Pope Sergius II

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Pope

Sergius II
Pope Sergius II Illustration.jpg
Papacy beganJanuary 844
Papacy ended27 January 847
Predecessor Gregory IV
Successor Leo IV
Personal details
Born Rome, Papal States
Died(847-01-27)27 January 847
Other popes named Sergius

Pope Sergius II (Latin : Sergius II; died 27 January 847) was Pope from January 844 to his death in 847.

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Contents

Life

Born of a noble family, Sergius was educated in the schola cantorum, was ordained Cardinal-priest of the Church of Sts. Martin and Sylvester by Pope Paschal. Under Gregory IV, he became archpriest. [1]

Pope Paschal I pope

Pope Paschal I was pope from 25 January 817 to his death in 824.

Pope Gregory IV Pope from 827 until 844

Pope Gregory IV was Bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from October 827 to his death in 844. His pontificate was notable for the papacy’s attempts to intervene in the quarrels between the emperor Louis the Pious and his sons. It also saw the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in 843.

At a preliminary meeting to designate a successor to Gregory, the name of Sergius was nominated by the aristocracy, while the people of Rome declared for the deacon John. The opposition was suppressed, with Sergius intervening to save John's life. John was, however, shut up in a monastery, and Sergius was duly consecrated, without seeking ratification of the Frankish court. [1]

Antipope John VIII or Antipope John was an Antipope of the Roman Catholic Church, in the year 844. On the death of Pope Gregory IV, the populace of Rome declared John, a deacon with no known links to the aristocracy as his successor. They seized the Lateran Palace and enthroned him there. However, the lay aristocracy elected as Pope the elderly, nobly born archpriest Sergius, ejected John from the Lateran, and swiftly crushed the opposition. Pope Sergius II's consecration was rushed through immediately, without waiting for imperial ratification from the Frankish court. Although some of his supporters wanted John put to death for what they considered his presumption, Sergius intervened to save his life and John was confined to a monastery. Nothing further is known about him.

The Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I, however, disapproved of this abandonment of the Constitutio Romana of 824, which included a statute that no pope should be consecrated until his election had the approval of the Frankish emperor. He sent an army under his son Louis, the recently appointed Viceroy of Italy, to re-establish his authority. The Church and the Emperor reached an accommodation, with Sergius crowning Louis King of Lombardy, [2] although the Pope did not accede to all the demands made upon him.

Holy Roman Emperor emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans, and also the German-Roman Emperor, was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.

Lothair I 9th-century Frankish emperor

Lothair I or Lothar I was the Holy Roman Emperor, and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), King of Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).

The Constitutio Romana was drawn up between King Lothair I of Italy (818–855), co-emperor with his father, Louis the Pious, since 817, and Pope Eugene II (824–827) and confirmed on 11 November 824. At the time the election of Eugene was being challenged by Zinzinnus, the candidate of the Roman populace. Eugene agreed to several concessions to imperial power in central Italy in return for receiving the military and juridical support of Lothair. The Constitutio was divided into nine articles. It introduced the earliest known Papal Oath, which the Pope-elect was to give to an imperial legate before receiving consecration. It also restored the custom established by Pope Stephen III in 769 whereby both the laity and clergy of Rome would participate in Papal elections.

Sergius contributed to urban redevelopment in Rome, improving churches, aqueducts, and the Lateran Basilica. [1] He and his brother, Benedict, funded their building plans by selling appointments to various church positions to the highest bidder. [3]

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

During his pontificate the outskirts of Rome were ravaged, and the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul were sacked by Arabs, who also approached Portus and Ostia in August 846. [2] During the raid, he (along with the people of Rome) looked on helplessly as they hid behind the Aurelian walls. [4] Despite having been forewarned of the intentions of the raiders, Sergius is seen as having not acted adequately enough to prepare for that which eventuated. [5]

Old St. Peters Basilica religious building

Old St. Peter's Basilica was the building that stood, from the 4th to 16th centuries, where the new St. Peter's Basilica stands today in Vatican City. Construction of the basilica, built over the historical site of the Circus of Nero, began during the reign of Emperor Constantine I. The name "old St. Peter's Basilica" has been used since the construction of the current basilica to distinguish the two buildings.

Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls Church in Rome, Italy

The Papal Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, commonly known as Saint Paul's Outside the Walls, is one of Rome's four ancient, papal, major basilicas, along with the basilicas of Saint John in the Lateran, Saint Peter's, and Saint Mary Major.

The Arab raid against Rome took place in 846. Muslim raiders plundered the outskirts of the city of Rome, sacking the basilicas of Old St Peter's and St Paul's-Outside-the-Walls, but were prevented from entering the city itself by the Aurelian Wall.

Sergius died while negotiating between two patriarchs and was succeeded by Pope Leo IV.

Pope Sergius was portrayed by John Goodman in the 2009 film, Pope Joan .

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Mann, Horace. "Pope Sergius II." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 14 September 2017
  2. 1 2 PD-icon.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sergius". Encyclopædia Britannica . 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 667.
  3. "The 102nd Pope", Spirituality.org, Diocese of Bridgeport [ better source needed ]
  4. Piers Paul Read (31 Dec 2012). The Templars. Hachette UK. p. iv. ISBN   9781780225982.[ better source needed ]
  5. Paul Collins (4 Mar 2014). The Birth of the West: Rome, Germany, France, and the Creation of Europe in the Tenth Century (illustrated, reprint ed.). PublicAffairs. pp. 46–7. ISBN   9781610393683.

PD-icon.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Sergius II". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton.

Sources

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory IV
Pope
844–847
Succeeded by
Leo IV