L

Last updated

L
L l
(See below)
L cursiva.gif
Usage
Writing system Latin script
Type Alphabetic and Logographic
Language of origin Latin language
Phonetic usage[ l ]
[ ɫ ]
[ ɮ ]
[ ɬ ]
[ ʎ ]
[ ɭ ]
[ w ]
/ɛl/
Unicode codepointU+004C, U+006C
Alphabetical position12
History
Development
L
Time period~-700 to present
Descendants  ɮ
 
 
  £
 
 
 
 L
Sisters Л
Љ
Ӆ
Ԯ
ל
ل
ܠ


𐡋

Variations(See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used with l(x), lj, ll, ly

L, or l, is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is el (pronounced /ˈɛl/ ), plural els. [1]

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph Phoenician
lamedh
Etruscan LGreek
Lambda
Latin
L
L
PhoenicianL-01.svg EtruscanL-01.svg Lambda uc lc.svg Capitalis monumentalis L.SVG

Lamedh may have come from a pictogram of an ox goad or cattle prod. Some have suggested a shepherd's staff. [2]

Use in writing systems

Phonetic and phonemic transcription

In phonetic and phonemic transcription, the International Phonetic Alphabet uses l to represent the lateral alveolar approximant.

English

In English orthography, l usually represents the phoneme /l/ , which can have several sound values, depending on the speaker's accent, and whether it occurs before or after a vowel. The alveolar lateral approximant (the sound represented in IPA by lowercase [l]) occurs before a vowel, as in lip or blend, while the velarized alveolar lateral approximant (IPA [ɫ]) occurs in bell and milk. This velarization does not occur in many European languages that use l; it is also a factor making the pronunciation of l difficult for users of languages that lack l or have different values for it, such as Japanese or some southern dialects of Chinese. A medical condition or speech impediment restricting the pronunciation of l is known as lambdacism.

In English orthography, l is often silent in such words as walk or could (though its presence can modify the preceding vowel letter's sound), and it is usually silent in such words as palm and psalm; however, there is some regional variation.

Other languages

l usually represents the sound [l] or some other lateral consonant.

Common digraphs include ll, which has a value identical to l in English, but has the separate value voiceless alveolar lateral fricative (IPA [ɬ]) in Welsh, where it can appear in an initial position. In Spanish, ll represents [ʎ], [j], [ʝ], [ɟʝ], or [ʃ], depending on dialect.

A palatal lateral approximant or palatal l (IPA [ʎ]) occurs in many languages, and is represented by gli in Italian, ll in Spanish and Catalan, lh in Portuguese, and ļ in Latvian.

In Washo, lower-case l represents a typical [l] sound, while upper-case L represents a voiceless [l̥] sound, a bit like double ll in Welsh.

Other uses

The capital letter L is used as the currency sign for the Albanian lek and the Honduran lempira. It was often used, especially in handwriting, as the currency sign for the Italian lira. It is also infrequently used as a substitute for the pound sign (£), which is based on it.

The Roman numeral L represents the number 50. [3]

In recent years, the letters L and W have become an internet meme, respectively standing for loss and win. L, in particular, is commonly used in popular culture, often referring to the slang definition of ownership. Take the L, respectively, means to accept this particular defeat. [4]

Forms and variants

In some sans-serif fonts (i.e., typefaces), the lowercase letter elll may be difficult to distinguish from the uppercase letter eye I or the digit one 1 . To avoid such confusion, some newer fonts have a finial, a curve to the right at the bottom of the lowercase letter ell.

Another means of reducing such confusion, increasingly common on European road signs and in advertisements, uses a cursive, handwriting-style lowercase letter ell. A special letter-like symbol is sometimes used for this purpose in mathematics and elsewhere. In Unicode, this symbol is U+2113SCRIPT SMALL L with HTML numeric character reference ℓ. In Japan, for example, this is the symbol for the liter. However, the International System of Units recommends using Unicode symbols U+006ClLOWERCASE L or U+004CLUPPERCASE L for the liter. [5]

Another solution, sometimes seen in Web typography, uses a serif font for the lowercase letter ell, such as l, in otherwise sans-serif text.

Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

Computing codes

Character information
PreviewLl
Unicode nameLATIN CAPITAL LETTER LLATIN SMALL LETTER L
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 76U+004C108U+006C
UTF-8 764C1086C
Numeric character reference LLll
EBCDIC family211D314793
ASCII 1764C1086C
1Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations

NATO phonetic Morse code
Lima
Loudspeaker.svg
ICS Lima.svg

Semaphore Lima.svg

Sign language L.svg Braille L.svg
Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Braille dots-123
Unified English Braille

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References

  1. "L" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989) Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. (1993); "el", "ells", op. cit.
  2. "Ancient Hebrew Research Center". Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  3. Gordon, Arthur E. (1983). Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy . University of California Press. pp.  44. ISBN   9780520038981 . Retrieved 3 October 2015. roman numerals.
  4. https://knowyourmeme.com/memes/l-and-w
  5. Unicode Consortium. "Letterlike Symbols". Unicode Code Charts. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  6. Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
  7. Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). "L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF).
  8. Cook, Richard; Everson, Michael (2001-09-20). "L2/01-347: Proposal to add six phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  9. Everson, Michael (2006-08-06). "L2/06-266: Proposal to add Latin letters and a Greek symbol to the UCS" (PDF).
  10. Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  11. Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  12. Everson, Michael; Dicklberger, Alois; Pentzlin, Karl; Wandl-Vogt, Eveline (2011-06-02). "L2/11-202: Revised proposal to encode "Teuthonista" phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF).
  13. Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF).