Pope John XIX

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Pope

John XIX
Pope John XIX.jpg
Papacy beganApril 1024 [1]
Papacy endedOctober 1032
Predecessor Benedict VIII
Successor Benedict IX
Personal details
Birth nameRomanus
BornUnknown
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
DiedOctober 1032
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named John

Pope John XIX (Latin : Ioannes XIX; died October 1032) was Pope from May 1024 to his death in 1032.

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Contents

Life

Born Romanus in Rome was the third son of Gregory I, Count of Tusculum and his wife Mary. While his brother Theophylactus held the papacy as Pope Benedict VIII, Romanus held the temporal power in the city as consul and senator. Upon the death of Benedict, Romanus, a layman, was elected to succeed him. He was immediately ordained in all the orders in succession, and consecrated bishop in order to enable him to ascend the papal chair. He took the name of John. [2]

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Gregory I was the Count of Tusculum sometime between 954 and 1012. Consul et dux 961, vir illustrissimus 980, praefectus navalis 999. He was the son of Alberic II, and Alda of Vienne. His half-brother was Pope John XII.

Pope Benedict VIII pope

Pope Benedict VIII reigned from 18 May 1012 to his death in 1024. He was born Theophylactus to the noble family of the counts of Tusculum, descended from Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, like his predecessor Pope Benedict VII (973–974). Horace Mann considered him "...one of the few popes of the Middle Ages who was at once powerful at home and great abroad."

He played a role in the process leading to the Schism of 1054 by rejecting a proposal by Patriarch Eustathius of Constantinople to recognise that Patriarchate's sphere of interest in the east. [3] Against the grain of ecclesiastical history, John XIX agreed, upon being paid a large bribe, to recognize the Patriarch of Constantinople's claim to the title of ecumenical bishop. However, this proposal excited general indignation throughout the Church, compelling him almost immediately to withdraw from the agreement.

Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople position

The Ecumenical Patriarch is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church. He is widely regarded as the representative and spiritual leader of the 300 million Eastern Orthodox Christians worldwide. The term Ecumenical in the title is a historical reference to the Ecumene, a Greek designation for the civilised world, i.e. the Roman Empire, and it stems from Canon 28 of the Council of Chalcedon.

John invited the celebrated musician, Guido of Arezzo, to visit Rome and explain the musical notation invented by him. He encouraged the Benedictine to instruct the Roman clergy in music. [4]

Guido of Arezzo Italian monk, inventor of musical notaticulo

Guido of Arezzo was an Italian music theorist of the Medieval era. He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation that replaced neumatic notation. His text, the Micrologus, was the second most widely distributed treatise on music in the Middle Ages.

On the death of the Emperor Henry II in 1024, he gave his support to Emperor Conrad II, who along with his consort was crowned with great pomp at St. Peter's Basilica on Easter of 1027. Two kings, Rudolph of Burgundy and Canute of Denmark and England, took part in this journey to Rome. [2] Consistent with his role as a Christian king, Cnut went to Rome to repent for his sins, to pray for redemption and the security of his subjects, and to improve the conditions for pilgrims, as well as merchants, on the road to Rome. Rudolph had control of many of the toll gates. Negotiations being successful, the solemn word of the Pope, the Emperor and Rudolph was given with the witness of four archbishops, twenty bishops, and "innumerable multitudes of dukes and nobles", [5] suggesting it was before the ceremonies were completed.

Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Henry II, also known as Saint Henry the Exuberant, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children. The Duke of Bavaria from 995, Henry became King of Germany following the sudden death of his second cousin, Emperor Otto III in 1002, was crowned King of Italy in 1004, and was crowned by the Pope as Emperor in 1014.

Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Conrad II, also known as Conrad the Elder and Conrad the Salic, was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 until his death in 1039. The founder of the Salian dynasty of emperors who ruled for over a century, Conrad also served as King of Germany from 1024, King of Italy from 1026, and King of Burgundy from 1033.

St. Peters Basilica Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City

The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, or simply St. Peter's Basilica, is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome.

In 1025 he sent the crown to Poland and blessed the coronation of the Polish king Bolesław I the Brave. [6]

Poland Republic in Central Europe

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Bolesław I the Brave King of Poland, Duke of Bohemia

Bolesław I the Brave, less often known as Bolesław I the Great, was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025. As Boleslav IV, he was also Duke of Bohemia between 1002 and 1003. He was the son of Mieszko I of Poland by his wife, Dobrawa of Bohemia. According to a scholarly theory, Bolesław ruled Lesser Poland already during the last years of his father's reign. Mieszko I, who died in 992, divided Poland among his sons, but Bolesław expelled his father's last wife, Oda of Haldensleben, and his half-brothers and reunited Poland between 992 and 995.

On 6 April 1027, John held a Lateran synod in which he declared for the Patriarch of Aquileia against the Patriarch of Grado, giving its bishop, Poppo of Aquileia, the patriarchal dignity and putting the bishop of Grado under his jurisdiction. In fact, the patriarch took precedence over all Italian bishops. In 1029, John revoked his decision and reaffirmed all the dignities of Grado. John also enacted a Papal Bull endowing Byzantius, Archbishop of Bari, with the right to consecrate his own twelve suffragans after the reattachment of the Bariot diocese to Rome in 1025. This was part of a conciliatory agreement with Eustathius, whereby the existence of the Byzantine Rite would be allowed in Italy in exchange for the establishment of Latin Rite churches in Constantinople. [7]

Pope John XIX took the Abbey of Cluny under his protection, and renewed its privileges in spite of the protests of Goslin, Bishop of Macon. He offered Odilo of Cluny the archbishopric of Lyons, but Odilo refused and the pope then chided Odilo for disobedience. John XIX died shortly after and his successor (Benedict IX) did not press the matter any further. [8]

He was said to have been killed by a mob of angry peasants, but there is no evidence to support this. The actual cause of death is unknown.

After John XIX's death, his nephew Pope Benedict IX was found as a successor, although he was still young; according to some sources, he was only 12, but he was more likely to have been about 18 or 20.

The next Pope named John was Pope John XXI (1276–77); there is no Pope John XX (see article on John XX for an explanation).

See also

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References

  1. "John XIX", The Holy See
  2. 1 2 Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope John XIX (XX)." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 8 November 2017
  3. Previté-Orton, p. 275.
  4. Brusher SJ, Joseph S., "John XIX – The Layman Pontiff", Popes Through the Ages, (1980) San Rafael, California: Neff-Kane
  5. Trow, M. J. (2005), Cnut – Emperor of the North, Stroud: Sutton, ISBN   0-7509-3387-9, p. 193
  6. Halecki, Oscar and W. F. Reddaway, J. H. Penson, The Cambridge History of Poland, (Cambridge University Press), 67.
  7. Runciman, p. 123.
  8. Smith, Lucy Margaret. The Early History of the Monastery of Cluny. Oxford University Press, 1920

Sources

PD-icon.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John XIX (XX)". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton.

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Benedict VIII
Pope
1024–32
Succeeded by
Benedict IX