United States Standard thread

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United States Standard thread (USS thread), also known as Sellers Standard thread, [1] Franklin Institute thread [1] and American Standard thread, [2] is a standard for inch based threaded fasteners and washers.

Contents

The USS standard is no longer supported. It, together with the SAE fastener standard, was incorporated into the Unified Thread Standard. However, the term, USS, continues to be used occasionally today to describe inch based threaded fasteners with a coarse thread pitch and inch based washers that are a little bit larger than the corresponding SAE washer. The Unified Thread Standard uses the term UNC (Unified Coarse) to describe a fastener that previously would have been designated USS and the Unified Thread Standard uses the term UNF (Unified Fine) to describe a fastener that would have previously been designated SAE.

Thread form

The thread form is defined by flats at the tip and root of the thread form. This flat length is defined as the pitch divided by eight. The thread depth, which is from flat to flat is 0.6495 times the pitch. [3] For 14-inch (6.4 mm) screws and larger, the pitch is defined as:

where P is the pitch and D is the diameter of the rough stock. [1]

History and use

William Sellers originally developed the USS thread, and set forth many of its details in his paper, "A System of Screw Threads and Nuts", presented in April 1864 to the Franklin Institute. In 1898, the standard for metric threaded fasteners was established. [4] The metric standard used the same thread geometry as the USS standard but differed in that the dimensions and pitch were based on metric units. In 1906, the A.L.A.M developed what would be the SAE thread standard for threaded fasteners based on the USS standard but with a finer thread pitch. [5] [6]

A Unified Thread Standard UNC thread is mechanically interchangeable with a USS thread of the same diameter. However, there are tolerance and other differences between a thread compliant with the USS thread and a Unified Thread Standard UNC thread. [7] The Unified Thread Standard for quarter inch and larger threaded fasteners was adopted on November 18, 1948, [8] and was subsequently adopted for smaller thread series.

See also

Related Research Articles

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National pipe thread

American National Standard Pipe Thread standards, often called national pipe thread (NPT) standards for short, are U.S. national technical standards for screw threads used on threaded pipes and pipe fittings. They include both tapered and straight thread series for various purposes including rigidity, pressure-tight sealing, or both. The various types are each named with a symbol and a full name; examples of the symbols include NPT, NPS, NPTF, NPSC, and others.

Fastener

A fastener or fastening is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. In general, fasteners are used to create non-permanent joints; that is, joints that can be removed or dismantled without damaging the joining components. Welding is an example of creating permanent joints. Steel fasteners are usually made of stainless steel, carbon steel, or alloy steel.

Washer (hardware) Thin plate with a hole, normally used to distribute the load of a threaded fastener

A washer is a thin plate with a hole that is normally used to distribute the load of a threaded fastener, such as a bolt or nut. Other uses are as a spacer, spring, wear pad, preload indicating device, locking device, and to reduce vibration. Washers often have an outer diameter (OD) about twice their inner diameter (ID), but this can vary quite widely.

Bolted joint

Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are secured with the mating of screw threads.

Screw thread A helical structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force

A screw thread, often shortened to thread, is a helical structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force. A screw thread is a ridge wrapped around a cylinder or cone in the form of a helix, with the former being called a straight thread and the latter called a tapered thread. A screw thread is the essential feature of the screw as a simple machine and also as a threaded fastener.

British Standard Whitworth (BSW) is an imperial-unit-based screw thread standard, devised and specified by Joseph Whitworth in 1841 and later adopted as a British Standard. It was the world's first national screw thread standard, and is the basis for many other standards, such as BSF, BSP, BSCon, and BSCopper.

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Screw (simple machine)

A screw is a mechanism that converts rotational motion to linear motion, and a torque to a linear force. It is one of the six classical simple machines. The most common form consists of a cylindrical shaft with helical grooves or ridges called threads around the outside. The screw passes through a hole in another object or medium, with threads on the inside of the hole that mesh with the screw's threads. When the shaft of the screw is rotated relative to the stationary threads, the screw moves along its axis relative to the medium surrounding it; for example rotating a wood screw forces it into wood. In screw mechanisms, either the screw shaft can rotate through a threaded hole in a stationary object, or a threaded collar such as a nut can rotate around a stationary screw shaft. Geometrically, a screw can be viewed as a narrow inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder.

The ISO metric screw thread is the most commonly used type of general-purpose screw thread worldwide. They were one of the first international standards agreed when the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was set up in 1947.

Computer case screws

Computer case screws are the hardware used to secure parts of a PC to the case. Although there are numerous manufacturers of computer cases, they have generally used three thread sizes. The Unified Thread Standard (UTS) originates from the United States, while the ISO metric screw thread is standardized worldwide. In turn, these thread standards define preferred size combinations that are based on generic units—some on the inch and others on the millimetre.

Screw Type of fastener characterized by a thread wrapped around a cylinder core

A screw and a bolt are similar types of fastener typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread. Screws and bolts are used to fasten materials by the engagement of the screw thread with a similar female thread in the matching part.

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ASTM A325 is an ASTM International standard for heavy hex structural bolts, titled Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength. It defines mechanical properties for bolts that range from 12 to 1 12 inches in diameter.

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Bolt (fastener)

A bolt is a form of threaded fastener with an external male thread requiring a matching pre-formed female thread such as a nut. Bolts are very closely related to screws.

Hex key Hand tool for certain types of screws

A hex key or Allen key, is a simple tool used to drive bolts and screws with hexagonal sockets in their heads.

The Löwenherz thread is a largely obsolete metric thread form designed in the late nineteenth century and frequently applied in precision instruments. It is named after Dr. Leopold Löwenherz, who was the director of the metrology institute Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Berlin.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Adt, Howard (1920). Screw Thread Production to Close Limits. p. 7. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
  2. "History of screw threads" . Retrieved 2011-04-24.
  3. American Railway Master Mechanics' Association (1916). Report of proceedings of the annual convention of the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association. 49. American Railway Master Mechanics' Association. p. 71.
  4. Oberg, Erik; Jones, Franklin D.; McCauley, Christopher J.; Heald, Ricardo M. (2004), Machinery's Handbook (27th ed.), Industrial Press, p. 1726, ISBN   978-0-8311-2700-8.
  5. The Society of Automobile Engineers 1912 Transactions Part II, pages 43-44. 1912. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
  6. Browning's Industrial Magazine, page 590. The Browning Press. 1906. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
  7. Oberg (1988). Machinery's Handbook 23rd edition. p. 1479.
  8. National Bureau of Standards. "Screw-Thread Standards for Federal Services, pages 10-12" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-01-16.