Synod of Bishops in the Catholic Church

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In the Roman Catholic Church, the Synod of Bishops is an advisory body for the Pope. It is described in the Code of Canon Law (CIC) as "a group of bishops who have been chosen from different regions of the world and meet together at fixed times to foster closer unity between the Roman Pontiff and bishops, to assist the Roman Pontiff with their counsel in the preservation and growth of faith and morals and in the observance and strengthening of ecclesiastical discipline, and to consider questions pertaining to the activity of the Church in the world." [1]

The Synod of Bishops is permanent, even when not in session. [2] [3] Periodically, it holds assemblies, which are either general, if called to consider matters directly concerning the universal Church, or special, if called for problems of a particular geographical area. [4] The general assemblies are either ordinary (held at fixed intervals) or extraordinary (held to treat of some urgent matter). [5]

The Synod of Bishops also has a permanent secretariat [6] headquartered in Rome but is not part of the Roman Curia. [7] Pope Francis greatly increased both the authority and influence of the Synod in September 2018. [8]

Establishment and nature

In 1959, Cardinal Silvio Oddi proposed a permanent consultative body of priests drawn from many parts of the world to discuss major concerns of the Church. The same year Cardinal Bernardus Johannes Alfrink proposed a permanent council of specialized bishops to legislate for the Church in union with the Pope and the cardinals. [9] In 1963, during the third session of the Second Vatican Council, Patriarch Maximos IV proposed that the church should be governed by the Pope and the bishops as successors of Peter and the apostles respectively, not by the Pope and the "Roman clergy", that is, the College of Cardinals. Maximos proposed that the Council establish a rotating body of bishops in continuous residence in Rome to assist the Pope. [10]

On 15 September 1965, as the Council was drawing to a close, Pope Paul VI established the Synod of Bishops, [11] noting that "the Ecumenical Council ... gave Us the idea of permanently establishing a special Council of bishops, with the aim of providing for a continuance after the Council of the great abundance of benefits that We have been so happy to see flow to the Christian people during the time of the Council as a result of Our close collaboration with the bishops." [12] The Pope sought "to make ever greater use of the bishops' assistance in providing for the good of the universal Church" and to enjoy "the consolation of their presence, the help of their wisdom and experience, the support of their counsel, and the voice of their authority." [12] This preempted action by the Council and made the Synod "immediately and directly" subject to papal authority, ensuring that it would be strictly an advisory body. [13] The Synod of the Bishops does not constitute collegial governance of the Church, but represents a collaboration with the Pope: it discusses topics proposed to it and makes recommendations, but does not settle questions or issue decrees, unless the Pope grants it deliberative power in certain cases. [14]

Under John Paul II

Under Benedict XVI

Under Francis

From the beginning of his papacy, Pope Francis expressed his desire to strengthen the collegial aspects of the Church's governance, [15] and he argued for more recognition of charismatic gifts in the Church. [16] He has held major synods on the topics of the family (2014), on youth (2018), and on the Church in the Pan-Amazon region (2019). On September 15, 2018, Francis approved the new apostolic constitution Episcopalis communio (Episcopal Communion). [8] [17] The constitution states that the Synod's final document, if approved by the members with "moral unanimity" and expressly approved by the Pope, becomes part of the Ordinary Magisterium of Catholic teaching. [18] The new constitution also provides for the laity to send their contributions directly to the synod's secretary general. [17] Some analysts surmise that the greatest achievement of Francis' papacy may be his creation of a more synodal Catholic church, where synods serve as a platform for open and energetic debate. [19]

Secretariat and Council

The Synod of the Bishops has its own permanent general secretariat, composed of the General Secretary and a fifteen-member council, twelve of whom are elected by each general assembly and three are appointed by the Pope. The secretariat assists in preparing the apostolic exhortation which the Pope publishes on the basis of the recommendations of each general assembly, and it prepares the next assembly. Their function ceases with the start of a new general assembly. A similar function is performed by specific special councils elected by the special assemblies. [20] [9] [7]

Secretaries-General of the Synod of Bishops

Powers of the Pope

The pope convokes the Synod of Bishops; ratifies the election of participants; determines the topic of discussion; distributes the material for discussion; sets the agenda; and presides either personally or through delegates. [22]

The pope may also appoint participants of his own choosing, their number limited to 15% of the other delegates who participate either ex officio or as elected representatives of episcopal conferences or the Union of Superiors General. [23]


The procedures followed at assemblies of the Synod of the Bishops are indicated in the Order of the Synod of Bishops, originally issued in 1969, the latest revision of which was published on 29 September 2006. [24]

Ordinary general assemblies

In preparation for each ordinary general assembly, episcopal conferences are asked to suggest up to three themes for discussion. After the secretariat has studied those proposals, the Pope, generally on the basis of the secretariat's recommendation, establishes the topic and agenda of the assembly. Criteria for the choice of the topic are: 1) that it be of universal, not merely regional, interest; 2) that it be pastoral in character with a firm doctrinal base; 3) that it be contemporary and urgent enough to stir up "new energies and movements in the church towards growth"; 4) that it can be addressed within the allotted time. [9] [25]

Most participants in the assembly, called Synodal fathers, are elected by the bishops' conferences: one in the case of a conference with no more than 25 members, two if a conference has up to 50 members, three from a conference with up to 100 members, and four from a larger conference. [26] Other representative participants include heads of Eastern Catholic Churches, ten members of religious institutes elected by the Union of Superiors General, and the cardinals who head the Roman Congregations and some other departments of the Roman Curia. [27] Dozens more participate by virtue of synodal functions assigned by the Holy See or as papal appointees, mostly cardinals and other curiate or diocesan prelates.

Fraternal delegates from several Orthodox and Protestant churches (7 each in 2015) have observer status. [28]

The secretariat, which includes various other clerical and lay experts, prepares a preliminary outline document ( Lineamenta ) which is distributed to all concerned for comment. Based on this feedback, a working document ( instrumentum laboris ) is prepared and distributed to all churches. This document is the basis for discussions at the synod. The assembly examines proposals (propositiones) put forward by its members and passes to the Pope those that receive the assembly's approval. The Pope uses these as the basis for a papal post-synodal apostolic exhortation. [29]

The first general assemblies attempted to draw up their own concluding documents, but found that the time available was insufficient for doing so properly.

Extraordinary general assemblies

In view of the greater urgency that justify their convocation, the preparation of extraordinary general assemblies of the Synod of the Bishops is shorter. The participants also are fewer, consisting of the heads of Eastern Catholic Churches, the presidents (only) of episcopal conferences, three members (not ten) of religious institutes and the cardinals who head dicasteries of the Roman Curia. [30]

As of October 2014, there have been three such assemblies, in 1969, 1985, and 2014.

Special assemblies

Special assemblies of the Synod of the Bishops are limited to a certain geographical area, a country, region, or continent. Their participants, chosen in line with the rules for extraordinary general assemblies, are limited to those directly involved in that geographical area.

Special assemblies have been held for Africa (twice), America, Asia, Europe (twice), Oceania, the Middle East, Lebanon, and the Netherlands. Another is planned for the Amazon region.


The Synod of the Bishops has held the following assemblies: [3] [31]

Ordinary General

YearNumberTopicConcluding document or apostolic exhortation
1967IPreserving and Strengthening the Catholic FaithNone. Called for the creation of an International Theological Commission and a revision of the Code of Canon Law.
1971II The Ministerial Priesthood and Justice in the World Justice in the World [32] [33]
1974IIIEvangelization in the Modern World Evangelii nuntiandi (apostolic exhortation) [34] [lower-alpha 1]
1977IVCatechesis in Our Time Catechesi Tradendae (apostolic exhortation) [37]
1980VThe Christian Family Familiaris consortio (apostolic exhortation) [38] [39]
1983VIPenance and Reconciliation in the Mission of the Church Reconciliatio et paenitentia (apostolic exhortation) [40]
1987VIIThe Vocation and Mission of the Lay Faithful in the Church and in the World Christifideles laici (apostolic exhortation) [41]
1990VIIIThe Formation of Priests in Circumstances of the Present Day Pastores dabo vobis (apostolic exhortation) [42]
1994IXThe Consecrated Life and its Role in the Church and in the World Vita consecrata [43]
2001XThe Bishop: Servant of the Gospel of Jesus Christ for the Hope of the WorldPastores gregis (apostolic exhortation) [44]
2005XIThe Eucharist: Source and Summit of the Life and Mission of the Church Sacramentum caritatis (apostolic exhortation) [45]
2008XIIThe Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church Verbum Domini (apostolic exhortation) [46]
2012XIIIThe New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith Evangelii gaudium (apostolic exhortation) [47]
2015XIV The Vocation and Mission of the Family in the Church and in the Contemporary World * Relatio Synodi [48]

* Amoris laetitia (apostolic exhortation) [49]

2018XV Young People, Faith, and Vocational Discernment Christus Vivit (apostolic exhortation) [50]

Extraordinary General

YearNumberTopicConcluding document or apostolic exhortation
1969ICooperation between the Holy See and the Episcopal Conferences [51]
1985IIThe Twentieth Anniversary of the Conclusion of the Second Vatican Council [51] The Church, in the Word of God, Celebrates the Mysteries of Christ for the Salvation of the World, Rome
2014III The Pastoral Challenges of the Family in the Context of Evangelization [51] *Relatio Synodi of the III Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops: "Pastoral Challenges to the Family in the Context of Evangelization", Rome


YearTopicConcluding document or apostolic exhortation
1980NetherlandsJohn Paul II, Pope (30 January 1980), Conclusions of the Special Synod of the Bishops of the Netherlands, Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
1994Africa (14 September 1995), Ecclesia in Africa (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
1995Lebanon (10 May 1997), Ecclesia in Libanon (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
1997America (22 November 1999), Ecclesia in America (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
1998Asia [lower-alpha 2] (6 November 1999), Ecclesia in Asia (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
1998Oceania (6 November 1999), Ecclesia in Oceania (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
1999Europe (28 June 2003), Ecclesia in Europa (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
2009AfricaBenedict XVI, Pope (19 November 2011), Africae munus (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
2010Middle East (9 September 2012), Ecclesia in Medio Oriente (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
2019 Pan-Amazon region [53] [54]

See also


  1. The Synod participants, divided in interests and philosophies, had problems producing a report of their discussions to submit to Pope Paul, [35] and he disputed much of their contributions. [36]
  2. The synod devoted to Asia provoked a very critical response from the bishops of Japan. [52]

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  2. Paul VI 1965, I.
  3. 1 2 "Summary of the synod assemblies", Synodal Information, Vatican City: General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, 15 September 2007.
  4. CIC 1983, Canon 345.
  5. CIC 1983, Canon 346.
  6. CIC 1983, Canon 348.
  7. 1 2 Okoye 2011, p. 17.
  8. 1 2 Pantin, Edward. "18 September 2018". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  9. 1 2 3 Notes on the Synodal Process, Vatican City: General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, 15 September 2007.
  10. O'Malley S. J., John W. (2008), What Happened at Vatican II (Kindle ed.), Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, loc. 3769-3779, ISBN   978-0-674-03169-2
  11. O'Malley S. J., John W. (2008), What Happened at Vatican II (Kindle ed.), Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, loc. 3792, ISBN   978-0-674-03169-2
  12. 1 2 Paul VI 1965, Introduction.
  13. O'Malley S. J., John W. (2008), What Happened at Vatican II (Kindle ed.), Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, loc. 5037-5058, ISBN   978-0-674-03169-2, Whatever the merits of Apostolica Sollicitudo, it was an expression of papal primacy, not of collegiality, a word never mentioned in the text. It was a preemptive strike by the center.
  14. CIC 1983, Canon 343.
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  23. Paul VI 1965, X.
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  31. Okoye 2011, pp. 18–19.
  32. Justice in the World, Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
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  36. "The Bishops Rebuffed". New York Times. 28 October 1974. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
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  38. Pope John Paul II (22 November 1981), Familiaris consortio (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
  39. O'Riordan, Seán (1980). "The Synod on the Family, 1980". The Furrow. 31 (12): 759–777. JSTOR   27661042.
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  42. Pope John Paul II (25 March 1992), Pastores dabo vobis (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
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  45. Pope Benedict XVI (22 February 2007), Sacramentum caritatis (Apostolic exhortation), Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
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  48. "Relatio Synodi of the XIV Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops: "The Vocation and Mission of the Family in the Church and in the Contemporary World"".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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  52. Allen Jr., John L. (19 December 2018). "When pope goes to Japan, there'll be a big dog that won't bark". Crux. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  53. San Martín, Inés (15 October 2017). "Pope announces Synod of Bishops for Pan-Amazon region". CRUX. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
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