Pope John V

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Pope John V can also refer to Pope John V of Alexandria.
Pope

John V
Johannes V.jpg
Papacy beganJuly 23, 685
Papacy endedAugust 2, 686
Predecessor Benedict II
Successor Conon
Personal details
Birth nameIoánnis
Born Antioch, Diocese of the East, Byzantine Empire
Died2 August 686 (aged 51)
Rome
Previous postCardinal-Deacon (680-85)
Other popes named John

Pope John V (Latin : Ioannes V; died 2 August 686) was Pope from 23 July 685 [1] to his death in 686. [2] He was the first pope of the Byzantine Papacy permitted to be consecrated without the prior consent of the Byzantine Emperor, and the first in a line of ten consecutive popes of Eastern origin. His papacy was marked by reconciliation between the city of Rome and the Empire.

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Byzantine Papacy

The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the Roman papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii or the inhabitants of Byzantine-ruled Greece, Syria, or Sicily. Justinian I conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (535–554) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.

Contents

Early life

John was born in Antioch, Diocese of the East. [3]

On account of his knowledge of Greek, he was named papal legate to the Third Council of Constantinople in 680.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Third Council of Constantinople synod

The Third Council of Constantinople, counted as the Sixth Ecumenical Council by the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, as well by certain other Western Churches, met in 680/681 and condemned monoenergism and monothelitism as heretical and defined Jesus Christ as having two energies and two wills.

Election

John V was the first pope of the Byzantine Papacy consecrated without the direct approval of the Byzantine Emperor. Constantine IV had done away with the requirement during the reign of Pope Benedict II, John V's predecessor, providing that "the one elected to the Apostolic See may be ordained pontiff from that moment and without delay". [4] In a return to the "ancient practice", John V was selected "by the general population" of Rome. [4] He was elected in July 685. [5] Constantine IV doubtlessly trusted that the population and clergy of Rome had been sufficiently Easternized, and indeed the next ten pontiffs were of Eastern descent. [4]

Constantine IV Byzantine emperor (b. 652 d. 685}

Constantine IV, sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos (Πωγωνάτος), "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685. His reign saw the first serious check to nearly 50 years of uninterrupted Islamic expansion, while his calling of the Sixth Ecumenical Council saw the end of the monothelitism controversy in the Byzantine Empire.

Pope Benedict II pope

Pope Benedict II was Pope from 26 June 684 to his death in 685. Pope Benedict II's feast day is May 7.

Papal selection before 1059

There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were often appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the process was often characterized by some capacity of election, an election with the meaningful participation of the laity was the exception to the rule, especially as the popes' claims to temporal power solidified into the Papal States. The practice of papal appointment during this period would later give rise to the jus exclusivae, a veto right exercised by Catholic monarchies into the twentieth century.

Papacy

John V's papacy saw a continuation of improving relations with Byzantium. The Emperor greatly reduced taxes on the papal patrimonies of Sicily and Calabria and abolished other taxes, such as a surtax on grain that had been paid only with difficulty in recent years. [6] A letter from Justinian II assured John V that a "synod of high-ranking civil and ecclesiastical officials", including the apocrisiarius and the Byzantine military, had read and thereafter sealed the text of the Third Council of Constantinople, to prevent any alteration to its canons. [7] The letter was addressed to "John pope of the city of Rome", written while the Emperor believed the pope to still be alive, but received by Pope Conon. [8]

Justinian II Byzantine emperor

Justinian II, surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus, was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711. Justinian II was an ambitious and passionate ruler who was keen to restore the Roman Empire to its former glories, but he responded poorly to any opposition to his will and lacked the finesse of his father, Constantine IV. Consequently, he generated enormous opposition to his reign, resulting in his deposition in 695 in a popular uprising, and he only returned to the throne in 705 with the help of a Bulgar and Slav army. His second reign was even more despotic than the first, and it too saw his eventual overthrow in 711, abandoned by his army who turned on him before killing him.

An apocrisiarius, the Latinized form of apokrisiarios, sometimes Anglicized as apocrisiary, was a high diplomatic representative during Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages. The corresponding (purist) Latin term was responsalis. The title was used by Byzantine ambassadors, as well as by the representatives of bishops to the secular authorities. The closest modern equivalent is a papal nuncio; the title apocrisiarius is also still employed by the Anglican Church.

Like his immediate predecessors, John V was unusually generous towards the diaconies of Rome, distributing 1,900 solidi to "all the clergy, the monastic diaconies, and the mansionarii" for the poor. [3]

Death

After a pontificate of little more than a year, John V died in bed and was succeeded by Pope Conon. John V's death in August 686 gave rise to a "heated debate over his successor", with the clergy favoring an archpriest Petros, and the army supporting another priest named Theodoros. [9] The faction of the clergy gathered outside the Constantinian basilica and the faction of the military met in the Church of St. Stephen. [9] Shuttle diplomacy proved futile and eventually the clergy elected Conon, a Greco-Sicilian, instead of their original candidate. [9]

Pope Conon pope

Pope Conon was Pope from 21 October 686 to his death in 687. He had been put forward as a compromise candidate, there being a conflict between the two factions resident in Rome— the military and the clerical. On his death, Conon was buried in the Patriarchal Basilica of St. Peter. He consecrated the Irish missionary Kilian a bishop and commissioned him to preach in Franconia.

An archpriest is an ecclesiastical title for certain priests with supervisory duties over a number of parishes. The term is most often used in Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic Churches and may be somewhat analogous to a monsignor in the Latin Church, but in the Eastern Churches an archpriest wears an additional vestment and, typically, a pectoral cross, and one becomes an archpriest via a liturgical ceremony.

In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle diplomacy is the action of an outside party in serving as an intermediary between principals in a dispute, without direct principal-to-principal contact. Originally and usually, the process entails successive travel ("shuttling") by the intermediary, from the working location of one principal, to that of another.

John V was buried among the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica. [10] His inscription praised him for combating Monothelitism at the Third Council of Constantinople "with the titles of the faith, keeping such vigilance, you united the minds so that the inimical wolf mixing in might not seize the sheep, or the more powerful crush those below". [11] John V's tomb was destroyed by the Saracen Sack of Saint Peter in 846, centuries before those around it were destroyed by the demolition of Old St. Peter's Basilica in the 16th and 17th centuries. [10]

See also

Notes

  1. Miranda, Salvador. "Giovanni V", Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Florida International University
  2. Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John V"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. 1 2 Ekonomou, 2007, p. 210.
  4. 1 2 3 Ekonomou, 2007, p. 215.
  5. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 247.
  6. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 217.
  7. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 219.
  8. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 239.
  9. 1 2 3 Ekonomou, 2007, p. 216.
  10. 1 2 Reardon, Wendy J. 2004. The Deaths of the Popes. Macfarland & Company, Inc. ISBN   0-7864-1527-4. pp. 55–56.
  11. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 243.

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References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Benedict II
Pope
685–686
Succeeded by
Conon