Pinyin

Last updated

Pinyin
Chinese 拼音
Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet
Simplified Chinese 汉语 拼音 方案
Traditional Chinese 漢語 拼音 方案

Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音 ; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音 ; pinyin :Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Contents

The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, [1] based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. [2] The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, [3] and was followed by the United Nations in 1986. [1] Attempts to make pinyin standard in Taiwan occurred in 2002 and 2009, but "Today Taiwan has no standardized spelling system" so that in 2019 "alphabetic spellings in Taiwan are marked more by a lack of system than the presence of one." [4] [5] [6] Moreover, "some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept [efforts to introduce pinyin], as it suggested that Taiwan is more closely tied to the PRC", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use. [7]

The word Hànyǔ (simplified Chinese :汉语; traditional Chinese :漢語) means 'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn (拼音) literally means 'spelled sounds'. [8]

In Yiling, Yichang, Hubei, text on road signs appears both in Chinese characters and in Hanyu Pinyin Hubei-S334-Entering-Yiling-4848.jpg
In Yiling, Yichang, Hubei, text on road signs appears both in Chinese characters and in Hanyu Pinyin

When a foreign writing system with one set of coding/decoding system is taken to write a language, certain compromises may have to be made. The result is that the decoding systems used in some foreign languages will enable non-native speakers to produce sounds more closely resembling the target language than will the coding/decoding system used by other foreign languages. Native speakers of English will decode pinyin spellings to fairly close approximations of Mandarin except in the case of certain speech sounds that are not ordinarily produced by most native speakers of English: j [tɕ] , q [tɕʰ] , x [ɕ] , z [ts] , c [tsʰ] , zh [ʈʂ] , ch [ʈʂʰ] , sh [ʂ] , h [x] , and r [ɻ] exhibiting the greatest discrepancies.

In this system, the correspondence between the Roman letter and the sound is sometimes idiosyncratic, though not necessarily more so than the way the Latin script is employed in other languages. For example, the aspiration distinction between b, d, g and p, t, k is similar to that of these syllable-initial consonants English (in which the two sets are however also differentiated by voicing), but not to that of French. Letters z and c also have that distinction, pronounced as [ts] and [tsʰ] (whilst reminiscent of both of them being used for the phoneme /ts/ in the German language and Latin script-using Slavic languages respectively). From s, z, c come the digraphs sh, zh, ch by analogy with English sh, ch . Although this introduces the novel combination zh, it is internally consistent in how the two series are related, and reminds the trained reader that many Chinese people pronounce sh, zh, ch as s, z, c (and English-speakers use zh to represent /ʒ/ in foreign languages such as Russian anyway). In the x, j, q series, the pinyin use of x is similar to its use in Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Basque, and Maltese; and the pinyin q is akin to its value in Albanian; both pinyin and Albanian pronunciations may sound similar to the ch to the untrained ear. Pinyin vowels are pronounced in a similar way to vowels in Romance languages.

The pronunciation and spelling of Chinese words are generally given in terms of initials and finals, which represent the segmental phonemic portion of the language, rather than letter by letter. Initials are initial consonants, while finals are all possible combinations of medials (semivowels coming before the vowel), a nucleus vowel, and coda (final vowel or consonant).

History

Background: romanization of Chinese before 1949

In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji (《西字奇蹟》; Xīzì Qíjī; Hsi-tzu Ch'i-chi; 'Miracle of Western Letters') in Beijing. [9] This was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xī Rú Ěrmù Zī (《西儒耳目資》; Hsi Ju Erh-mu Tzu; 'Aid to the Eyes and Ears of Western Literati ') at Hangzhou. [10] Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. [11]

One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi (方以智; Fāng Yǐzhì; Fang I-chih; 1611–1671). [12]

The first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu (1862–1910). A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script. While Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. [11]

Wade–Giles

The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. It was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. [13]

Sin Wenz

In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters which had been developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was originally intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East. [14] [note 1] This Sin Wenz or "New Writing" [15] was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. [16]

In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy (in characters) for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Dr. Sun Yat-sen's son, Sun Fo; Cai Yuanpei, the country's most prestigious educator; Tao Xingzhi, a leading educational reformer; and Lu Xun. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, biographies (including Lincoln, Franklin, Edison, Ford, and Charlie Chaplin), some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and completely replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, however, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, and therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. [17]

Yale romanization

In 1943, the U.S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is very close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways; for example, pinyinx for [ɕ] is written as sy in the Yale system. Medial semivowels are written with y and w (instead of pinyini and u), and apical vowels (syllabic consonants) with r or z. Accent marks are used to indicate tone.

Emergence and history of Hanyu Pinyin

Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou, often called "the father of pinyin," [1] [18] [19] [20] worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. He became an economics professor in Shanghai, and in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. [1]

Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and the diacritic markings from zhuyin (bopomofo). [21] "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later; "I'm the son of pinyin. It's [the result of] a long tradition from the later years of the Qing dynasty down to today. But we restudied the problem and revisited it and made it more perfect." [22]

A draft was published on February 12, 1956. The first edition of Hanyu Pinyin was approved and adopted at the Fifth Session of the 1st National People's Congress on February 11, 1958. It was then introduced to primary schools as a way to teach Standard Chinese pronunciation and used to improve the literacy rate among adults. [23]

Beginning in the early 1980s, Western publications addressing Mainland China began using the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system instead of earlier romanization systems; [24] this change followed the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and the PRC in 1979. [25] In 2001, the PRC Government issued the National Common Language Law, providing a legal basis for applying pinyin. [23] The current specification of the orthographic rules is laid down in the National Standard GB/T 16159–2012. [26]

Initials and finals

Unlike European languages, clusters of letters — initials (声母; 聲母; shēngmǔ) and finals (韵母; 韻母; yùnmǔ) — and not consonant and vowel letters, form the fundamental elements in pinyin (and most other phonetic systems used to describe the Han language). Every Mandarin syllable can be spelled with exactly one initial followed by one final, except for the special syllable er or when a trailing -r is considered part of a syllable (see below, and see erhua). The latter case, though a common practice in some sub-dialects, is rarely used in official publications.

Even though most initials contain a consonant, finals are not always simple vowels, especially in compound finals (复韵母; 複韻母; fùyùnmǔ), i.e. when a "medial" is placed in front of the final. For example, the medials [i] and [u] are pronounced with such tight openings at the beginning of a final that some native Chinese speakers (especially when singing) pronounce (, clothes, officially pronounced /í/) as /jí/ and wéi (; , to enclose, officially pronounced /uěi/) as /wěi/ or /wuěi/. Often these medials are treated as separate from the finals rather than as part of them; this convention is followed in the chart of finals below.

Initials

In each cell below, the bold letters indicate pinyin and the brackets enclose the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Velar
Plosive unaspirated b[p] d[t] g[k]
aspirated p[pʰ] t[tʰ] k[kʰ]
Nasal m[m] n[n]
Affricate unaspirated z[ts] zh[ʈʂ] j[tɕ]
aspirated c[tsʰ] ch[ʈʂʰ] q[tɕʰ]
Fricative f[f] s[s] sh[ʂ] x[ɕ] h[x]
Liquid l[l] r [ɻ]~[ʐ]
Semivowel 2y [j]/[ɥ] 1 and w [w]

1y is pronounced [ɥ] (a labial-palatal approximant) before u.
2 The letters w and y are not included in the table of initials in the official pinyin system. They are an orthographic convention for the medials i, u and ü when no initial is present. When i, u, or ü are finals and no initial is present, they are spelled yi, wu, and yu, respectively.

The conventional lexicographical order (excluding w and y), derived from the zhuyin system ("bopomofo"), is:

b  p  m  f  d  t  n  l  g  k  h  j  q  x  zh  ch  sh  r  z  c  s

According to Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet, zh, ch, and sh can be abbreviated as , ĉ, and ŝ (z, c, s with a circumflex). However, the shorthands are rarely used due to difficulty of entering them on computers and are confined mainly to Esperanto keyboard layouts.

Finals

Standard Chinese vowels (with IPA and Pinyin)
FrontCentralBack
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i ⟨i⟩  y ⟨ü⟩
ɨ ⟨i⟩
u ⟨u⟩


ɤ ⟨e⟩  o ⟨o⟩
⟨ê⟩
ɚ⟨er⟩



a⟨a⟩
Close-mid
Open-mid
Open

In each cell below, the first line indicates IPA, the second indicates pinyin for a standalone (no-initial) form, and the third indicates pinyin for a combination with an initial. Other than finals modified by an -r, which are omitted, the following is an exhaustive table of all possible finals.1 [27]

The only syllable-final consonants in Standard Chinese are -n and -ng, and -r, the last of which is attached as a grammatical suffix. A Chinese syllable ending with any other consonant either is from a non-Mandarin language (a southern Chinese language such as Cantonese, or a minority language of China; possibly reflecting final consonants in Old Chinese), or indicates the use of a non-pinyin romanization system (where final consonants may be used to indicate tones).

Coda
/i//u//n//ŋ/
Medial[ɨ]

-i
[ɤ]
e
-e
[a]
a
-a
[ei̯]
ei
-ei
[ai̯]
ai
-ai
[ou̯]
ou
-ou
[au̯]
ao
-ao
[ən]
en
-en
[an]
an
-an
[ʊŋ]

-ong
[əŋ]
eng
-eng
[aŋ]
ang
-ang
/j/[i]
yi
-i
[je]
ye
-ie
[ja]
ya
-ia
[jou̯]
you
-iu
[jau̯]
yao
-iao
[in]
yin
-in
[jɛn]
yan
-ian
[jʊŋ]
yong
-iong
[iŋ]
ying
-ing
[jaŋ]
yang
-iang
/w/[u]
wu
-u
[wo]
wo
-uo 3
[wa]
wa
-ua
[wei̯]
wei
-ui
[wai̯]
wai
-uai
[wən]
wen
-un
[wan]
wan
-uan
[wəŋ]
weng
 
[waŋ]
wang
-uang
/y/[y]
yu
2
[ɥe]
yue
-üe 2
[yn]
yun
-ün 2
[ɥɛn]
yuan
-üan 2

1[aɚ̯] is written er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final r, please see Erhua#Rules.
2ü is written as u after j, q, or x.
3uo is written as o after b, p, m, f, or w.

Technically, i, u, ü without a following vowel are finals, not medials, and therefore take the tone marks, but they are more concisely displayed as above. In addition, ê[ɛ] (; ) and syllabic nasals m (, ), n (, ), ng (, 𠮾) are used as interjections.

According to Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet, ng can be abbreviated with a shorthand of ŋ . However, this shorthand is rarely used due to difficulty of entering them on computers.

The ü sound

An umlaut is placed over the letter u when it occurs after the initials l and n when necessary in order to represent the sound [y]. This is necessary in order to distinguish the front high rounded vowel in (e.g. ; ; 'donkey') from the back high rounded vowel in lu (e.g. ; ; 'oven'). Tonal markers are added on top of the umlaut, as in .

However, the ü is not used in the other contexts where it could represent a front high rounded vowel, namely after the letters j, q, x, and y. For example, the sound of the word / (fish) is transcribed in pinyin simply as , not as . This practice is opposed to Wade–Giles, which always uses ü, and Tongyong Pinyin , which always uses yu. Whereas Wade–Giles needs of using the umlaut to distinguish between chü (pinyin ju) and chu (pinyin zhu), this ambiguity does not arise with pinyin, so the more convenient form ju is used instead of . Genuine ambiguities only happen with nu/ and lu/, which are then distinguished by an umlaut.

Many fonts or output methods do not support an umlaut for ü or cannot place tone marks on top of ü. Likewise, using ü in input methods is difficult because it is not present as a simple key on many keyboard layouts. For these reasons v is sometimes used instead by convention. For example, it is common for cellphones to use v instead of ü. Additionally, some stores in China use v instead of ü in the transliteration of their names. The drawback is that there are no tone marks for the letter v.

This also presents a problem in transcribing names for use on passports, affecting people with names that consist of the sound or , particularly people with the surname ( ), a fairly common surname, particularly compared to the surnames (), (), () and (). Previously, the practice varied among different passport issuing offices, with some transcribing as "LV" and "NV" while others used "LU" and "NU". On 10 July 2012, the Ministry of Public Security standardized the practice to use "LYU" and "NYU" in passports. [28] [29]

Although nüe written as nue, and lüe written as lue are not ambiguous, nue or lue are not correct according to the rules; nüe and lüe should be used instead. However, some Chinese input methods (e.g. Microsoft Pinyin IME) support both nve/lve (typing v for ü) and nue/lue.

Approximation from English pronunciation

Most rules given here in terms of English pronunciation are approximations, as several of these sounds do not correspond directly to sounds in English.

Pronunciation of initials

Pinyin IPA English approximation [30] Explanation
b[ p ]sparkunaspirated p, as in spark
p[ ]paystrongly aspirated p, as in pit
m[ m ]mayas in English mummy
f[ f ]fairas in English fun
d[ t ]stopunaspirated t, as in stop
t[ ]takestrongly aspirated t, as in top
n[ n ]nayas in English nit
l[ l ]layas in English love
g[ k ]skillunaspirated k, as in skill
k[ ]kaystrongly aspirated k, as in kill
h[ x ], [ h ]lochVaries between hat and Scottish loch.
j[ ]churchyardAlveo-palatal. No equivalent in English, but similar to an unaspirated "-chy-" sound when said quickly. Like q, but unaspirated. Is similar to the English name of the letter G, but curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth. Not like the s in vision despite the common English pronunciation of "Beijing". The sequence "ji" word-initially is the similar to the Japanese pronunciation of (ジ)ji, but unvoiced unless toneless.
q[ tɕʰ ]punch yourselfAlveo-palatal. No equivalent in English. Like punch yourself, with the lips spread wide as when one says ee. Curl the tip of the tongue downwards to stick it at the back of the teeth and strongly aspirate. The sequence "qi" word-initially is similar to the Japanese pronunciation of (チ)chi.
x[ ɕ ]push yourselfAlveo-palatal. No equivalent in English. Like -sh y-, with the lips spread as when one says ee and with the tip of the tongue curled downwards and stuck to the back of the teeth. The sequence "xi" is similar to the Japanese pronunciation of (シ)shi.
zh[ ʈʂ ]nurtureUnaspirated ch. Similar to hatching but retroflex, or marching in American English. Voiced in a toneless syllable.
ch[ ʈʂʰ ]churchSimilar to chin, but retroflex.
sh[ ʂ ]shirtSimilar to shoe but retroflex, or marsh in American English.
r[ ɻ ~ ʐ ]rayNo equivalent in English, but similar to the r in reduce, but with the tongue curled upward against the top of the mouth (i.e. retroflex).
z[ ts ]pizzaunaspirated c, similar to something between suds but voiceless, unless in a toneless syllable.
c[ tsʰ ]hatslike the English ts in cats, but strongly aspirated, very similar to the Czech, Polish, and Slovak c.
s[ s ]sayas in sun
w[ w ]wayas in water. Before an e or a it is sometimes pronounced like v as in violin.*
y[ j ], [ ɥ ]yeaas in yes. Before a u, pronounced with rounded lips.*
* Note on y and w

Y and w are equivalent to the semivowel medials i, u, and ü (see below). They are spelled differently when there is no initial consonant in order to mark a new syllable: fanguan is fan-guan, while fangwan is fang-wan (and equivalent to *fang-uan). With this convention, an apostrophe only needs to be used to mark an initial a, e, or o: Xi'an (two syllables: [ɕi.an]) vs. xian (one syllable: [ɕi̯ɛn]). In addition, y and w are added to fully vocalic i, u, and ü when these occur without an initial consonant, so that they are written yi, wu, and yu. Some Mandarin speakers do pronounce a [j] or [w] sound at the beginning of such words—that is, yi[i] or [ji], wu[u] or [wu], yu[y] or [ɥy],—so this is an intuitive convention. See below for a few finals which are abbreviated after a consonant plus w/u or y/i medial: wen → C+un, wei → C+ui, weng → C+ong, and you → C+iu.

** Note on the apostrophe

The apostrophe (') (隔音符号; 隔音符號; géyīn fúhào; 'syllable-dividing mark') is used before a syllable starting with a vowel (a, o, or e) in a multiple-syllable word when the syllable does not start the word, unless the syllable immediately follows a hyphen or other dash. For example, 西安 is written as Xi'an or Xī'ān, and 天峨 is written as Tian'e or Tiān'é, but 第二 is written "dì-èr", without an apostrophe. [31] This apostrophe is not used in the Taipei Metro names. [32]

Apostrophes (as well as hyphens and tone marks) are omitted on Chinese passports. [33]

Pronunciation of finals

The following is a list of finals in Standard Chinese, excepting most of those ending with r.

To find a given final:

  1. Remove the initial consonant. Zh, ch, and sh count as initial consonants.
  2. Change initial w to u and initial y to i. For weng, wen, wei, you, look under ong, un, ui, iu.
  3. For u after j, q, x, or y, look under ü.
Pinyin IPA Form with zero initial Explanation
-i[ ɹ̩ ~ ], [ ɻ̩ ~ ʐ̩ ](n/a)-i is a buzzed continuation of the consonant following z-, c-, s-, zh-, ch-, sh- or r-.

(In all other cases, -i has the sound of bee; this is listed below.)

a[ a ]alike English father, but a bit more fronted
e [ɤ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )ea back, unrounded vowel (similar to English duh, but not as open). Pronounced as a sequence [ɰɤ].
ai[ai̯]ailike English eye, but a bit lighter
ei[ei̯]eias in hey
ao[au̯]aoapproximately as in cow; the a is much more audible than the o
ou[ou̯]ouas in North American English so
an[an]anlike British English ban, but more central
en[ən]enas in taken
ang[aŋ]angas in German Angst.

(Starts with the vowel sound in father and ends in the velar nasal; like song in some dialects of American English)

eng[əŋ]englike e in en above but with ng appended
ong[ʊŋ](n/a)starts with the vowel sound in book and ends with the velar nasal sound in sing. Varies between [oŋ] and [uŋ] depending on the speaker.
er[aɚ̯]erSimilar to the sound in bar in American English. Can also be pronounced [ɚ] depending on the speaker.
Finals beginning with i- (y-)
i[ i ]yilike English bee
ia[ja]yaas i + a; like English yard
ie[je]yeas i + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter
iao[jau̯]yaoas i + ao
iu[jou̯]youas i + ou
ian[jɛn]yanas i + an; like English yen. Varies between [jen] and [jan] depending on the speaker.
in[in]yinas i + n
iang[jaŋ]yangas i + ang
ing[iŋ]yingas i + ng
iong[jʊŋ]yongas i + ong. Varies between [joŋ] and [juŋ] depending on the speaker.
Finals beginning with u- (w-)
u[ u ]wulike English oo
ua[wa]waas u + a
uo, o[wo]woas u + o where the o (compare with the o interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter (spelled as o after b, p, m or f)
uai[wai̯]waias u + ai, as in English why
ui[wei̯]weias u + ei
uan[wan]wanas u + an
un[wən]wenas u + en; as in English won
uang[waŋ]wangas u + ang
(n/a)[wəŋ]wengas u + eng
Finals beginning with ü- (yu-)
u, ü [y] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )yuas in German über or French lune.

(Pronounced as English ee with rounded lips)

ue, üe[ɥe]yueas ü + ê where the e (compare with the ê interjection) is pronounced shorter and lighter
uan[ɥɛn]yuanas ü + an. Varies between [ɥen] and [ɥan] depending on the speaker.
un[yn]yunas ü + n
Interjections
ê[ ɛ ](n/a)as in bet
o[ ɔ ](n/a)approximately as in British English office; the lips are much more rounded
io[jɔ]yoas i + o


Tones

Relative pitch changes of the four tones Pinyin Tone Chart.svg
Relative pitch changes of the four tones

The pinyin system also uses diacritics to mark the four tones of Mandarin. The diacritic is placed over the letter that represents the syllable nucleus, unless that letter is missing (see below).

Many books printed in China use a mix of fonts, with vowels and tone marks rendered in a different font from the surrounding text, tending to give such pinyin texts a typographically ungainly appearance. This style, most likely rooted in early technical limitations, has led many to believe that pinyin's rules call for this practice, e.g. the use of a Latin alpha (ɑ) rather than the standard style (a) found in most fonts, or g often written with a single-storey ɡ. The rules of Hanyu Pinyin, however, specify no such practice. [34] (3.3.4.1:8)

  1. The first tone (flat or high-level tone) is represented by a macron (ˉ) added to the pinyin vowel:
    ā ē ī ō ū ǖ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū Ǖ
  2. The second tone (rising or high-rising tone) is denoted by an acute accent (ˊ):
    á é í ó ú ǘ Á É Í Ó Ú Ǘ
  3. The third tone (falling-rising or low tone) is marked by a caron/háček (ˇ). It is not the rounded breve (˘), though a breve is sometimes substituted due to ignorance or font limitations.
    ǎ ě ǐ ǒ ǔ ǚ Ǎ Ě Ǐ Ǒ Ǔ Ǚ
  4. The fourth tone (falling or high-falling tone) is represented by a grave accent (ˋ):
    à è ì ò ù ǜ À È Ì Ò Ù Ǜ
  5. The fifth tone (neutral tone) is represented by a normal vowel without any accent mark:
    a e i o u ü A E I O U Ü
In dictionaries, neutral tone may be indicated by a dot preceding the syllable; for example, ·ma. When a neutral tone syllable has an alternative pronunciation in another tone, a combination of tone marks may be used: zhī·dào (知道). [35]

These tone marks normally are only used in Mandarin textbooks or in foreign learning texts, but they are essential for correct pronunciation of Mandarin syllables, as exemplified by the following classic example of five characters whose pronunciations differ only in their tones:

First tone (Mandarin).png
Second tone (Mandarin).png
Third tone (Mandarin).png
Fourth tone (Mandarin).png
The four main tones of Standard Mandarin, pronounced with the syllable ma.

Traditional characters:

()()()()(·ma)

Simplified characters:

()()()()(·ma)

The words are "mother", "hemp", "horse", "scold", and a question particle, respectively.

Numerals in place of tone marks

Before the advent of computers, many typewriter fonts did not contain vowels with macron or caron diacritics. Tones were thus represented by placing a tone number at the end of individual syllables. For example, tóng is written tong². The number used for each tone is as the order listed above, except the neutral tone, which is either not numbered, or given the number 0 or 5, e.g. ma⁵ for , an interrogative marker.

ToneTone MarkNumber added to end of syllable
in place of tone mark
Example using
tone mark
Example using
number
IPA
First macron ( ◌̄ )1ma1ma˥
Second acute accent ( ◌́ )2ma2ma˧˥
Third caron ( ◌̌ )3ma3ma˨˩˦
Fourth grave accent ( ◌̀ )4ma4ma˥˩
"Neutral"No mark
or middle dot before syllable ( · )
no number
5
0
ma
·ma
ma
ma5
ma0
ma

Rules for placing the tone mark

Briefly, the tone mark should always be placed by the ordera, o, e, i, u, ü, with the only exception being iu, where the tone mark is placed on the u instead. Pinyin tone marks appear primarily above the nucleus of the syllable, for example as in kuài, where k is the initial, u the medial, a the nucleus, and i the coda. The exception is syllabic nasals like /m/, where the nucleus of the syllable is a consonant, the diacritic will be carried by a written dummy vowel.

When the nucleus is /ə/ (written e or o), and there is both a medial and a coda, the nucleus may be dropped from writing. In this case, when the coda is a consonant n or ng, the only vowel left is the medial i, u, or ü, and so this takes the diacritic. However, when the coda is a vowel, it is the coda rather than the medial which takes the diacritic in the absence of a written nucleus. This occurs with syllables ending in -ui (from wei: (wèi-uì) and in -iu (from you: yòu-iù.) That is, in the absence of a written nucleus the finals have priority for receiving the tone marker, as long as they are vowels: if not, the medial takes the diacritic.

An algorithm to find the correct vowel letter (when there is more than one) is as follows: [36]

  1. If there is an a or an e, it will take the tone mark
  2. If there is an ou, then the o takes the tone mark
  3. Otherwise, the second vowel takes the tone mark

Worded differently,

  1. If there is an a, e, or o, it will take the tone mark; in the case of ao, the mark goes on the a
  2. Otherwise, the vowels are -iu or -ui, in which case the second vowel takes the tone mark

If the tone is written over an i, the tittle above the i is omitted, as in .

Phonological intuition

The placement of the tone marker, when more than one of the written letters a, e, i, o, and u appears, can also be inferred from the nature of the vowel sound in the medial and final. The rule is that the tone marker goes on the spelled vowel that is not a (near-)semi-vowel. The exception is that, for triphthongs that are spelled with only two vowel letters, both of which are the semi-vowels, the tone marker goes on the second spelled vowel.

Specifically, if the spelling of a diphthong begins with i (as in ia) or u (as in ua), which serves as a near-semi-vowel, this letter does not take the tone marker. Likewise, if the spelling of a diphthong ends with o or u representing a near-semi-vowel (as in ao or ou), this letter does not receive a tone marker. In a triphthong spelled with three of a, e, i, o, and u (with i or u replaced by y or w at the start of a syllable), the first and third letters coincide with near-semi-vowels and hence do not receive the tone marker (as in iao or uai or iou). But if no letter is written to represent a triphthong's middle (non-semi-vowel) sound (as in ui or iu), then the tone marker goes on the final (second) vowel letter.

Using tone colors

In addition to tone number and mark, tone color has been suggested as a visual aid for learning. Although there are no formal standards, there are a number of different color schemes in use.

  • Dummitt's color scheme was one of the first to be used. It is tone 1 - red, tone 2 - orange, tone 3 - green, tone 4 - blue, and neutral tone - black. [37]
  • The Unimelb color scheme is tone 1 - blue, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - purple, tone 4 - red, neutral tone - grey
  • The Hanping color scheme is tone 1 - blue, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - orange, tone 4 - red, neutral tone - grey. [38]
  • The Pleco color scheme is tone 1 - red, tone 2 - green, tone 3 - blue, tone 4 - purple, neutral tone - grey
  • The Thomas color scheme is tone 1 - green, tone 2 - blue, tone 3 - red, tone 4 - black, neutral tone - grey

Third tone exceptions

In spoken Chinese, the third tone is often pronounced as a "half third tone", in which the pitch does not rise. Additionally, when two third tones appear consecutively, such as in 你好 (nǐhǎo, hello), the first syllable is pronounced with the second tone — this is called tone sandhi. In pinyin, words like "hello" are still written with two third tones (nǐhǎo).

Orthographic rules

Letters

Pinyin differs from other romanizations in several aspects, such as the following:

Most of the above are used to avoid ambiguity when writing words of more than one syllable in pinyin. For example, uenian is written as wenyan because it is not clear which syllables make up uenian; uen-ian, uen-i-an, u-en-i-an, u-e-nian and u-e-ni-an are all possible combinations whereas wenyan is unambiguous because we, nya, etc. do not exist in pinyin. See the pinyin table article for a summary of possible pinyin syllables (not including tones).

Words, capitalization, initialisms and punctuation

Many writers are not yet aware of the rules for dividing text into words by spaces, and either put a space after each syllable, or run all words together. The manufacturer of these blankets put unnecessary spaces into 'Bishikaike' (the correct pinyin for Bi Shi Kai Ke 
, 'Bishkek') - but wrote the English text on top with no spaces at all. E7918-Dordoy-Bazaar-blankets.jpg
Many writers are not yet aware of the rules for dividing text into words by spaces, and either put a space after each syllable, or run all words together. The manufacturer of these blankets put unnecessary spaces into 'Bishikaike' (the correct pinyin for 比什凯克 , 'Bishkek') – but wrote the English text on top with no spaces at all.

Although Chinese characters represent single syllables, Mandarin Chinese is a polysyllabic language. Spacing in pinyin is usually based on words, and not on single syllables. However, there are often ambiguities in partitioning a word. The Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography (汉语拼音正词法基本规则; 漢語拼音正詞法基本規則; Hànyǔ Pīnyīn Zhèngcífǎ Jīběn Guīzé) were put into effect in 1988 by the National Educational Commission (国家教育委员会; 國家教育委員會; Guójiā Jiàoyù Wěiyuánhuì) and the National Language Commission (国家语言文字工作委员会; 國家語言文字工作委員會; Guójiā Yǔyán Wénzì Gōngzuò Wěiyuánhuì). [40] These rules became a Guóbiāo recommendation in 1996 [40] [41] and were updated in 2012. [42]

  1. General
    1. Single meaning: Words with a single meaning, which are usually set up of two characters (sometimes one, seldom three), are written together and not capitalized: rén (, person); péngyou (朋友, friend); qiǎokèlì (巧克力, chocolate)
    2. Combined meaning (2 or 3 characters): Same goes for words combined of two words to one meaning: hǎifēng (海风; 海風, sea breeze); wèndá (问答; 問答, question and answer); quánguó (全国; 全國, nationwide); chángyòngcí (常用词; 常用詞, common words)
    3. Combined meaning (4 or more characters): Words with four or more characters having one meaning are split up with their original meaning if possible: wúfèng gāngguǎn (无缝钢管; 無縫鋼管, seamless steel-tube); huánjìng bǎohù guīhuà (环境保护规划; 環境保護規劃, environmental protection planning); gāoměngsuānjiǎ (高锰酸钾; 高錳酸鉀, potassium permanganate)
  2. Duplicated words
    1. AA: Duplicated characters (AA) are written together: rénrén (人人, everybody), kànkan (看看, to have a look), niánnián (年年, every year)
    2. ABAB: Two characters duplicated (ABAB) are written separated: yánjiū yánjiū (研究研究, to study, to research), xuěbái xuěbái (雪白雪白, white as snow)
    3. AABB: Characters in the AABB schema are written together: láiláiwǎngwǎng (来来往往; 來來往往, come and go), qiānqiānwànwàn (千千万万; 千千萬萬, numerous)
  3. Prefixes (前附成分; qiánfù chéngfèn) and Suffixes (后附成分; 後附成分; hòufù chéngfèn): Words accompanied by prefixes such as (, vice), zǒng (; , chief), fēi (, non-), fǎn (, anti-), chāo (, ultra-), lǎo (, old), ā (, used before names to indicate familiarity), (, -able), (; , -less) and bàn (, semi-) and suffixes such as zi (, noun suffix), r (; , diminutive suffix), tou (; , noun suffix), xìng (, -ness, -ity), zhě (, -er, -ist), yuán (; , person), jiā (, -er, -ist), shǒu (, person skilled in a field), huà (, -ize) and men (; , plural marker) are written together: fùbùzhǎng (副部长; 副部長, vice minister), chéngwùyuán (乘务员; 乘務員, conductor), háizimen (孩子们; 孩子們, children)
  4. Nouns and names (名词; 名詞; míngcí)
    1. Words of position are separated: mén wài (门外; 門外, outdoor), hé li (河里; 河裏, under the river), huǒchē shàngmian (火车上面; 火車上面, on the train), Huáng Hé yǐnán (黄河以南; 黃河以南, south of the Yellow River)
      1. Exceptions are words traditionally connected: tiānshang (天上, in the sky or outerspace), dìxia (地下, on the ground), kōngzhōng (空中, in the air), hǎiwài (海外, overseas)
    2. Surnames are separated from the given names, each capitalized: Lǐ Huá (李华; 李華), Zhāng Sān (张三; 張三). If the surname and/or given name consists of two syllables, it should be written as one: Zhūgě Kǒngmíng (诸葛孔明; 諸葛孔明).
    3. Titles following the name are separated and are not capitalized: Wáng bùzhǎng (王部长; 王部長, Minister Wang), Lǐ xiānsheng (李先生, Mr. Li), Tián zhǔrèn (田主任, Director Tian), Zhào tóngzhì (赵同志; 趙同志, Comrade Zhao).
    4. The forms of addressing people with prefixes such as Lǎo (), Xiǎo (), () and Ā () are capitalized: Xiǎo Liú (小刘; 小劉, [young] Ms./Mr. Liu), Dà Lǐ (大李, [great; elder] Mr. Li), Ā Sān (阿三, Ah San), Lǎo Qián (老钱; 老錢, [senior] Mr. Qian), Lǎo Wú (老吴; 老吳, [senior] Mr. Wu)
      1. Exceptions include Kǒngzǐ (孔子, Confucius), Bāogōng (包公, Judge Bao), Xīshī (西施, Xishi), Mèngchángjūn (孟尝君; 孟嘗君, Lord Mengchang)
    5. Geographical names of China: Běijīng Shì (北京市, city of Beijing), Héběi Shěng (河北省, province of Hebei), Yālù Jiāng (鸭绿江; 鴨綠江, Yalu River), Tài Shān (泰山, Mount Tai), Dòngtíng Hú (洞庭湖, Dongting Lake), Qióngzhōu Hǎixiá (琼州海峡; 瓊州海峽, Qiongzhou Strait)
      1. Monosyllabic prefixes and suffixes are written together with their related part: Dōngsì Shítiáo (东四; 東四, Dongsi 10th Alley)
      2. Common geographical nouns that have become part of proper nouns are written together: Hēilóngjiāng (黑龙江; 黑龍江, Heilongjiang)
    6. Non-Chinese names are written in Hanyu Pinyin: Āpèi Āwàngjìnměi (阿沛·阿旺晋美; 阿沛·阿旺晉美, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme); Dōngjīng (东京; 東京, Tokyo)
  5. Verbs (动词; 動詞; dòngcí): Verbs and their suffixes -zhe (; ), -le () or -guo ((; ) are written as one: kànzhe (看着; 看著, seeing), jìnxíngguo (进行过; 進行過, have been implemented). Le as it appears in the end of a sentence is separated though: Huǒchē dào le. (火车到了; 火車到了, The train [has] arrived).
    1. Verbs and their objects are separated: kàn xìn (看信, read a letter), chī yú (吃鱼; 吃魚, eat fish), kāi wánxiào (开玩笑; 開玩笑, to be kidding).
    2. If verbs and their complements are each monosyllabic, they are written together; if not, they are separated: gǎohuài (搞坏; 搞壞, to make broken), dǎsǐ (打死, hit to death), huàwéi (化为; 化為, to become), zhěnglǐ hǎo (整理好, to sort out), gǎixiě wéi (改写为; 改寫為, to rewrite as)
  6. Adjectives (形容词; 形容詞; xíngróngcí): A monosyllabic adjective and its reduplication are written as one: mēngmēngliàng (矇矇亮, dim), liàngtángtáng (亮堂堂, shining bright)
    1. Complements of size or degree such as xiē (), yīxiē (一些), diǎnr (点儿; 點兒) and yīdiǎnr (一点儿; 一點兒) are written separated: dà xiē (大些), a little bigger), kuài yīdiǎnr (快一点儿; 快一點兒, a bit faster)
  7. Pronouns (代词; 代詞; dàicí)
    1. Personal pronouns and interrogative pronouns are separated from other words: Wǒ ài Zhōngguó. (我爱中国。; 我愛中國。, I love China); Shéi shuō de? (谁说的?; 誰說的?, Who said it?)
    2. The demonstrative pronoun zhè (; , this), (, that) and the question pronoun (, which) are separated: zhè rén (这人; 這人, this person), nà cì huìyì (那次会议; 那次會議, that meeting), nǎ zhāng bàozhǐ (哪张报纸; 哪張報紙, which newspaper)
      1. Exception—If zhè, or are followed by diǎnr (点儿; 點兒), bān (), biān (; ), shí (; ), huìr (会儿; 會兒), (; ), me (; ) or the general classifier ge (; ), they are written together: nàlǐ (那里; 那裏, there), zhèbiān (这边; 這邊, over here), zhège (这个; 這個, this)
  8. Numerals (数词; 數詞; shùcí) and measure words (量词; 量詞; liàngcí)
    1. Numbers and words like (, each), měi (, each), mǒu (, any), běn (, this), gāi (; , that), (, my, our) and (, your) are separated from the measure words following them: liǎng gè rén (两个人; 兩個人, two people), gè guó (各国; 各國, every nation), měi nián (每年, every year), mǒu gōngchǎng (某工厂; 某工廠, a certain factory), wǒ xiào (我校, our school)
    2. Numbers up to 100 are written as single words: sānshísān (三十三, thirty-three). Above that, the hundreds, thousands, etc. are written as separate words: jiǔyì qīwàn èrqiān sānbǎi wǔshíliù (九亿七万二千三百五十六; 九億七萬二千三百五十六, nine hundred million, seventy-two thousand, three hundred fifty-six). Arabic numerals are kept as Arabic numerals: 635 fēnjī (635 分机; 635 分機, extension 635)
    3. According to 汉语拼音正词法基本规则 6.1.5.4, the ( ) used in ordinal numerals is followed by a hyphen: - ( 第一 , first), -356 (第 356, 356th). The hyphen should not be used if the word in which () and the numeral appear does not refer to an ordinal number in the context. For example: Dìwǔ ( 第五 , a Chinese compound surname). [43] [44] The chū () in front of numbers one to ten is written together with the number: chūshí (初十, tenth day)
    4. Numbers representing month and day are hyphenated: wǔ-sì (五四, May fourth), yīèr-jiǔ (一二·九, December ninth)
    5. Words of approximations such as duō (), lái (; ) and (; ) are separated from numerals and measure words: yībǎi duō gè (一百多个; 一百多個, around a hundred); shí lái wàn gè (十来万个; 十來萬個, around a hundred thousand); jǐ jiā rén (几家人; 幾家人, a few families)
      1. Shíjǐ (十几; 十幾, more than ten) and jǐshí (几十; 幾十, tens) are written together: shíjǐ gè rén (十几个人; 十幾個人, more than ten people); jǐshí (几十根钢管; 幾十根鋼管, tens of steel pipes)
    6. Approximations with numbers or units that are close together are hyphenated: sān-wǔ tiān (三五天, three to five days), qiān-bǎi cì (千百次, thousands of times)
  9. Other function words (虚词; 虛詞; xūcí) are separated from other words
    1. Adverbs (副词; 副詞; fùcí): hěn hǎo (很好, very good), zuì kuài (最快, fastest), fēicháng dà (非常大, extremely big)
    2. Prepositions (介词; 介詞; jiècí): zài qiánmiàn (在前面, in front)
    3. Conjunctions (连词; 連詞; liáncí): nǐ hé wǒ (你和我, you and I/me), Nǐ lái háishi bù lái? (你来还是不来?; 你來還是不來?, Are you coming or not?)
    4. "Constructive auxiliaries" (结构助词; 結構助詞; jiégòu zhùcí) such as de (的/地/得), zhī () and suǒ (): mànmàn de zou (慢慢地走), go slowly)
      1. A monosyllabic word can also be written together with de (的/地/得): wǒ de shū / wǒde shū (我的书; 我的書, my book)
    5. Modal auxiliaries at the end of a sentence: Nǐ zhīdào ma? (你知道吗?; 你知道嗎?, Do you know?), Kuài qù ba! (快去吧!, Go quickly!)
    6. Exclamations and interjections: À! Zhēn měi! (啊!真美!), Oh, it's so beautiful!)
    7. Onomatopoeia: mó dāo huòhuò (磨刀霍霍, honing a knife), hōnglōng yī shēng (轰隆一声; 轟隆一聲, rumbling)
  10. Capitalization
    1. The first letter of the first word in a sentence is capitalized: Chūntiān lái le. (春天来了。; 春天來了。, Spring has arrived.)
    2. The first letter of each line in a poem is capitalized.
    3. The first letter of a proper noun is capitalized: Běijīng (北京, Beijing), Guójì Shūdiàn (国际书店; 國際書店, International Bookstore), Guójiā Yǔyán Wénzì Gōngzuò Wěiyuánhuì (国家语言文字工作委员会; 國家語言文字工作委員會, National Language Commission)
      1. On some occasions, proper nouns can be written in all caps: BĚIJĪNG, GUÓJÌ SHŪDIÀN, GUÓJIĀ YǓYÁN WÉNZÌ GŌNGZUÒ WĚIYUÁNHUÌ
    4. If a proper noun is written together with a common noun to make a proper noun, it is capitalized. If not, it is not capitalized: Fójiào (佛教, Buddhism), Tángcháo (唐朝, Tang dynasty), jīngjù (京剧; 京劇, Beijing opera), chuānxiōng (川芎, Szechuan lovage)
  11. Initialisms
    1. Single words are abbreviated by taking the first letter of each character of the word: Bjīng (北京, Beijing) → BJ
    2. A group of words are abbreviated by taking the first letter of each word in the group: guójiā biāozhǔn (国家标准; 國家標準, Guóbiāo standard) → GB
    3. Initials can also be indicated using full stops: BeǐjīngB.J., guójiā biāozhǔnG.B.
    4. When abbreviating names, the surname is written fully (first letter capitalized or in all caps), but only the first letter of each character in the given name is taken, with full stops after each initial: Lǐ Huá (李华; 李華) → Lǐ H. or LǏ H., Zhūgě Kǒngmíng (诸葛孔明; 諸葛孔明) → Zhūgě K. M. or ZHŪGĚ K. M.
  12. Line Wrapping
    1. Words can only be split by the character:
      guāngmíng (光明, bright) → guāng-
      míng
      , not gu-
      āngmíng
    2. Initials cannot be split:
      Wáng J. G. (王建国; 王建國) → Wáng
      J. G.
      , not Wáng J.-
      G.
    3. Apostrophes are removed in line wrapping:
      Xī'ān (西安, Xi'an) → Xī-
      ān
      , not Xī-
      'ān
    4. When the original word has a hyphen, the hyphen is added at the beginning of the new line:
      chēshuǐ-mǎlóng (车水马龙; 車水馬龍, heavy traffic: "carriage, water, horse, dragon") → chēshuǐ-
      -mǎlóng
  13. Hyphenation: In addition to the situations mentioned above, there are four situations where hyphens are used.
    1. Coordinate and disjunctive compound words, where the two elements are conjoined or opposed, but retain their individual meaning: gōng-jiàn (弓箭, bow and arrow), kuài-màn (快慢, speed: "fast-slow"), shíqī-bā suì (十七八岁; 十七八歲, 17–18 years old), dǎ-mà (打骂; 打罵, beat and scold), Yīng-Hàn (英汉; 英漢, English-Chinese [dictionary]), Jīng-Jīn (京津, Beijing-Tianjin), lù-hǎi-kōngjūn (陆海空军; 陸海空軍, army-navy-airforce).
    2. Abbreviated compounds (略语; 略語; lüèyǔ): gōnggòng guānxì (公共关系; 公共關係, public relations) → gōng-guān (公关; 公關, PR), chángtú diànhuà (长途电话; 長途電話, long-distance calling) → cháng-huà (长话; 長話, LDC).
      Exceptions are made when the abbreviated term has become established as a word in its own right, as in chūzhōng (初中) for chūjí zhōngxué (初级中学; 初級中學, junior high school). Abbreviations of proper-name compounds, however, should always be hyphenated: Běijīng Dàxué (北京大学; 北京大學, Peking University) → Běi-Dà (北大, PKU).
    3. Four-syllable idioms: fēngpíng-làngjìng (风平浪静; 風平浪靜), calm and tranquil: "wind calm, waves down"), huījīn-rútǔ (挥金如土; 揮金如土, spend money like water: "throw gold like dirt"), zhǐ-bǐ-mò-yàn (纸笔墨砚; 紙筆墨硯, paper-brush-ink-inkstone [four coordinate words]). [45]
      1. Other idioms are separated according to the words that make up the idiom: bēi hēiguō (背黑锅; 背黑鍋, to be made a scapegoat: "to carry a black pot"), zhǐ xǔ zhōuguān fànghuǒ, bù xǔ bǎixìng diǎndēng (只许州官放火,不许百姓点灯; 只許州官放火,不許百姓點燈, Gods may do what cattle may not: "only the official is allowed to light the fire; the commoners are not allowed to light a lamp")
  14. Punctuation
    1. The Chinese full stop (。) is changed to a western full stop (.)
    2. The hyphen is a half-width hyphen (-)
    3. Ellipsis can be changed from 6 dots (......) to 3 dots (...)
    4. The enumeration comma (、) is changed to a normal comma (,)
    5. All other punctuation marks are the same as the ones used in normal texts

Comparison with other orthographies

Pinyin is now used by foreign students learning Chinese as a second language, as well as Bopomofo.

Pinyin assigns some Latin letters sound values which are quite different from that of most languages. This has drawn some criticism as it may lead to confusion when uninformed speakers apply either native or English assumed pronunciations to words. However, this problem is not limited only to pinyin, since many languages that use the Latin alphabet natively also assign different values to the same letters. A recent study on Chinese writing and literacy concluded, "By and large, pinyin represents the Chinese sounds better than the Wade–Giles system, and does so with fewer extra marks." [46]

Because Pinyin is purely a representation of the sounds of Mandarin, it completely lacks the semantic cues and contexts inherent in Chinese characters. Pinyin is also unsuitable for transcribing some Chinese spoken languages other than Mandarin, languages which by contrast have traditionally been written with Han characters allowing for written communication which, by its unified semanto-phonetic orthography, could theoretically be readable in any of the various vernaculars of Chinese where a phonetic script would have only localized utility.

Comparison charts

Vowels a, e, o
IPA aɔɛɤaieiauouanənəŋʊŋ
Pinyin aoêeaieiaoouanenangengonger
Tongyong Pinyin ee
Wade–Giles ehê/oênêngungêrh
Bopomofo ㄨㄥ
example呗/唄
Vowels i, u, y
IPA ijejoujɛninjʊŋuwoweiwənwəŋyɥeɥɛnyn
Pinyin yiyeyouyanyinyingyongwuwo/oweiwenwengyuyueyuanyun
Tongyong Pinyin wunwong
Wade–Giles i/yiyehyuyenyungwênwêngyüehyüanyün
Bopomofo ㄧㄝㄧㄡㄧㄢㄧㄣㄧㄥㄩㄥㄨㄛ/ㄛㄨㄟㄨㄣㄨㄥㄩㄝㄩㄢㄩㄣ
example云/雲
Non-sibilant consonants
IPA pmfəŋtjoutweitwəntʰɤnylykɤɚkʰɤ
Pinyin bpmfengdiuduiduntegerkehe
Tongyong Pinyin fongdioudueinyulyu
Wade–Giles ppʻfêngtiutuituntʻêkorkʻoho
Bopomofo ㄈㄥㄉㄧㄡㄉㄨㄟㄉㄨㄣㄊㄜㄋㄩㄌㄩㄍㄜㄦㄎㄜㄏㄜ
example兑/兌顿/頓歌儿/歌兒
Sibilant consonants
IPA tɕjɛntɕjʊŋtɕʰinɕɥɛnʈʂɤʈʂɨʈʂʰɤʈʂʰɨʂɤʂɨɻɤɻɨtsɤtswotsɨtsʰɤtsʰɨ
Pinyin jianjiongqinxuanzhezhichechisheshirerizezuozicecisesi
Tongyong Pinyin jyongcinsyuanjhejhihchihshihrihzihcihsih
Wade–Giles chienchiungchʻinhsüanchêchihchʻêchʻihshêshihjihtsêtsotzŭtsʻêtzʻŭssŭ
Bopomofo ㄐㄧㄢㄐㄩㄥㄑㄧㄣㄒㄩㄢㄓㄜㄔㄜㄕㄜㄖㄜㄗㄜㄗㄨㄛㄘㄜㄙㄜ
example
Tones
IPA ma˥˥ma˧˥ma˨˩˦ma˥˩ma
Pinyin ma
Tongyong Pinyin ma
Wade–Giles ma1ma2ma3ma4ma
Bopomofo ㄇㄚㄇㄚˊㄇㄚˇㄇㄚˋ˙ㄇㄚ
example (Chinese characters)妈/媽马/馬骂/罵吗/嗎

Unicode code points

Based on ISO 7098:2015, Information and Documentation: Chinese Romanization (Chinese :《信息与文献——中文罗马字母拼写法》), tonal marks for pinyin should use the symbols from Combining Diacritical Marks, as opposed by the use of Spacing Modifier Letters in Bopomofo. Letters with combined tone marks are included in GB/T 2312 and the supersets, GBK and GB 18030, and thus Unicode includes all the common accented characters from pinyin. [47]

Due to The Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography, all accented letters are required to have both uppercase and lowercase character as per their normal counterparts.

Accented pinyin characters [1]
LetterFirst toneSecond toneThird toneFourth tone
Combining Diacritical Marks ̄ (U+0304)́ (U+0301)̌ (U+030C)̀ (U+0300)
Common letters
UppercaseAĀ (U+0100)Á (U+00C1)Ǎ (U+01CD)À (U+00C0)
EĒ (U+0112)É (U+00C9)Ě (U+011A)È (U+00C8)
IĪ (U+012A)Í (U+00CD)Ǐ (U+01CF)Ì (U+00CC)
OŌ (U+014C)Ó (U+00D3)Ǒ (U+01D1)Ò (U+00D2)
UŪ (U+016A)Ú (U+00DA)Ǔ (U+01D3)Ù (U+00D9)
Ü (U+00DC)Ǖ (U+01D5)Ǘ (U+01D7)Ǚ (U+01D9)Ǜ (U+01DB)
Lowercaseaā (U+0101)á (U+00E1)ǎ (U+01CE)à (U+00E0)
eē (U+0113)é (U+00E9)ě (U+011B)è (U+00E8)
iī (U+012B)í (U+00ED)ǐ (U+01D0)ì (U+00EC)
oō (U+014D)ó (U+00F3)ǒ (U+01D2)ò (U+00F2)
uū (U+016B)ú (U+00FA)ǔ (U+01D4)ù (U+00F9)
ü (U+00FC)ǖ (U+01D6)ǘ (U+01D8)ǚ (U+01DA)ǜ (U+01DC)
Rare letters
UppercaseÊ (U+00CA)Ê̄ (U+00CA U+0304)Ế (U+1EBE)Ê̌ (U+00CA U+030C)Ề (U+1EC0)
MM̄ (U+004D U+0304)Ḿ (U+1E3E)M̌ (U+004D U+030C)M̀ (U+004D U+0300)
NN̄ (U+004E U+0304)Ń (U+0143)Ň (U+0147)Ǹ (U+01F8)
Lowercaseê (U+00EA)ê̄ (U+00EA U+0304)ế (U+1EBF)ê̌ (U+00EA U+030C)ề (U+1EC1)
mm̄ (U+006D U+0304)ḿ (U+1E3F)m̌ (U+006D U+030C)m̀ (U+006D U+0300)
nn̄ (U+006E U+0304)ń (U+0144)ň (U+0148)ǹ (U+01F9)
Notes
1. ^ Yellow cells indicate that there are no single Unicode character for that letter; the character shown here uses Combining Diacritical Mark characters to display the letter. [47]
2. ^ Grey cells indicate that Xiandai Hanyu Cidian does not include pinyin with that specific alphabet. [47] [48]
Microsoft Pinyin mn.png
Microsoft Pinyin IME
Sogou Pinyin mn.jpg
Sogou Pinyin IME
When using pinyin IME, choosing ḿ/ǹ outputs PUAU+E7C7 and U+E7C8.

GBK has mapped two characters ‘ḿ’ and ‘ǹ’ to Private Use Areas in Unicode as U+E7C7 () and U+E7C8 () respectively [49] , thus some Simplified Chinese fonts (e.g. SimSun) that adheres to GBK include both characters in the Private Use Areas, and some input methods (e.g. Sogou Pinyin) also outputs the Private Use Areas code point instead of the original character. As the superset GB 18030 swapped the mapping of ‘ḿ’ and ‘ǹ’ [48] , this has caused issue where the input methods and font files use different encoding standard, and thus the input and output of both characters are mixed up. [47]

Shorthand pinyin letters
LetterUppercaseLowercaseNoteExample [1]
Z zẐ (U+1E90)ẑ (U+1E91)Abbreviation of zh张/張 can be spelled as Ẑāŋ
C cĈ (U+0108)ĉ (U+0109)Abbreviation of ch长/長 can be spelled as ĉáŋ
S sŜ (U+015C)ŝ (U+015D)Abbreviation of sh伤/傷 can be spelled as ŝāŋ
NG ngŊ (U+014A)ŋ (U+014B)Abbreviation of ng让/讓 can be spelled as ràŋ
Notes
1. ^ Example given is the abbreviated/shorthand version according to Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet, it is unadvisable to use them for real life usage.

Other symbols that are used in pinyin is as follow:

Pinyin symbols
Symbol in ChineseSymbol in pinyinUsageExample
。(U+3002). (U+002E)Mark end of sentence.你好。 Nǐ hǎo.
,(U+FF0C)/、 (U+3001), (U+002C)Mark connecting sentence.你,好吗? Nǐ, hǎo ma?
—— (U+2014 U+2014)— (U+2014)Indicate breaking of meaning mid-sentence.枢纽部分——中央大厅 shūniǔ bùfèn — zhōngyāng dàtīng
…… (U+2026 U+2026)… (U+2026)Used for omitting a word, phrase, line, paragraph, or more from a quoted passage.我…… Wǒ…
· (U+00B7)Mark for the neutral tone, can be placed before the neutral-tone syllable.吗 ·ma
- (U+002D)Hyphenation between abbreviated compounds.公关 gōng-guān
' (U+0027)Indicate separate syllables.西安 Xī'ān (compared to 先 xiān)

Other punctuation mark and symbols in Chinese are to use the equivalent symbol in English noted in to GB/T 15834.

Single storey a in four different Kai script fonts. Notice that accented pinyin letters are different in style and width with the regular letter. Sample Chinese Pinyin fonts.png
Single storey a in four different Kai script fonts. Notice that accented pinyin letters are different in style and width with the regular letter.

In educational usage, to match the handwritten style, some fonts used a different style for the letter a and g to have an appearance of single-storey a and single-storey g. Fonts that follow GB/T 2312 usually make single-storey a in the accented pinyin characters but leaving unaccented double-storey a, causing a discrepancy in the font itself. [47] Unicode did not provide an official way to encode single-storey a and single-storey g, but as IPA require the differentiation of single-storey and double-storey a and g, thus the single-storey character ɑ/ɡ in IPA should be used if the need to separate single-storey a and g arises. For daily usage there is no need to differentiate single-storey and double-storey a/g.

Single-storey alphabet
AlphabetSingle-storey representationNotes
a ɑ (U+0251)IPA /ɑ/
α (U+03B1)Greek alpha, not suggested
g ɡ (U+0261)IPA /ɡ/

Usage

A school slogan asking elementary students to speak Standard Chinese is annotated with pinyin, but without tonal marks. Dajia-shuo-Putonghua-2817.jpg
A school slogan asking elementary students to speak Standard Chinese is annotated with pinyin, but without tonal marks.

Pinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade–Giles (1859; modified 1892) and postal romanization, and replaced zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China. The ISO adopted pinyin as the standard romanization for modern Chinese in 1982 (ISO 7098:1982, superseded by ISO 7098:2015). The United Nations followed suit in 1986. [1] [50] It has also been accepted by the government of Singapore, the United States's Library of Congress, the American Library Association, and many other international institutions. [51] [ failed verification ]

The spelling of Chinese geographical or personal names in pinyin has become the most common way to transcribe them in English. Pinyin has also become the dominant method for entering Chinese text into computers in Mainland China, in contrast to Taiwan; where Bopomofo is most commonly used.

Families outside of Taiwan who speak Mandarin as a mother tongue use pinyin to help children associate characters with spoken words which they already know. Chinese families outside of Taiwan who speak some other language as their mother tongue use the system to teach children Mandarin pronunciation when they learn vocabulary in elementary school. [52] [53]

Since 1958, pinyin has been actively used in adult education as well, making it easier for formerly illiterate people to continue with self-study after a short period of pinyin literacy instruction. [54]

Pinyin has become a tool for many foreigners to learn Mandarin pronunciation, and is used to explain both the grammar and spoken Mandarin coupled with Chinese characters ( 汉字 ; 漢字 ; Hànzì). Books containing both Chinese characters and pinyin are often used by foreign learners of Chinese. Pinyin's role in teaching pronunciation to foreigners and children is similar in some respects to furigana-based books (with hiragana letters written above or next to kanji, directly analogous to zhuyin) in Japanese or fully vocalised texts in Arabic ("vocalised Arabic").

The tone-marking diacritics are commonly omitted in popular news stories and even in scholarly works. This results in some degree of ambiguity as to which words are being represented.

Computer input systems

Simple computer systems, able to display only 7-bit ASCII text (essentially the 26 Latin letters, 10 digits, and punctuation marks), long provided a convincing argument for using unaccented pinyin instead of Chinese characters. Today, however, most computer systems are able to display characters from Chinese and many other writing systems as well, and have them entered with a Latin keyboard using an input method editor. Alternatively, some PDAs, tablet computers, and digitizing tablets allow users to input characters graphically by writing with a stylus, with concurrent online handwriting recognition.

Pinyin with accents can be entered with the use of special keyboard layouts or various character map utilities. X keyboard extension includes a "Hanyu Pinyin (altgr)" layout for AltGr-triggered dead key input of accented characters. [55]

Pinyin in Taiwan

Taiwan (Republic of China) adopted Tongyong Pinyin , a modification of Hanyu Pinyin, as the official romanization system on the national level between October 2002 and January 2009, when it decided to promote Hanyu Pinyin. Tongyong Pinyin ("common phonetic"), a romanization system developed in Taiwan, was designed to romanize languages and dialects spoken on the island in addition to Mandarin Chinese. The Kuomintang (KMT) party resisted its adoption, preferring the Hanyu Pinyin system used in mainland China and in general use internationally. Romanization preferences quickly became associated with issues of national identity. Preferences split along party lines: the KMT and its affiliated parties in the pan-blue coalition supported the use of Hanyu Pinyin while the Democratic Progressive Party and its affiliated parties in the pan-green coalition favored the use of Tongyong Pinyin.

Tongyong Pinyin was made the official system in an administrative order that allowed its adoption by local governments to be voluntary. Locales in Kaohsiung, Tainan and other areas use romanizations derived from Tongyong Pinyin for some district and street names. A few localities with governments controlled by the KMT, most notably Taipei, Hsinchu, and Kinmen County, overrode the order and converted to Hanyu Pinyin before the January 1, 2009 national-level decision, [4] [5] though with a slightly different capitalization convention than mainland China. Most areas of Taiwan adopted Tongyong Pinyin, consistent with the national policy. Today, many street signs in Taiwan are using Tongyong Pinyin-derived romanizations, [56] [57] but some, especially in northern Taiwan, display Hanyu Pinyin-derived romanizations. It is not unusual to see spellings on street signs and buildings derived from the older Wade–Giles, MPS2 and other systems.

Attempts to make pinyin standard in Taiwan have had uneven success, with most place and proper names remaining unaffected, including all major cities. Personal names on Taiwanese passports honor the choices of Taiwanese citizens, who can choose Wade-Giles, Hakka, Hoklo, Tongyong, aboriginal, or pinyin. [58] Official pinyin use is controversial, as when pinyin use for a metro line in 2017 provoked protests, despite government responses that “The romanization used on road signs and at transportation stations is intended for foreigners... Every foreigner learning Mandarin learns Hanyu pinyin, because it is the international standard...The decision has nothing to do with the nation’s self-determination or any ideologies, because the key point is to ensure that foreigners can read signs.” [59]

Pinyin for other languages

Pinyin-like systems have been devised for other variants of Chinese. Guangdong Romanization is a set of romanizations devised by the government of Guangdong province for Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka (Moiyen dialect), and Hainanese. All of these are designed to use Latin letters in a similar way to pinyin.

In addition, in accordance to the Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages (少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法; 少數民族語地名漢語拼音字母音譯寫法) promulgated in 1976, place names in non-Han languages like Mongolian, Uyghur, and Tibetan are also officially transcribed using pinyin in a system adopted by the State Administration of Surveying and Mapping and Geographical Names Committee known as SASM/GNC romanization. The pinyin letters (26 Roman letters, plus ü and ê) are used to approximate the non-Han language in question as closely as possible. This results in spellings that are different from both the customary spelling of the place name, and the pinyin spelling of the name in Chinese:

CustomaryOfficial (pinyin for local name)Traditional Chinese nameSimplified Chinese namePinyin for Chinese name
Shigatse Xigazê日喀則日喀则Rìkāzé
Urumchi Ürümqi 烏魯木齊乌鲁木齐Wūlǔmùqí
Lhasa Lhasa拉薩拉萨Lāsà
Hohhot Hohhot呼和浩特呼和浩特Hūhéhàotè
Golmud Golmud格爾木格尔木Gé'ěrmù
Qiqihar Qiqihar齊齊哈爾齐齐哈尔Qíqíhā'ěr

Tongyong Pinyin was developed in Taiwan for use in rendering not only Mandarin Chinese, but other languages and dialects spoken on the island such as Taiwanese, Hakka, and aboriginal languages.

See also

Notes

  1. This was part of the Soviet program of Latinization meant to reform alphabets for languages in that country to use Latin characters.

Related Research Articles

Chinese language Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages

Chinese is a family of East Asian analytic languages that form the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages. Chinese languages are spoken by the ethnic Han Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Wade–Giles is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels. Languages that do have this feature are called tonal languages; the distinctive tone patterns of such a language are sometimes called tonemes, by analogy with phoneme. Tonal languages are common in East and Southeast Asia, the Pacific, Africa, and the Americas; as many as seventy percent of world languages may be tonal.

Tongyong Pinyin was the official romanization of Mandarin in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008. The system was unofficially used between 2000 and 2002, when a new romanization system for Taiwan was being evaluated for adoption. Taiwan's Ministry of Education approved the system in 2002, but its use was optional. Since January 1, 2009, the Ministry of Education has officially promoted Hanyu Pinyin ; local governments would "not be able to get financial aid from the central government" if they used Tongyong Pinyin-derived romanizations. After this policy change, Tongyong Pinyin has been used for the transliteration of some place names and personal names in Taiwan. Some of the romanized names of the districts, subway stations and streets in Kaohsiung, Tainan, Taichung, Yunlin County and other places are derived from Tongyong Pinyin- for example, Cijin District.

Gwoyeu Romatzyh system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet

Gwoyeu Romatzyh, abbreviated GR, is a system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet. The system was conceived by Yuen Ren Chao and developed by a group of linguists including Chao and Lin Yutang from 1925 to 1926. Chao himself later published influential works in linguistics using GR. In addition a small number of other textbooks and dictionaries in GR were published in Hong Kong and overseas from 1942 to 2000.

Jyutping romanization scheme for Cantonese

Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanisation Scheme. The LSHK advocates for and promotes the use of this romanisation system.

Yi script Script used to write Yi peoples language

The Yi script is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi, and the later Yi Syllabary. The script is also historically known in Chinese as Cuan Wen or Wei Shu and various other names (夷字、倮語、倮倮文、畢摩文), among them "tadpole writing" (蝌蚪文).

A checked tone, commonly known by the Chinese calque entering tone, is one of the four syllable types in the phonology in Middle Chinese. Although usually translated as "tone", a checked tone is not a tone in the phonetic sense but rather a syllable that ends in a stop consonant or a glottal stop. Separating the checked tone allows -p, -t, and -k to be treated as allophones of -m, -n, and -ng, respectively, since they are in complementary distribution. Stops appear only in the checked tone, and nasals appear only in the other tones. Because of the origin of tone in Chinese, the number of tones found in such syllables is smaller than the number of tones in other syllables. In Chinese phonetics, they have traditionally been counted separately.

Taiwanese Mandarin Standard Chinese spoken in China in 1932–1949 and only spoken in Taiwan after 1949

Taiwanese Mandarin, or Guoyu, is a variety of Mandarin Chinese and a national language of Taiwan. The core of its standard form is described in the dictionary Guoyu Cidian (國語辭典) maintained by the Ministry of Education. It is based on the phonology of the Beijing dialect together with the grammar of vernacular Chinese.

The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin or ZWPY, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names. It is based on pronunciation of China National Radio's Tibetan Radio pronunciation, which is the Lhasa dialect of Standard Tibetan and reflects the pronunciation except that it does not mark tone. It is used within China as an alternative to the Wylie transliteration for writing Tibetan in the Latin script. Within academic circles, Wylie transliteration is more commonly used.

Chinese dictionary language version of dictionary

Chinese dictionaries date back over two millennia to the Han Dynasty, which is a significantly longer lexicographical history than any other language. There are hundreds of dictionaries for the Chinese language, and this article discusses some of the most important.

Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese. Chinese uses a logographic script and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane recalls, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys." The dominant international standard for Putonghua since about 1982 has been Hanyu Pinyin. Other well-known systems include Wade–Giles (Mandarin) and Yale Romanization.

Bopomofo, also called Zhuyin or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols, is the major Chinese transliteration system for Mandarin Chinese and other related languages and dialects which is nowadays most commonly used in Taiwanese Mandarin. It is also used to transcribe other varieties of Chinese, particularly other varieties of Standard Chinese and related Mandarin dialects, as well as Taiwanese Hokkien.

This article summarizes the phonology of Standard Chinese.

Daī-ghî tōng-iōng pīng-im is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based upon Tongyong Pinyin. It is able to use the Latin alphabet to indicate the proper variation of pitch with nine diacritic symbols.

Bbánlám pìngyīm

Bbánlám Hōng'ggián Pìngyīm Hōng'àn, Bbánlám pìngyīm, Minnan pinyin or simply pingyim, is a romanization system for Hokkien Southern Min, in particular the Amoy (Xiamen) version of this language.

Sichuanese Pinyin (Si4cuan1hua4 Pin1yin1; simplified Chinese: 四川话拼音; traditional Chinese: 四川話拼音; pinyin: Sìchuānhuà pīnyīn), is a romanization system specifically designed for the Chengdu dialect of Sichuanese. It is mostly used in selected Sichuanese dictionaries, such as the Sichuan Dialect Dictionary, Sichuan Dialect's Vocabulary Explanation, and the Chengdu Dialect Dictionary. Sichuanese Pinyin is based on Hanyu Pinyin, the only Chinese romanization system officially instructed within the People's Republic of China, for convenience amongst users. However, there is also the problem that it is unable to match the phonology of Sichuanese with complete precision, especially in the case for the Minjiang dialect, as there are many differences between Sichuanese and Standard Chinese in phonology.

<i>Xiandai Hanyu Cidian</i> authoritative one-volume Chinese language dictionary

Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, also known as A Dictionary of Current Chinese or Contemporary Chinese Dictionary is an important one-volume dictionary of Standard Mandarin Chinese published by the Commercial Press, now into its 7th (2016) edition. It was originally edited by Lü Shuxiang and Ding Shengshu as a reference work on modern Standard Mandarin Chinese. Compilation started in 1958 and trial editions were issued in 1960 and 1965, with a number of copies printed in 1973 for internal circulation and comments, but due to the Cultural Revolution the final draft was not completed until the end of 1977, and the first formal edition was not published until December 1978. It was the first People's Republic of China dictionary to be arranged according to Hanyu Pinyin, the phonetic standard for Standard Mandarin Chinese, with explanatory notes in simplified Chinese. The subsequent second through seventh editions were respectively published in 1983, 1996, 2002, 2005, 2012 and 2016.

The former State Administration of Surveying and Mapping, Geographical Names Committee and former Script Reform Committee of the People's Republic of China have adopted several romanizations for Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan and Uyghur, officially known as pinyin, Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages and Orthography of Chinese Personal Name in Hanyu Pinyin Letters. These systems may be referred to as SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions or SASM/GNC romanizations.

Taiwanese Phonetic Symbols is a system of phonetic notation for the transcription of Taiwanese languages, especially Taiwanese Hokkien. The system is designed by Professor Chu Chao-hsiang, a member of National Languages Committee in Taiwan, in 1946. The system is derived from Mandarin Phonetic Symbols by creating additional symbols for the sounds that do not appear in Mandarin phonology. It has been one of the officially promoted phonetic notation system by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Margalit Fox (14 January 2017). "Zhou Youguang, Who Made Writing Chinese as Simple as ABC, Dies at 111". The New York Times.
  2. "Pinyin celebrates 50th birthday". Xinhua News Agency. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  3. "ISO 7098:1982 – Documentation – Romanization of Chinese" . Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  4. 1 2 Shih Hsiu-Chuan (18 September 2008). "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009". Taipei Times . p. 2.
  5. 1 2 "Government to improve English-friendly environment". The China Post . 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008.
  6. books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=cP7gDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA7&dq=taiwan+pinyin&ots=KU__Vqgpnv&sig=6yJ7E1EJ5XjfUU9sYxSBUVzFgnA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=taiwan%20pinyin&f=false
  7. Copper, John F. (2015). Historical Dictionary of Taiwan (Republic of China. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. xv. ISBN   9781442243064 . Retrieved 4 December 2017. But some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this, as it suggested that Taiwan is more closely tied to the PRC.
  8. The online version of the canonical[ clarification needed "According to which group?"]Guoyu Cidian (《國語辭典》) defines this term as: 標語音﹑不標語義的符號系統,足以明確紀錄某一種語言。 'a system of symbols for notation of the sounds of words, rather than for their meanings, that is sufficient to accurately record some language'. See this entry online.[ permanent dead link ] Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  9. Sin, Kiong Wong (2012). Confucianism, Chinese History and Society. World Scientific. p. 72. ISBN   9814374474 . Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  10. Brockey, Liam Matthew (2009). Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724. Harvard University Press. p. 261. ISBN   0674028813 . Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  11. 1 2 Chan, Wing-tsit; Adler, Joseph (2013). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 303, 304. ISBN   0231517998 . Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  12. Mair, Victor H. (2002). "Sound and Meaning in the History of Characters: Views of China's Earliest Script Reformers". In Erbaugh, Mary S. (ed.). Difficult Characters: Interdisciplinary Studies of Chinese and Japanese Writing. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University National East Asian Language Resource Center.
  13. Ao, Benjamin (1997). "History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization". Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal. 4.
  14. Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese, Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 261. ISBN   0521296536 . Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  15. Jensen, Lionel M.; Weston, Timothy B. (2007). China's Transformations: The Stories Beyond the Headlines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. XX. ISBN   074253863X.
  16. Chen, Ping (1999). Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics . Cambridge University Press. p.  186. ISBN   0521645727 . Retrieved 13 July 2014. Latinxua Sin Wenz tones.
  17. John DeFrancis, The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1984), pp. 246-247.
  18. "Father of pinyin". China Daily . 26 March 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2009. Reprinted in part as Simon, Alan (21–27 January 2011). "Father of Pinyin". China Daily Asia Weekly . Hong Kong. Xinhua. p. 20.
  19. "Obituary: Zhou Youguang, Architect Of A Bridge Between Languages, Dies At 111". NPR.org. National Public Radio . Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  20. Branigan, Tania (21 February 2008). "Sound Principles". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  21. Rohsenow, John S. 1989. Fifty years of script and written language reform in the PRC: the genesis of the language law of 2001. In Zhou Minglang and Sun Hongkai, eds. Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949, p. 23
  22. Branigan, Tania (21 February 2008). "Sound principles". The Guardian. London.
  23. 1 2 "Hanyu Pinyin system turns 50". Straits Times . 11 February 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  24. Terry, Edith. How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China and the Asian Miracle. M.E. Sharpe, 2002. 632. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2011. ISBN   0-7656-0356-X, 9780765603562.
  25. Terry, Edith. How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China and the Asian Miracle. M.E. Sharpe, 2002. 633. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2011. ISBN   0-7656-0356-X, 9780765603562.
  26. "GB/T 16159-2012" (PDF). Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  27. You can hear recordings of the Finals here
  28. Huang, Rong. 公安部最新规定 护照上的"ü"规范成"YU". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  29. Li, Zhiyan. "吕"拼音到怎么写? 公安部称应拼写成"LYU". Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  30. Shea, Marilyn. "Pinyin / Ting - The Chinese Experience". hua.umf.maine.edu.
  31. 1 2 "Apostrophes in Hanyu Pinyin: when and where to use them". Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  32. 怪 北捷景安站 英譯如「金幹站」. Apple Daily (Taiwan) . 23 December 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2019. 北市捷運局指出,目前有7大捷運站名英譯沒有隔音符號,常讓外國人問路鬧烏龍,如大安站「Daan」被誤唸為丹站、景安站「Jingan」變成金幹站等,捷運局擬加撇號「’」或橫線「-」,以利分辨音節。
  33. Section 5.1.6 of the current standard GB/T 28039-2011 Chinese phonetic alphabet spelling rules for Chinese names
  34. Tung, Bobby; Chen, Yijun; Liang, Hai; LIU, Eric Q.; Zhang, Aijie; Wu, Xiaoqian; Li, Angel; Ishida, Richard. "Requirements for Chinese Text Layout". W3C. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  35. Section 7.3 of the current standard GB/T 16159-2012.
  36. Swofford, Mark. "Where do the tone marks go?". Pinyin.info. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  37. Nathan Dummitt, Chinese Through Tone & Color (2008)
  38. "Hanping Chinese Dictionary color scheme". 10 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  39. 1 2 "Proposal to encode three uppercase Latin letters used in early Pinyin" (PDF). Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  40. 1 2 "Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography". Qingdao Vocational and Technical College of Hotel Management (in Chinese). Department of Educational Administration. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  41. 拼音正词法基本规则. pinyin.info.
  42. "Release of the National Standard Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography". China Education and Research Network (in Chinese). China Education and Research Network. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  43. 现代汉语词典(第七版).[ A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Seventh Edition).]. Beijing: The Commercial Press. 1 September 2016. p. 289. ISBN   978-7-100-12450-8. 【第五】 Dìwǔ 名 姓。
  44. 现代汉语规范词典(第3版).[A Standard Dictionary of Current Chinese (Third Edition).]. Beijing: 外语教学与研究出版社 [Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press]. May 2014. p. 294. ISBN   978-7-513-54562-4. 【第五】 dìwǔ 名 复姓。
  45. "Use of the Hyphen; Abbreviations and Short Forms". Pinyin.info. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  46. Taylor, Insup and Maurice M. Taylor (1995), Writing and literacy in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, Volume 3 of Studies in written language and literacy, John Benjamins, p. 124.
  47. 1 2 3 4 5 Eric Q. LIU. "The Type — Wǒ ài pīnyīn!". The Type. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  48. 1 2 奈白不弍. "关于带声调汉语拼音字母的输入". 知乎专栏 (in Chinese). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  49. 林卯. "自制像素字体7年后总算升了0.5版本:Ozla 5.5"Mendelev"(钔捷列夫)". bangumi.tv.
  50. Lin Mei-chun (8 October 2000). "Official challenges romanization". Taipei Times.
  51. Ao, Benjamin (1 December 1997). "History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization". Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal. Internet Chinese Librarians Club (4). ISSN   1089-4667 . Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  52. Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles (2005). The science of reading: a handbook. Blackwell handbooks of developmental psychology). 17. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 320–22. ISBN   1-4051-1488-6.
  53. R.F. Price (2005). Education in Modern China. Volume 23 of "China : history, philosophy, economics" (2, illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 123. ISBN   0-415-36167-2.
  54. Price (2005), pp. 206–208
  55. "symbols/cn in xkeyboard-config". Freedesktop.org Cgit. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  56. 劉婉君 (15 October 2018). 路牌改通用拼音? 南市府:已採用多年. Liberty Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 28 July 2019. 基進黨台南市東區市議員參選人李宗霖今天指出,台南市路名牌拼音未統一、音譯錯誤等,建議統一採用通用拼音。對此,台南市政府交通局回應,南市已實施通用拼音多年,將全面檢視路名牌,依現行音譯方式進行校對改善。
  57. Eryk Smith (27 November 2017). "OPINION: Hanyu Pinyin Should Not Be Political, Kaohsiung" . Retrieved 13 July 2019. why does Kaohsiung City insist on making visitors guess what 'Shihcyuan' is supposed to represent? Especially when a few blocks away, the same road has somehow morphed into 'Shiquan' (十全路) Road? Move away from Kaohsiung's city center and streets, neighborhoods or townships can have several romanized names ... sometimes on the same signage.{...}The refusal to adopt Hanyu in Kaohsiung seems based on nothing more than groundless fear of loss of identity or diminished regional autonomy. Listen, Kaohsiung: we won't lose our identity or our freedom by changing the romanized spelling of Singjhong Road (興中)to Xingzhong.
  58. https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3763530
  59. https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2017/01/11/2003662899

Further reading

Preceded by
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Official romanization adopted
by the People's Republic of China

1958–
Current
Preceded by
Wade–Giles
de facto used romanization
by the People's Republic of China

1978–
Preceded by
Romanization used by the United Nations
1986–
Preceded by
Tongyong Pinyin
Official romanization adopted
by the Republic of China (Taiwan)

2009–