The Pontifical Academy of Archaeology (Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia) is an academic honorary society established in Rome by the Catholic Church for the advancement of Christian archaeological study. It is one of the ten such Pontifical Academies established by the Holy See.
In the 17th century, Pope Benedict XIV responded to public and Church interest in archaeology by establishing an association of students of Roman archaeology. Antonio Bosio's work on the catacombs had drawn the attention of international archaeologists to the early history of Christianity.
In 1816 Pius VII, on the recommendation of Cardinal Consalvi, gave official recognition to the Accademia Romana di Archeologia and the academy became an important international centre of archaeological study. Its foreign members and lecturers included Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Johan David Åkerblad, Bertel Thorvaldsen, as well as sovereigns Frederick William IV of Prussia and Charles Albert of Sardinia. Pope Pius VIII gave the Academy the title of "Pontifical Academy".
In 1833 an attempt was made to remove the tomb of Raphael, but the Academy protested to Pope Gregory XVI and was successful. Later through the efforts of one of its members, the Academy was responsible for the restoration of the Tabularium on the Capitoline Hill. In the mid-19th century, the Academy became involved in a series of property rights disputes, as it hoped to prevent damage to monuments by restricting the rights of residents in low-cost housing near the Pantheon in Rome. It succeeded in obtaining from Pope Pius IX a decree for the demolition of the houses on the left side of the Pantheon; it also protested against the digging of new holes in the walls.
The Academy operates with the guidance and direction of the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archaeology.
The Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church is the Academy's "protector" and overseer. It has a membership of 130 ordinary members, with further honorary, corresponding, and associate members. Its meetings are held in the palace of the Cancelleria Apostolica. The seal of the Academy represents the ruins of a classical temple, with the motto "In apricum proferet" – "It will bring to light."
In July 2010 the Academy celebrated its 200th anniversary.
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular churches and provides the central organization for the church to advance its objectives.
The Forma Urbis Romae or Severan Marble Plan is a massive marble map of ancient Rome, created under the emperor Septimius Severus between 203 and 211. Matteo Cadario gives specific years of 205–208, noting that the map was based on property records.
A pontifical academy is an academic honorary society established by or under the direction of the Holy See. Some were in existence well before they were accepted as "Pontifical."
The Pontifical Academy of Sciences is a scientific academy of the Vatican City, established in 1936 by Pope Pius XI, and thriving with the blessing of the Papacy ever since. Its aim is to promote the progress of the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences and the study of related epistemological problems. The Academy has its origins in the Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei, founded in 1847 as a more closely supervised successor to the Accademia dei Lincei established in Rome in 1603 by the learned Roman Prince, Federico Cesi (1585–1630), who was a young botanist and naturalist, and which claimed Galileo Galilei as its president. The Accademia dei Lincei survives as a wholly separate institution.
Roman academies refers to associations of learned individuals and not institutes for instruction.
Giovanni Battista (Carlo) de Rossi was an Italian archaeologist, famous even outside his field for rediscovering early Christian catacombs.
The Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy is one of the Roman Colleges of the Catholic Church. The academy is dedicated to training priests to serve in the diplomatic corps and the Secretariat of State of the Holy See.
Camillo Caccia-Dominioni was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Prefect of the Pontifical Household from 1921 to 1935, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1935.
The Pontifical Academy of Saint Thomas Aquinas was established on 15 October 1879 by Pope Leo XIII who appointed two presidents, his brother and noted Thomist Giuseppe Pecci (1879–1890) and Tommaso Maria Zigliara, professor of theology at the College of Saint Thomas, the future Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.
Giovanni Mercati was an Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archivist of the Vatican Secret Archives and Librarian of the Vatican Library from 1936 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1936.
The Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archaeology is an official board of the Vatican founded in 1852 by Pope Pius IX for the purpose of promoting and directing excavations in the Catacombs of Rome and on other sites of Christian antiquarian interest, and of safeguarding the objects found during such excavations. In 1925, Pope Pius XI declared that the Commission was Pontifical and its competencies were defined in detail and reaffirmed recently in the conventions between the Holy See and the Italian State.
The Roman Colleges, also referred to as the Pontifical Colleges in Rome, are institutions established and maintained in Rome for the education of future ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church. Traditionally many were for students of a particular nationality. The colleges are halls of residence in which the students follow the usual seminary exercises of piety, study in private, and review the subjects treated in class. In some colleges there are special courses of instruction but the regular courses in philosophy and theology are given in a few large central institutions, such as Pontifical Urbaniana University, the Pontifical Gregorian University, the Pontifical Lateran University, and the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.
Johannes Quasten was a Roman Catholic theologian and scholar of patristics.
A pontifical commission is a committee of Catholic experts convened by the Pope for a specific purpose. The following is a list of commissions, the dates they began and the pope who established.
The Pontifical Academy of Fine Arts and Letters of the Virtuosi al Pantheon is one of the Pontifical Academies under the direction of the Holy See. The complete Italian name of the academy, Pontificia Insigne Accademia di Belle Arti e Letteratura dei Virtuosi al Pantheon, includes the adjective insigne (illustrious), often omitted in official English translations. The term Virtuosi al Pantheon is also usually left untranslated, but, in any event, should not be taken in the English musical sense of “virtuoso” but rather “artists of great merit”. The Pantheon in Rome was the historical home of the academy. The term “academy” is meant in the Renaissance definition of the term as an association of learned persons and not an institution of instruction.
The Pontifical Academy of Martyrs is one of the ten Pontifical Academies established by the Holy See. It serves to advance the cult of saints and martyrs and the study of related early Christian history, including the catacombs. It operates with guidance and support from the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments and the Roman Curia.
The Pontifical Academy of the Immaculate Conception or Pontifical Academy of (Mary) Immaculate, Italian: Pontificia Accademia dell'Immacolata, was an academic honorary society established in Rome by the Catholic Church for the advancement of the Marian dogma of Immaculate Conception.
The Pontifical Academy of Theology is a learned society founded in 1718, and is a Pontifical Academy. It is situated at Via della Conciliazione, Vatican City, Rome.
The Church of San Pellegrino in Vaticano is an ancient Roman Catholic oratory in the Vatican City, located on the Via dei Pellegrini. The church is dedicated to Saint Peregrine of Auxerre, a Roman priest appointed by Pope Sixtus II who had suffered martyrdom in Gaul in the third century. It is one of the oldest churches in the Vatican City.
Accademia often refers to: