.
21 December East and West Germany signed the Basic Treaty, in which each recognized the other's sovereignty.
197318 September East and West Germany were admitted to the United Nations (UN).
197416 May Helmut Schmidt of the SPD was elected chancellor of West Germany.
7 July 1974 FIFA World Cup Final: West Germany beat the Netherlands national team in the final match of the FIFA World Cup in Munich, in West Germany.
1982Germany wins the Eurovision Song Contest 1982, marking their first win by Nicole with 'Ein Bißchen Frieden'
1 October Helmut Kohl of the CDU became chancellor of West Germany.
1987September Erich Honecker, the general secretary of the ruling party of East Germany, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, paid a state visit to West Germany.
19894 September Monday demonstrations in East Germany: A peaceful demonstration began in Leipzig, in East Germany, which called for democracy and the right of citizens to travel abroad.
9 NovemberThe checkpoints on the Berlin Wall were opened.
19908 July 1990 FIFA World Cup Final: West Germany beat the Argentine national team in the final match of the FIFA World Cup in Rome.
12 SeptemberThe Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany was signed by East and West Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union. The latter four renounced all rights they held in Germany.
3 October German reunification: Five East German states acceded to West Germany. Berlin became the capital of Germany.
19927 FebruaryThe Maastricht Treaty establishing the European Union (EU) was signed by twelve European countries including Germany.
199314 May Alliance '90/The Greens was established from the merger of Alliance 90 and the Green Party.
1994The Federal Constitutional Court held that the Bundeswehr could take part in UN peacekeeping operations outside NATO territory.
19983 June Eschede train disaster
27 October Gerhard Schröder of the SPD became chancellor at the head of a coalition with Alliance '90/The Greens.
199924 March NATO bombing of Yugoslavia: NATO forces began bombing the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in support of the Kosovo Liberation Army.
20001 June Expo 2000: A world's fair was held in Hanover.

21st century

20021 JanuaryPhysical Euro currency was introduced. The Deutsche Mark lost its status as legal tender in Germany.
200519 April Pope Benedict XVI was elected pope.
22 November Angela Merkel of the CDU became chancellor in coalition with the CSU and SPD.
20069 June – 9 July 2006 FIFA World Cup: The 2006 FIFA World Cup was held in Germany.
22 September Lathen train collision
200814 September Sebastian Vettel wins the Italian Grand Prix, marking him F1's youngest winner.
200927 September German federal election, 2009: Elections were held to the Bundestag. The SPD lost seventy-six seats; the CDU-CSU coalition and the liberal Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP) gained. [43]
201023 April European debt crisis: Greece requested a loan from the EU and the International Monetary Fund.
29 MayGermany wins the Eurovision Song Contest 2010, with Lena and 'Satellite'. This was their second win.
201014 NovemberSebastian Vettel wins the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix and the Championship, marking him F1's youngest world champion.
201218 March 2012 German presidential election: Joachim Gauck was elected Federal President.
201322 September German federal election, 2013: Elections were held to the Bundestag. The FDP failed to meet the electoral threshold. The CDU-CSU coalition and the SPD both gained seats.
201417 MarchThe EU instituted travel bans and asset freezes against individuals connected with the Russian invasion of Crimea.
13 July 2014 FIFA World Cup Final: Germany defeated the Argentine national team in the final match of the FIFA World Cup in extra time in Rio de Janeiro.
201412 OctoberMercedes wins their first championship against Red Bull in Russia, despite tensions between Hamilton and Rosberg.
2015In European migrant crisis migrants number in Germany increase up to 1.5 million in 2015.
20169 February Bad Aibling rail accident
19 December 2016 Berlin terror attack on a Christmas market, killing 13 and injuring 55.
201719 March Frank-Walter Steinmeier became Federal President.
30 June Same-sex marriage was legalized by German parliament, effective 1 October. [44]
24 September German federal election, 2017: Elections were held to the Bundestag. The ruling coalition of CDU/CSU and SPD took significant losses, with AfD, entering parliament for the first time, the main winner. FDP re-entered parliament, bringing the overall number of political parties in the Bundestag up to six.
19 NovemberAfter an initial refusal by the SPD to continue the previous governing coalition, the attempt by CDU/CSU, Alliance 90/The Greens and FDP to form a Jamaica coalition failed with the withdrawal by the FDP around Christian Lindner. [45]
201814 March Angela Merkel was elected to her fourth term as chancellor (364/688 votes in the Bundestag), forming the Fourth Merkel cabinet. Olaf Scholz (SPD) became Vice Chancellor.
7 April 2018 Münster attack : 3 civilians and the perpetrator were killed.
7 December Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer becomes the new CDU chairwoman. Angela Merkel did not candidate again after 18 years at the party leadership.
2019British troops in Germany that stayed there since World War II are expected to leave.
202019 February Hanau shootings
24 February Volkmarsen ramming attack
22 AugustRussian opposition activist Alexei Navalny arrives in Berlin for medical treatment.
29 AugustRight-wing rioters attempt to storm the Reichstag building. [46]
3 September 2020 Solingen killings
4 October 2020 Dresden knife attack
202115–16 January January 2021 CDU leadership election: Armin Laschet defeats Friedrich Merz and Norbert Röttgen to become CDU leader.
25 June 2021 Würzburg stabbing
26 September German federal election, 2021: Elections were held to the Bundestag. The SPD, led by Olaf Scholz, emerged the strongest party (25.7%) ahead of CDU/CSU (24.1%), led by Armin Laschet.
8 DecemberFollowing coalition negotiations between SPD, Greens, and FDP, a traffic light coalition was formed between the three parties, instating the Scholz cabinet with Olaf Scholz (SPD) as Germany's ninth chancellor since 1949. [47]
4–16 December December 2021 CDU leadership election: Friedrich Merz defeats Norbert Röttgen and Helge Braun to become CDU leader.
202224 January Heidelberg University shooting
202315 AprilGermany phased out all of its nuclear power plants. [48] [49]
2028The Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link connecting Denmark and Germany would be fully constructed.
2040 Trans-European Transport Networks is expected to finish construction, connecting southern Italy and Germany.

See also

Related Research Articles

Science is a rigorous, systematic endeavor that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. Modern science is typically divided into three major branches: natural sciences, which study the physical world; the social sciences, which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences, which study formal systems, governed by axioms and rules. There is disagreement whether the formal sciences are science disciplines, because they do not rely on empirical evidence. Applied sciences are disciplines that use scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as in engineering and medicine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Indian history</span> Notable events in the history of India and predecessor states

This is a timeline of Indian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in India and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of India. See also the list of governors-general of India, list of prime ministers of India and Years in India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Human history</span> Narrative of humanitys past

Human history is the narrative of humankind's past. Modern humans evolved in Africa c. 300,000 years ago and initially lived as hunter-gatherers. They migrated out of Africa during the Last Glacial Period and had populated most of the Earth by the time the Ice Age ended 12,000 years ago.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northwestern Europe</span> Geographical region

Northwestern Europe, or Northwest Europe, is a loosely defined subregion of Europe, overlapping Northern and Western Europe. The term is used in geographic, history, and military contexts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plague of Justinian</span> 541–549 AD in the Byzantine Empire, later northern Europe

The plague of Justinian or Justinianic plague was an epidemic that afflicted the entire Mediterranean Basin, Europe, and the Near East, severely affecting the Sasanian Empire and the Byzantine Empire and especially Constantinople. The plague is named for the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I who according to his court historian Procopius contracted the disease and recovered in 542, at the height of the epidemic which killed about a fifth of the population in the imperial capital. The contagion arrived in Roman Egypt in 541, spread around the Mediterranean Sea until 544, and persisted in Northern Europe and the Arabian Peninsula until 549. By 543, the plague had spread in every corner of the empire. As the first episode of the first plague pandemic it had profound economic, social, and political effects across Europe and the Near East and cultural and religious impact on Eastern Roman society.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aurignacian</span> Archaeological culture

The Aurignacian is an archaeological industry of the Upper Paleolithic associated with Early European modern humans (EEMH) lasting from 43,000 to 26,000 years ago. The Upper Paleolithic developed in Europe some time after the Levant, where the Emiran period and the Ahmarian period form the first periods of the Upper Paleolithic, corresponding to the first stages of the expansion of Homo sapiens out of Africa. They then migrated to Europe and created the first European culture of modern humans, the Aurignacian.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of human evolution</span> Chronological outline of major events in the development of the human species

The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the evolutionary lineage of the modern human species, Homo sapiens, throughout the history of life, beginning some 4 billion years ago down to recent evolution within H. sapiens during and since the Last Glacial Period.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gustaf Kossinna</span> German philologist and archaeologist (1858–1931)

Gustaf Kossinna was a German philologist and archaeologist who was Professor of German Archaeology at the University of Berlin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Early human migrations</span> Spread of humans from Africa through the world

Early human migrations are the earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents. They are believed to have begun approximately 2 million years ago with the early expansions out of Africa by Homo erectus. This initial migration was followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis, which lived around 500,000 years ago and was the likely ancestor of Denisovans and Neanderthals as well as modern humans. Early hominids had likely crossed land bridges that have now sunk.

This timeline of prehistory covers the time from the appearance of Homo sapiens approximately 315,000 years ago in Africa to the invention of writing, over 5,000 years ago, with the earliest records going back to 3,200 BC. Prehistory covers the time from the Paleolithic to the beginning of ancient history.

Events from the prehistory of Britain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Richard Dawkins bibliography</span>

The following list of publications by Richard Dawkins is a chronological list of papers, articles, essays and books published by British ethologist and evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins.

Hominid dispersals in Europe refers to the colonisation of the European continent by various species of hominid, including hominins and archaic and modern humans.

Katerina Harvati is a Greek paleoanthropologist and expert in human evolution. She specializes in the broad application of 3-D geometric morphometric and virtual anthropology methods to paleoanthropology. Since 2009, she is full professor and director of Paleoanthropology at the University of Tübingen, Germany. From 2020-2023 she was Director of the Institute for Archaeological Sciences and since 2023 she is Director of the Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment at the University of Tübingen.

Thomas Higham is an archaeological scientist and radiocarbon dating specialist. He has worked as Professor of Archaeological Science at the University of Oxford, UK, where he was the Director of the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU) in the Research Lab for Archaeology and the History of Art. He is best known for his work in dating the Neanderthal extinction and the arrival of modern humans in Europe. He is Professor in the Department of Evolutionary Anthropology at the University of Vienna.

This timeline is an incomplete list of significant events of human migration and exploration by sea. This timeline does not include migration and exploration over land, including migration across land that has subsequently submerged beneath the sea, such as the initial settlement of Great Britain and Ireland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bibliography of E. T. Whittaker</span>

Sir Edmund Taylor Whittaker was a British mathematician, physicist, historian of science, and philosopher who authored three titles that remain in circulation over a century after their initial publications. His bibliography includes several books and over one hundred published papers on a variety of subjects, including mathematics, astronomy, mathematical physics, theoretical physics, philosophy, and theism. Whittaker's bibliography in the Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society categorises his publications into three categories: books and monographs, maths and physics articles, and biographical articles; the bibliography excludes works published in popular magazines like Scientific American. The bibliography includes eleven total books and monographs, fifty-six maths and physics articles, thirty-five philosophy and history articles, and twenty-one biographical articles. In the bibliography compiled by William Hunter McCrea in 1957, there are thirteen books and monographs and the same journal articles; McCrea counts all three volumes of A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity as separate books and excludes the same papers. Whittaker's contributions to Scientific American include two book reviews and a popular article on mathematics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bibliography of Max Born</span>

Max Born was a widely influential German physicist and mathematician who was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his pivotal role in the development of quantum mechanics. Born won the prize primarily for his contributions to the statistical interpretation of the wave function, though he is known for his work in several areas of quantum mechanics as well as solid-state physics, optics, and special relativity. Born's entry in the Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society included thirty books and 330 papers.


  1. Günther A. Wagner; et al. (November 2010). "Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (46): 19726–19730. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10719726W. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1012722107 . JSTOR   25748747. PMC   2993404 . PMID   21041630.
  2. Wood, Bernard, ed. (2011). Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN   9781405155106.
  3. Klein, R. G. (1983). "What Do We Know About Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon Man?". Anthropology. 52 (3): 386–392. JSTOR   41210959.
  4. Hublin, J.-J.; Sirakov, N.; et al. (2020). "Initial Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens from Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria" (PDF). Nature. 581 (7808): 299–302. Bibcode:2020Natur.581..299H. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2259-z. PMID   32433609. S2CID   218592678.
  5. Benazzi, S.; et al. (2011). "Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour". Nature. 479 (7374): 525–528. Bibcode:2011Natur.479..525B. doi:10.1038/nature10617. PMID   22048311. S2CID   205226924.
  6. Higham, T.; et al. (2011). "The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe". Nature. 479 (7374): 521–524. Bibcode:2011Natur.479..521H. doi:10.1038/nature10484. PMID   22048314. S2CID   4374023.
  7. Conard, Nicholas J. (2009). "A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 459 (7244): 248–252. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..248C. doi:10.1038/nature07995. PMID   19444215. S2CID   205216692.
  8. Wynn, Thomas; et al. (February 2009). "Hohlenstein-Stadel and the Evolution of Human Conceptual Thought". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 19 (1): 73–84. doi:10.1017/S0959774309000043.
  9. Antl-Weiser, Walpurga (2009). "The time of the Willendorf figurines and new results of palaeolithic research in Lower Austria". Anthropologie. Brno. 47 (1–2): 131–141.
  10. Barker, Graeme; Goucher, Candice (2015). "Introduction: A World with Agriculture". In Barker, Graeme; Goucher, Candice (eds.). A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. The Cambridge World History. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–25. ISBN   9780521192187.
  11. Siiriäinen, Ari (2003). "The Stone and Bronze Ages". In Helle, Knut (ed.). Prehistory to 1520. Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 43–59. ISBN   0521472997.
  12. 1 2 Bogucki, Peter (2008). "Europe, Neolithic". In Persall, Deborah M. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Academic Press. pp. 1175–1187. ISBN   9780125480307.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Marciniak, Arkadiusz (2008). "Europe, Central and Eastern". In Persall, Deborah M. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Academic Press. pp. 1199–1210. ISBN   9780125480307.
  14. Fagan, Brian M.; Durrani, Nadia (2019) [1971]. People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory (15th ed.). Routledge. ISBN   9781315193298.
  15. Leber, Manfred; Singh, Sikander (2017). Erkundungen zwischen Krieg und Frieden (in German). Universaar. ISBN   9783862232383.
  16. 1 2 Pohl, Walter (2004). Die Germanen (in German) (2nd ed.). Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag. ISBN   3486567551.
  17. 1 2 McNally, Michael (2011). Teutoburg Forest AD 9: The destruction of Varus and his legions. Botley: Osprey Publishing. ISBN   9781849083089.
  18. Wolfram, Herwig (2007) [1995]. Die Germanen (in German) (8th ed.). C.H.Beck. ISBN   978-3406390043.
  19. Tacitus, Cornelius (1876) [98]. The Origin and Situation of the Germans. Translated by Church, Alfred J.; Brodribb, William J.
  20. Eckerman, Nancy Pippen (1999). "Tacitus: c.56–after 118 CE". In Boyd, Kelly (ed.). Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. Vol. 2. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. pp. 1169–1170. ISBN   1884964338.
  21. He was baptized by Saint Remigius, bishop of Reims.
  22. See Daly 1994:640 and note.
  23. The date of the death of Childeric, commonly given as 481/82, is thus calculated as fifteen years before Tolbiac, as dated by Gregory.
  24. "On-line text in English translation". Archived from the original on 9 February 2005. Retrieved 11 March 2005.
  25. A single Frankish-Alemannic combat, in summer 506, is presented, for example, in J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, Long-Haired Kings p 168, or Rolf Weiss, Chlodwigs Taufe: Reims 508 (Bern) 1971; the debate is briefly summarised in William M. Daly, "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum69.3 (July 1994, pp. 619–664) p 620 note.
  26. "World Timeline of Europe AD 400–800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2009.
  27. James, Edward (1991). The Franks.
  28. Uta-Renate Blumenthal, The Investiture Controversy: Church and Monarchy from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century (1991)
  29. Henry Kamen, "The Economic and Social Consequences of the Thirty Years' War," Past and Present (1968) 39#1 pp 44–61 in JSTOR Archived 3 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  30. Theodore K. Rabb, "The Effects of the Thirty Years' Wr on the German Economy," Journal of Modern History (1962) 34#1 pp. 40–51 in JSTOR Archived 3 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  31. 1 2 Peter Paret, "Frederick the Great:A Singular Life, Variably Reflected," Historically Speaking (Jan. 2012) 13#1 online
  32. E. J. Aiton, Leibniz: A Biography (1985)
  33. Guy Stanton Ford, Stein and the era of reform in Prussia, 1807–1815 (1922 online) Archived 10 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  34. Sam A. Mustafa (2011). Germany in the Modern World: A New History. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 95. ISBN   9780742568020. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  35. G. Barraclough, The Origins of Modern Germany (1947) p 408
  36. 1 2 Jonathan Steinberg, Bismarck: A Life (2011)
  37. Rebecca Ayako Bennette, Fighting for the Soul of Germany: The Catholic Struggle for Inclusion After Unification (2012)
  38. Elizabeth Trueland (2003). International Co-operation and Conflict 1890s–1920s. Heinemann. p. 15. ISBN   9780435326906. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  39. James Stuart Olson; Robert Shadle (1991). Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism. Greenwood. p. 279. ISBN   9780313262579. Archived from the original on 29 April 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  40. Hart, Russell; Hart, Stephen (2002). The Second World War (6): Northwest Europe 1944–1945. Osprey Publishing. ISBN   1841763845.
  41. D. M. Giangreco and Robert E. Griffin, Airbridge to Berlin: The Berlin Crisis of 1948, Its Origins and Aftermath (1988)
  42. "West Germany Lowers Vote Age". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Associated Press. 18 June 1970. p. 18. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  43. Bolgherini, Silvia, ed. (2010). Germany After the Grand Coalition: Governance and Politics in a Turbulent Environment. Palgrave Macmillan.
  44. buzer.de. "EheRÄndG Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts". www.buzer.de (in German). Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  45. Oltermann, Philip (20 November 2017). "German coalition talks collapse after deadlock on migration and energy". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  46. "Germany coronavirus: Anger after attempt to storm parliament". BBC News. 30 August 2020.
  47. Bennhold, Katrin (8 December 2021). "Germany Live Updates: Parliament Approves Scholz as Chancellor, Ending Merkel Era". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  48. Kappeler, Laura Paddison,Nadine Schmidt,Inke (15 April 2023). "'A new era': Germany quits nuclear power, closing its final three plants". CNN. Retrieved 20 November 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  49. "10 Jahre Atomausstieg". BASE (in German). Retrieved 20 November 2023.

Further reading