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The Sacred Congregation of the Consulta or Sacra Consulta was a dicastery of the Roman Curia. It was set up as a 'special commission' by pope Paul IV in 1559 and officialised on 22 January 1588 by Pope Sixtus V in the papal bull Immensa Aeterni Dei . Sixtus named it the 'Congregation over the consultations of the ecclesiastical state' (Congregatio decimoquarta pro consultationibus negociorum Status Ecclesiastici)and established its composition of four cardinals, the Secretary of State as prefect and a suitable number of prelates (around eight), one of whom would act as secretary.
It interpreted laws and resolved administrative, jurisdictional and feudal questions such as vassals' appeals against their barons regarding their feudal obligations. It acted as a supreme court for disputes between cities and their governors, making it a forerunner of the modern Italian Council of State. Pope Clement XII (1730–40) built the palazzo della Consulta on the piazza del Quirinale as its headquarters, housing eight prelates, though the court actually held its sessions in the palazzo di Montecitorio or in rooms in the Palazzo apostolico.
It was suppressed in 1809 but revived in 1814 after the French released Pope Pius VII. In 1833 Pope Gregory XVI did not abolish the court when he abolished all the other competencies of the Secretariat of State. It finally ceased to operate on 20 September 1870 when the Papal States were abolished.
Generally a cardinal nephew held the office of prefect, though there were two exceptions to this rule:
Pope Alexander VII (1655–67) ended the cardinal nephews' influence on the Consulta.The other prefects were:
The Della Rovere family was a noble family of Italy. It had humble origins in Savona, in Liguria, and acquired power and influence through nepotism and ambitious marriages arranged by two Della Rovere popes: Francesco Della Rovere, who ruled as Sixtus IV from 1471 to 1484) and his nephew Giuliano, who became Julius II in 1503. Sixtus IV built the Sistine Chapel, which is named for him. The Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome is the family church of the Della Rovere. Members of the family were influential in the Church of Rome, and as dukes of Urbino; that title was extinguished with the death of Francesco Maria II in 1631, and the family died out with the death of his grand-daughter Vittoria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany.
The Quirinal Hill is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center. It is the location of the official residence of the Italian head of state, who resides in the Quirinal Palace; by metonymy "the Quirinal" has come to stand for the Italian president. The Quirinal Palace has an extension of 1.2 million square feet.
The Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church is an office of the papal household that administers the property and revenues of the Holy See. Formerly, his responsibilities included the fiscal administration of the Patrimony of Saint Peter. As regulated in the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus of 1988, the camerlengo is always a cardinal, though this was not the case prior to the 15th century. His heraldic arms are ornamented with two keys – one gold, one silver – in saltire, surmounted by an ombrellino, a canopy or umbrella of alternating red and yellow stripes. These also form part of the coat of arms of the Holy See during a papal interregnum. The camerlengo has been Kevin Farrell since his appointment by Pope Francis on 14 February 2019. The vice camerlengo has been Archbishop Giampiero Gloder since 20 December 2014.
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Gaetano Moroni was an Italian writer on the history and contemporary structure of the Catholic Church and an official of the papal court in Rome. He was the author of the well-known Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica.
The Congregation for Bishops is the department of the Roman Curia that oversees the selection of most new bishops. Its proposals require papal approval to take effect, but are usually followed. The Congregation schedules the visits at five-year intervals that bishops are required to make to Rome, when they meet with the pope and various departments of the Curia. It also manages the formation of new dioceses. It is one of the more influential Congregations, since it strongly influences the human resources policy of the church.
The Apostolic Chancery was a dicastery of the Roman Curia at the service of the Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church. The principal and presiding official was the Cardinal Chancellor of Holy Roman Church who was always Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica di San Lorenzo in Damaso. The original, principal function of the office was to collect money to maintain the Papal Army. Pope Pius VII reformed the office when Emperor Napoleon I of France obviated the need for Papal armies. In the early 20th century the office collected money for missionary work. Pope Paul VI abrogated the Cancellaria Apostolica on 27 February 1973. Its obligations were transferred to the Secretariat of State.
The Palazzo della Consulta is a late Baroque palace in central Rome, Italy, that since 1955 houses the Constitutional Court of the Italian Republic. It sits across the Piazza del Quirinale from the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic, the Quirinal Palace.
The Diocese of Macerata-Tolentino-Recanati-Cingoli-Treia is a Roman Catholic diocese in Italy. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Fermo.
Tolomeo Gallio was an Italian Cardinal.
Of the 65 cardinals eligible to participate, 57 served as cardinal electors in the 1914 papal conclave. Arranged by region and within each alphabetically. Eight did not participate in the conclave. William Henry O'Connell and James Gibbons arrived too late from the United States, as did Louis-Nazaire Bégin from Quebec. Sebastiano Martinelli, Franziskus von Sales Bauer, Kolos Ferenc Vaszary, Giuseppe Prisco, and François-Virgile Dubillard were too ill or too frail.
Pietro Ostini was an Italian papal diplomat and Cardinal.
Adelardo Cattaneo was an Italian cardinal and bishop. His first name is also listed as Alardo.
Benedetto Barberini was a Catholic Cardinal and Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
Alderano Cybo was an Italian Catholic Cardinal. He served as the Secretary of State of Pope Innocent XI.
Guido Luca Ferrero (1537–1585) was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.
Giuseppe Renato Imperiali was an Italian cardinal, and known as an avid bibliophile.
Antonio Banchieri was an Italian cardinal.
The Holy Congregation of the Vatican Press was an organ of the Roman Curia.
Francesco Ravizza (1616–1675) was an Italian archbishop and diplomat, Apostolic Nuncio to Portugal from 1670 to 1673.