|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||April 1024|
|Papacy ended||October 1032|
|Born||Rome, Papal States|
Rome, Papal States
|Other popes named John|
Pope John XIX (Latin : Ioannes XIX; died October 1032), born Romanus, was bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 1024 to his death. He belonged to the family of the powerful counts of Tusculum, succeeding his brother, Benedict VIII. Papal relations with the Patriarchate of Constantinople soured during John XIX's pontificate. He was a supporter of Emperor Conrad II and patron of the musician Guido of Arezzo.
Romanus was born in Rome. He was the third son of Count Gregory I of Tusculum and his wife, Mary. During the pontificate of his brother, Benedict VIII, Romanus held the temporal power in the city as consul and senator. Upon the death of Benedict, Romanus, a layman, was elected to succeed him. He was immediately ordained in all the orders in succession, and consecrated bishop in order to enable him to ascend the papal chair. He took the name of John.
John XIX played a role in the process leading to the Schism of 1054 by rejecting a proposal by Patriarch Eustathius of Constantinople to recognise that patriarchate's sphere of interest in the east.Against the grain of ecclesiastical history, John XIX agreed, upon being paid a large bribe, to recognize the patriarch of Constantinople's claim to the title of ecumenical bishop. However, this proposal excited general indignation throughout the Church, compelling him almost immediately to withdraw from the agreement.
John invited the celebrated musician, Guido of Arezzo, to visit Rome and explain the musical notation invented by him. He encouraged the Benedictine to instruct the Roman clergy in music.
On the death of the Emperor Henry II in 1024, John gave his support to Emperor Conrad II, who along with his wife, Gisela of Swabia, was crowned with great pomp at St. Peter's Basilica on Easter of 1027. Two kings, Rudolph III of Burgundy and Cnut the Great of Denmark and England, took part in this journey to Rome.Consistent with his role as a Christian king, Cnut went to Rome to repent for his sins, to pray for redemption and the security of his subjects, and to improve the conditions for pilgrims, as well as merchants, on the road to Rome. Rudolph had control of many of the toll gates. Negotiations being successful, the solemn word of the pope, Conrad and Rudolph was given with the witness of four archbishops, twenty bishops, and "innumerable multitudes of dukes and nobles", suggesting it was before the ceremonies were completed. In 1025 he sent the crown to Poland and blessed the coronation of the Polish king Bolesław I the Brave.
On 6 April 1027, John held a Lateran synod in which he declared for the patriarch of Aquileia against the patriarch of Grado, giving its bishop, Poppo of Aquileia, the patriarchal dignity and putting the bishop of Grado under his jurisdiction. In fact, the patriarch took precedence over all Italian bishops. In 1029, John revoked his decision and reaffirmed all the dignities of Grado. John also enacted a papal bull endowing Archbishop Byzantius of Bari with the right to consecrate his own twelve suffragans after the reattachment of the Bariot diocese to Rome in 1025. This was part of a conciliatory agreement with Eustathius, whereby the existence of the Byzantine Rite would be allowed in Italy in exchange for the establishment of Latin Rite churches in Constantinople.
Pope John XIX took the Cluny Abbey under his protection, and renewed its privileges in spite of the protests of Goslin, bishop of Macon. He offered Odilo of Cluny the archbishopric of Lyons, but Odilo refused and the pope then chided Odilo for disobedience. John XIX died shortly after.He was said to have been killed by a mob of angry peasants, but there is no evidence to support this. His nephew Benedict IX was selected to succeed him, although he was still young; according to some sources, he was only 12, but he was more likely to have been about 18 or 20.
John XIX was closely related to five other popes who reigned in the 10th and 11th centuries, as well as some of the most powerful rulers of Italy at the time.
|Theophylact I of Tusculum||Theodora|
|Hugh of Italy||Marozia|
|Alda of Vienne|| Alberic II of Spoleto |
|David or Deodatus|| Pope John XI |
| Pope John XII |
|Gregory I of Tusculum|| Pope Benedict VII |
|Pope Benedict VIII|
|Alberic III of Tusculum||Pope John XIX|
|Peter|| Pope Benedict IX |
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The Schism of the Three Chapters was a schism that affected Chalcedonian Christianity in Northern Italy lasting from 553 to 698 AD, although the area out of communion with Rome contracted throughout that time. It was part of a larger Three-Chapter Controversy that affected the whole of Roman-Byzantine Christianity.
In the history of Christianity and later of the Roman Catholic Church, there have been several Councils of Aquileia. The Roman city of Aquileia at the head of the Adriatic is the seat of an ancient episcopal see, seat of the Patriarch of Aquileia.
Anastasius Bibliothecarius or Anastasius the Librarian was bibliothecarius and chief archivist of the Church of Rome and also briefly a claimant to the papacy.
The Patriarchate of Aquileia was an episcopal see in northeastern Italy, centred on the ancient city of Aquileia situated at the head of the Adriatic, on what is now the Italian seacoast. For many centuries it played an important part in history, particularly in that of the Holy See and northern Italy, and a number of church councils were held there.
Saint Odilo of Cluny was the fifth Benedictine Abbot of Cluny, holding the post for around 54 years. During his tenure Cluny became the most important monastery in western Europe. Odilo actively worked to reform the monastic practices not only at Cluny, but at other Benedictine houses. He also promoted the Truce of God whereby military hostilities were temporarily suspended at certain times for ostensibly religious reasons. Odilo encouraged the formal practice of personal consecration to Mary. He established All Souls' Day in Cluny and its monasteries as the annual commemoration to pray for all the faithful departed. The practice was soon adopted throughout the whole Western church.
Alberic III was the Count of Tusculum, along with Galeria, Preneste, and Arce, from 1024, when his brother the count Roman was elected Pope John XIX, until his own death. He was a son of Gregory I and Maria, brother of Popes Benedict VIII and John XIX, and brother-in-law of Thrasimund III of Spoleto.
Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmation or nomination by secular European rulers or by their predecessors. The later procedures of the papal conclave are in large part designed to constrain the interference of secular rulers which characterized the first millennium of the Roman Catholic Church, and persisted in practices such as the creation of crown-cardinals and the jus exclusivae. Appointment might have taken several forms, with a variety of roles for the laity and civic leaders, Byzantine and Germanic emperors, and noble Roman families. The role of the election vis-a-vis the general population and the clergy was prone to vary considerably, with a nomination carrying weight that ranged from near total to a mere suggestion or ratification of a prior election.
The Tusculan Papacy was a period of papal history from 1012 to 1048 where three successive relatives of the counts of Tusculum were installed as pope.
The Patriarchate of Old Aquileia existed between 607 and 698 because of the Tricapitoline Schism in the Patriarchate of Aquileia. It was allied with the Arian Lombards, while the rival Patriarchate of Grado was allied with the Byzantine Empire.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John XIX (XX)". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
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