Pope Theodore I

Last updated
Pope

Theodore I
Theodorus I.jpg
Papacy began24 November 642
Papacy ended14 May 649
Predecessor John IV
Successor Martin I
Personal details
Birth nameTheódoros
Born Jerusalem, Byzantine Empire
Died(649-05-14)14 May 649
Rome [1]
Other popes named Theodore

Pope Theodore I (Latin : Theodorus I; d. 14 May 649) was Pope from 24 November 642 to his death in 649. [2]

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Contents

Life

According to the Liber Pontificalis , he was a Greek inhabitant of Jerusalem whose father Theodorus had been a bishop in the city. [3] He was among the many Syrian clergy who fled to Rome following the Muslim conquest of the Levant. [4]

<i>Liber Pontificalis</i> Book of biographies of popes

The Liber Pontificalis is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century. The original publication of the Liber Pontificalis stopped with Pope Adrian II (867–872) or Pope Stephen V (885–891), but it was later supplemented in a different style until Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447) and then Pope Pius II (1458–1464). Although quoted virtually uncritically from the 8th to 18th centuries, the Liber Pontificalis has undergone intense modern scholarly scrutiny. The work of the French priest Louis Duchesne, and of others has highlighted some of the underlying redactional motivations of different sections, though such interests are so disparate and varied as to render improbable one popularizer's claim that it is an "unofficial instrument of pontifical propaganda."

Muslim conquest of the Levant

The Muslim conquest of the Levant, also known as the Arab conquest of the Levant occurred in the first half of the 7th century, and refers to the conquest of the region known as the Levant or Shaam, later to become the Islamic Province of Bilad al-Sham, as part of the Islamic conquests. Arab Muslim forces had appeared on the southern borders even before the death of prophet Muhammad in 632, resulting in the Battle of Mu'tah in 629, but the real invasion began in 634 under his successors, the Rashidun Caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar ibn Khattab, with Khalid ibn al-Walid as their most important military leader.

He was made a cardinal deacon (possibly around 640) and a full cardinal by Pope John IV.

Pope John IV pope

Pope John IV reigned from 24 December 640 to his death in 642. His election followed a four-month sede vacante.

His election was supported by the Exarch of Ravenna and he was installed on 24 November 642, succeeding John IV. [5] The main focus of his pontificate was the continued struggle against the heretical Monothelites. He refused to recognize Paul as the Patriarch of Constantinople, because his predecessor, Pyrrhus, had not been correctly replaced. He pressed Emperor Constans II to withdraw the Ecthesis of Heraclius. While his efforts made little impression on Constantinople, it increased the opposition to the heresy in the West; Pyrrhus even briefly recanted his heresy (645), but was excommunicated in 648. Paul was excommunicated in 649. In response, Paul destroyed the Roman altar in the palace of Placidia and exiled or imprisoned the papal nuncios. But he also sought to end the issue with the Emperor by promulgating the Type of Constans, ordering that the Ecthesis be taken down and seeking to end discussion on the doctrine. [6]

Monothelitism

Monothelitism or monotheletism is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus. The Christological doctrine formally emerged in Armenia and Syria in 629. Specifically, monothelitism is the view that Jesus Christ has two natures but only one will. That is contrary to the Christology that Jesus Christ has two wills that correspond to his two natures (dyothelitism). Monothelitism is a development of the Neo-Chalcedonian position in the Christological debates. Formulated in 638, it enjoyed considerable popularity, even garnering patriarchal support, before being rejected and denounced as heretical in 681, at the Third Council of Constantinople.

Paul II was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 641 to 653. He assumed regency for Byzantine emperor Constans II after a succession crisis in 641. Stephanos of Clypea appears to have served as secretary/scribe of Patriarch Paulus II of Constantinople against the Monothelites, in 646 AD [Steph. Antonii Morcelli, Africa Christiana, vol. 1, 1136: Clypiensis, LDCCCXVI, p. 144].

Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople position

The Ecumenical Patriarch is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church. The term Ecumenical in the title is a historical reference to the Ecumene, a Greek designation for the civilised world, i.e. the Roman Empire, and it stems from Canon 28 of the Council of Chalcedon.

Theodore planned the Lateran Council of 649 to condemn the Ecthesis, but died before he could convene it. His successor, Pope Martin I, did so instead. Theodore was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. [6]

Lateran Council of 649

The Lateran Council of 649 was a synod held in the Basilica of St. John Lateran to condemn Monothelitism, a Christology espoused by many Eastern Christians. The Council did not achieve ecumenical status in either East or West, but represented the first attempt of a pope to convene an ecumenical council independent of the Roman emperor.

Pope Martin I pope

Pope Martin I reigned from 21 July 649 to his death in 655. He succeeded Pope Theodore I on 5 July 649. He was the only pope during the Eastern Roman domination of the papacy whose election was not approved by an iussio from Constantinople. Martin I was exiled by Emperor Constans II and died at Cherson. He is considered a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

St. Peters Basilica Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City

The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, or simply St. Peter's Basilica, is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome.

His feast day in the Orthodox Church is on 18 May. [7]

May 18 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) day in the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar

May 17—Eastern Orthodox Church calendar—May 19

See also

Notes

  1. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Theodore I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  2. "Theodore I", The Holy See
  3. Anastasius (bibliothecarius) (1602). Bibliothecarii Historia, de vitis romanorvm pontificvm. in typographeio I. Albini. p. 67. Theodorus, natione Grecus, ex patre Theodoro episcopo de civitate Hierusolima
  4. Paul F. Bradshaw (2013). New SCM Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship. Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd. p. 5. ISBN   9780334049326.
  5. Chisholm 1911.
  6. 1 2 Mann 1913.
  7. (in Greek) Ὁ Ἅγιος Θεόδωρος ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας Ἐπίσκοπος Ρώμης. 18 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.

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References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
John IV
Pope
642649
Succeeded by
Martin I