Romanization of Georgian

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Mtskheta and Tbilisi romanized

Romanization of Georgian is the process of transliterating the Georgian language from the Georgian script into the Latin script.

Georgian language official language of Georgia

Georgian is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians. It is the official language of Georgia.

Latin script writing system used to write most Western and Central European languages

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans.

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Georgian national system of romanization

This system, adopted in February 2002 by the State Department of Geodesy and Cartography of Georgia and the Institute of Linguistics, Georgian National Academy of Sciences, establishes a transliteration system of the Georgian letters into Latin letters. [1] The system was already in use, since 1998, on driving licenses. It is also used by BGN and PCGN since 2009.

Georgian National Academy of Sciences

The Georgian National Academy of Sciences (GNAS) is a main learned society of the Georgia. It was named Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences until November 1990. The Academy coordinates scientific research in Georgia and develops relationship with the academies and scientific centers of foreign countries.

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters in predictable ways.

Unofficial system of romanization

Despite its popularity this system sometimes leads to ambiguity. The system is mostly used in social networks, forums, chat rooms, etc. The system is greatly influenced by the common case-sensitive Georgian keyboard layout that ties each key to each letter in the alphabet (seven of them: T, W, R, S, J, Z, C with the help of the shift key to make another letter).

Internet forum online discussion site

An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages. They differ from chat rooms in that messages are often longer than one line of text, and are at least temporarily archived. Also, depending on the access level of a user or the forum set-up, a posted message might need to be approved by a moderator before it becomes publicly visible.

The Georgian keyboard includes several keyboard layouts for Georgian script.

ISO standard

ISO 9984:1996, "Transliteration of Georgian characters into Latin characters", was last reviewed and confirmed in 2010. [2] The guiding principles in the standard are:

Digraph (orthography) pair of characters used to write one phoneme

A digraph or digram is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme, or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

ISO 5426 is character set developed by ISO. It was first published in 1983.

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. In English, aspirated consonants are allophones in complementary distribution with their unaspirated counterparts, but in some other languages, notably most Indian and East Asian languages, the difference is contrastive, while in Arabic and Persian, all stops are aspirated.

Transliteration table

Georgian letter IPA National system
(2002)
BGN/PCGN
(1981—2009)
ISO 9984
(1996)
ALA-LC
(1997)
Unofficial system
/ɑ/aaaaa
/b/bbbbb
/ɡ/ggggg
/d/ddddd
/ɛ/eeeee
/w/vvvvv
/z/zzzzz
[lower-alpha 1] /eɪ/eyēē
/tʰ/tt't'T [lower-alpha 2] or t
/i/iiiii
/kʼ/kkkk
/l/lllll
/m/mmmmm
/n/nnnnn
[lower-alpha 1] /i/, /j/jyy
/ɔ/ooooo
/pʼ/pppp
/ʒ/zhzhžžJ, [lower-alpha 2] zh or j
/r/rrrrr
/s/sssss
/tʼ/tttt
[lower-alpha 1] /w/ww
/u/uuuuu
/pʰ/pp'p'p or f
/kʰ/kk'k'q or k
/ʁ/ghghġg, gh or R [lower-alpha 2]
/qʼ/qqqy [lower-alpha 3]
/ʃ/shshššsh or S [lower-alpha 2]
/t͡ʃ(ʰ)/chch'č̕č'ch or C [lower-alpha 2]
/t͡s(ʰ)/tsts'c'c or ts
/d͡z/dzdzjżdz or Z [lower-alpha 2]
/t͡sʼ/tsʼtsccw, c or ts
/t͡ʃʼ/chʼchččW, [lower-alpha 2] ch or tch
/χ/khkhxxx or kh (rarely)
[lower-alpha 1] /q/, /qʰ/q'
/d͡ʒ/jjǰjj
/h/hhhhh
[lower-alpha 1] /oː/ōō

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Archaic letters.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 These are influenced by aforementioned layout, and are preferred to avoid ambiguity, as an expressions: t, j, g, ch can mean two letters.
  3. Initially, the use of y letter for ყ is most probably due to their resemblance to each other.

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