ISO metric screw thread

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The ISO metric screw thread is the most commonly used type of general-purpose screw thread worldwide. [1] They were one of the first international standards agreed when the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was set up in 1947.[ citation needed ]

Contents

The "M" designation for metric screws indicates the nominal outer diameter of the screw thread, in millimetres (e.g. an M6 screw has a nominal outer diameter of 6 millimetres).

Basic profile

Basic profile of all ISO metric screw threads ISO and UTS Thread Dimensions.svg
Basic profile of all ISO metric screw threads

The design principles of ISO general-purpose metric screw threads ("M" series threads) are defined in international standard ISO 68-1. [2] Each thread is characterized by its major diameter, D (Dmaj in the diagram), and its pitch, P. ISO metric threads consist of a symmetric V-shaped thread. In the plane of the thread axis, the flanks of the V have an angle of 60° to each other. The thread depth is 0.54125 × pitch. The outermost 18 and the innermost 14 of the height H of the V-shape are cut off from the profile.

The relationship between the height H and the pitch P is found using the following equation where θ is half the included angle of the thread, in this case 30° : [3]

or

In an external (male) thread (e.g., on a bolt), the major diameter Dmaj and the minor diameter Dmin define maximum dimensions of the thread. This means that the external thread must end flat at Dmaj, but can be rounded out below the minor diameter Dmin. Conversely, in an internal (female) thread (e.g., in a nut), the major and minor diameters are minimum dimensions; therefore the thread profile must end flat at Dmin but may be rounded out beyond Dmaj.

The minor diameter Dmin and effective pitch diameter Dp are derived from the major diameter and pitch as

Designation

A metric ISO screw thread is designated by the letter M followed by the value of the nominal diameter D (the maximum thread diameter) and the pitch P, both expressed in millimetres and separated by the hyphen sign, - (e.g., M8-1.25). If the pitch is the normally used "coarse" pitch listed in ISO 261 or ISO 262, it can be omitted (e.g., M8). The length of a machine screw or bolt is indicated by a following x and the length expressed in millimetres (e.g., M8-1.25x30 or M8x30). Tolerance classes defined in ISO 965-1 can be appended to these designations, if required (e.g., M500– 6g in external threads).

External threads are designated by lowercase letter, g or h. Internal threads are designated by upper case letters, G or H.

Preferred sizes

ISO 261 specifies a detailed list of preferred combinations of outer diameter D and pitch P for ISO metric screw threads. The 1st choice column follows (approximately) the R10 series from ISO 3, while the 2nd choice column are rounded off values from the R20 series from ISO 3. [4] [5]

ISO 262 specifies a shorter list of thread dimensions – a subset of ISO 261. [6]

ISO 262 selected sizes for screws, bolts and nuts
Nominal diameter
D (mm)
Pitch
P (mm)
Nominal diameter
D (mm)
Pitch
P (mm)
1st
choice
2nd
choice
CoarseFine1st
choice
2nd
choice
CoarseFine
10.250.21621.5
1.20.250.2182.52 or 1.5
1.40.30.2202.52 or 1.5
1.60.350.2222.52 or 1.5
1.80.350.22432
20.40.252732
2.50.450.35303.52
30.50.35333.52
3.50.60.353643
40.70.53943
50.80.5424.53
5.5 DIN13
& ISO [5]
0.90.5454.53
610.754853
710.755254
81.251 or 0.75565.54
101.51.25 or 1605.54
121.751.5 or 1.256464
1421.5

The “coarse” pitch is the commonly used default pitch for a given diameter. In addition, one or two smaller “fine” pitches are defined, for use in applications where the height of the normal “coarse” pitch would be unsuitable (e.g., threads in thin-walled pipes). The terms “coarse” and “fine” have (in this context) no relation to the manufacturing quality of the thread.

In addition to coarse and fine threads, there is another division of extra fine, or “superfine” threads, with a very fine pitch thread. Superfine pitch metric threads are occasionally used in automotive components, such as suspension struts, and are commonly used in the aviation manufacturing industry. This is because extra fine threads are more resistant to coming loose from vibrations. [7] Fine and superfine threads also have a greater minor diameter than coarse threads, which means the bolt or stud has a greater cross-sectional area (and therefore greater load-carrying capability) for the same nominal diameter.

Spanner (wrench) sizes

Below are some common spanner (wrench) sizes for metric screw threads. Hex head widths (width across flats, spanner size) are for DIN 934 hex nuts and hex head bolts. Other (usually smaller) sizes may occur for reasons of weight and cost reduction.

Spanner (wrench) size (mm)
Unified Screw Threads.png
Thread
Hex cap screw-no markings.svg
Hex nut, and bolt
Socket head cap screw.png
Socket-head cap screw
Button head screw.png Screw.PNG
  • Button-head cap screw
  • Counter-sunk
    flat-head cap screw
Grub Screw.svg
Set, or grub, screw
ISODIN
M1-2.5---
M1.2-3---
M1.4-31.25-0.7
M1.63.23.21.50.90.7
M2441.51.250.9
M2.55521.51.3
M35.55.52.521.5
M3.566---
M47732.52
M588432.5
M61010543
M71111---
M81313654
M101617865
M1218191086
M14212210--
M16242414108
M1827271412-
M203030171210
M2234321714-
M243636191412
M274141191714
M304646221714
M33505024--
M36555527--
M396060---
M42656532--
M457070---
M48757536--
M52808036--
M56858541--
M609090---
M64959546--

Standards

International

National

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. ISO/TC/ 1 Business Plan, 2007-03-05, Version 1.3. Table 3: The market share of each screw thread, p. 7.
  2. ISO 68-1:1998 ISO general purpose screw threads – Basic profile – Part 1: Metric screw threads. International Organization for Standardization.
  3. Oberg et al. 2000 , p. 1706
  4. ISO 261:1998 ISO general purpose metric screw threads – General plan. International Organization for Standardization. 17 Dec 1998.
  5. 1 2 ISO & DIN13
  6. ISO 262:1998 ISO general purpose metric screw threads – Selected sizes for screws, bolts and nuts. International Organization for Standardization. 17 Dec 1998.
  7. "Final report" (PDF). ntrs.nasa.gov.
  8. ISO 965 in the Catalogue on the Official ISO website

Bibliography