Pope John XVIII

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Pope

John XVIII
Ioannes XVIII.jpg
Papacy beganJanuary 1004
Papacy endedJuly 1009
Predecessor John XVII
Successor Sergius IV
Personal details
Born Rome, Papal States
DiedJuly 1009
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named John

Pope John XVIII (Latin : Ioannes XVIII; died June or July 1009) was Pope and ruler of the Papal states from January 1004 (25 December 1003 NS) to his abdication in June 1009. He was born Giovanni Fassano at Rome [1] , the son of a Roman priest, either named Leo according to Johann Peter Kirsch, [2] or named Ursus according to Horace K Mann. [3]

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Priest person authorized to lead the sacred rituals of a religion (for a minister use Q1423891)

A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities. Their office or position is the priesthood, a term which also may apply to such persons collectively.

Contents

Pontificate

Pope John owed his election to the influence and power of the Crescentii clan. During his whole pontificate he was allegedly subordinate to the head of the Crescentii, who controlled Rome, the patricius (an aristocratic military leader) John Crescentius III. [4]

Crescentii family

The Crescentii clan — if they were an extended family — essentially ruled Rome and controlled the Papacy from 965 until the nearly simultaneous deaths of their puppet pope Sergius IV and the patricius of the clan in 1012.

John Crescentius Italian noble

John Crescentius also John II Crescentius or Crescentius III was the son of Crescentius the Younger. He succeeded to his father's title of consul and patrician of Rome in 1002 and held it to his death.

This period was disrupted by continuing conflicts between the Ottonian Emperor Henry II and Arduin of Ivrea, who had styled himself King of Italy in 1002 after the death of Emperor Otto III. Rome was wracked with bouts of plague, and Saracens operated freely out of the Emirate of Sicily ravaging the Tyrrhenian coasts. [5]

Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Henry II, also known as Saint Henry the Exuberant, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children. The Duke of Bavaria from 995, Henry became King of Germany following the sudden death of his second cousin, Emperor Otto III in 1002, was crowned King of Italy in 1004, and was crowned by the Pope as Emperor in 1014.

Arduin of Ivrea king

Arduin was an Italian nobleman who was King of Italy from 1002 until 1014.

King of Italy ruler who ruled part or all of the Italian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire

King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a "barbarian" military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

As Pope, John XVIII occupied his time mainly with details of ecclesiastical administration. He authorized a new Diocese of Bamberg to serve as a base for missionary activity among the Slavs, a concern of Henry II. He also adjudicated the over-reaching of the bishops of Sens and Orléans regarding the privileges of the abbot of Fleury. [6] John was successful in creating, at least temporarily, a rapprochement between the Eastern and Western churches. His name could be found on Eastern diptychs and he was prayed for in masses in Constantinople. [7]

Slavs Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia

Slavs are modern Indo-European peoples who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia (Siberia), and Central Asia, as well as historically in Western Europe and Western Asia. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Today, there is a large Slavic diaspora throughout North America, particularly in the United States and Canada as a result of immigration.

Sens Subprefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Sens is a commune in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in north-central France, 120 km from Paris.

Orléans Prefecture and commune in Centre-Val de Loire, France

Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres southwest of Paris. It is the capital of the Loiret department and of the Centre-Val de Loire region.

Ultimately he abdicated and, according to one catalogue of Popes, retired to a monastery, where he died shortly afterwards. [5] His successor was Pope Sergius IV.

Pope Sergius IV Pope from 1009 to 1012

Pope Sergius IV was Pope and the ruler of the Papal States from 31 July 1009 to his death in 1012. He was born in Rome as Pietro Martino Buccaporci, which translates as "Peter Martin Pig Snout". The date of his birth is unknown.

Confusion over ordinals

Pope John XVIII was only the 17th pope called John, because John XVI (997–998) was an antipope according to official reckoning. His status as an antipope was not recognized at the time, however, so the true 16th Pope John called himself John XVII. The true 17th pope called John took the regnal number XVIII. The true sequence of numbering has never been corrected.

Antipope Person who holds a significantly accepted claim to be pope, without being recognized as pope

An antipope is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the pope, the Bishop of Rome, and leader of the Roman Catholic Church. At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by a fairly significant faction of religious cardinals and secular or anti-religious monarchs and kingdoms. Persons who claim to be pope, but have few followers, such as the modern sedevacantist antipopes, are not classified with the historical antipopes.

See also

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References

  1. "John XVIII (or XIX) POPE [1004-1009]". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  2. Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope John XVIII (XIX)." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 18 September 2017
  3. Mann 1906, p. 126.
  4. Mann 1906, p. 127.
  5. 1 2 Mann 1906, p. 140.
  6. Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI, (HarperCollins Publishers, 2000) ISBN   978-0060878078. P. 168.
  7. Mann 1906, pp. 129–130.

Sources

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
John XVII
Pope
1004–09
Succeeded by
Sergius IV