Romanization of Ukrainian

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The romanizationof Ukrainian (or sometimes Latinization) is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word.

Contents

In contrast to romanization, there have been several historical proposals for a native Ukrainian Latin alphabet, usually based on those used by West Slavic languages, but none has caught on.

Romanization systems

Part of a table of letters of the alphabet for the Ruthenian language, from Ivan Uzhevych's Hrammatyka Slovenskaja (1645). Columns show the letter names printed, in manuscript Cyrillic and Latin, common Cyrillic letterforms, and the Latin transliteration. Part 2, part 3. Uzhevych Arras MS-6b.png
Part of a table of letters of the alphabet for the Ruthenian language, from Ivan Uzhevych's Hrammatyka Slovenskaja (1645). Columns show the letter names printed, in manuscript Cyrillic and Latin, common Cyrillic letterforms, and the Latin transliteration. Part 2, part 3.

Transliteration

Transliteration is the letter-for-letter representation of text using another writing system. Rudnyckyj classified transliteration systems into scientific transliteration, used in academic and especially linguistic works, and practical systems, used in administration, journalism, in the postal system, in schools, etc. [1] Scientific transliteration, also called the scholarly system, is used internationally, with very little variation, while the various practical methods of transliteration are adapted to the orthographical conventions of other languages, like English, French, German, etc.

Depending on the purpose of the transliteration it may be necessary to be able to reconstruct the original text, or it may be preferable to have a transliteration which sounds like the original language when read aloud.

Scientific transliteration

Scientific transliteration , also called the academic, linguistic, international, or scholarly system, is most often seen in linguistic publications on Slavic languages. It is purely phonemic, meaning each character represents one meaningful unit of sound, and is based on the Croatian Latin alphabet. [2] Different variations are appropriate to represent the phonology of historical Old Ukrainian (mid 11th–14th centuries) and Middle Ukrainian (15th–18th centuries). [3]

A variation was codified in the 1898 Prussian Instructions for libraries, or Preußische Instruktionen (PI), and widely used in bibliographic cataloguing in Central Europe and Scandinavia. With further modifications it was published by the International Organization for Standardization as remmondation ISO/R 9 in 1954, revised in 1968, and again as an international standard in 1986 and 1995.

Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires Unicode, Latin-2, Latin-4, or Latin-7 encoding. Other Slavic based romanizations occasionally seen are those based on the Slovak alphabet or the Polish alphabet, which include symbols for palatalized consonants.

Library of Congress system

The ALA-LC Romanization Tables were first discussed by the American Library Association in 1885, [4] and published in 1904 and 1908, [5] including rules for romanizing Church Slavic, the pre-reform Russian alphabet, and Serbo-Croatian. [6] Revised tables including Ukrainian were published in 1941, [7] and remain in use virtually unchanged according to the latest 2011 release. [8] This system is used to represent bibliographic information by US and Canadian libraries, by the British Library since 1975, [9] and in North American publications.

In addition to bibliographic cataloguing, simplified versions of the Library of Congress system are widely used for romanization in the text of academic and general publications. For notes or bibliographical references, some publications use a version without ligatures, which offers sufficient precision but simplifies the typesetting burden and easing readability. For specialist audiences or those familiar with Slavic languages, a version without ligatures and diacritical marks is sometimes used. [10] For broader audiences, a "modified Library of Congress system" is employed for personal, organizational, and place names, omitting all ligatures and diacritics, ignoring the soft sign ь (ʹ), with initial Є- (I͡E-), Й- (Ĭ-), Ю- ( I͡U-), and Я- (I͡A-) represented by Ye-, Y-, Yu-, and Ya-, surnames' terminal -ий (-yĭ) and -ій (-iĭ) endings simplified to -y, and sometimes with common first names anglicized, for example, Олександр (Oleksandr) written as Alexander.

Typical UseVariationExample
Original Cyrillic textЯрослав Рудницький
Library catalogue, standalone bibliographyStrict ALA-LCI͡Aroslav Rudnyt͡sʹkyĭ
Footnote or bibliographyWithout ligaturesIaroslav Rudnytsʹkyĭ
Academic textWithout ligatures or diacriticsIaroslav Rudnytskyi
Names in general textModified Library of CongressYaroslav Rudnytsky

Similar principles were systematically described for Russian by J. Thomas Shaw in 1969, [11] and since widely adopted. Their application for Ukrainian and multilingual text were described in the 1984 English translation of Kubiiovych's Encyclopedia of Ukraine [12] and in the 1997 translation of Hrushevskyi's History of Ukraine-Rus', [13] and other sources have referred to these, for example, historian Serhii Plokhy in several works. However, the details of usage vary, for example, the authors of the Historical Dictionary of Ukraine render the soft sign ь with an i, "thus Khvyliovy, not Khvylovy, as in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine". [14]

Requires Unicode for connecting diacritics, but only plain ASCII characters for a simplified version.

British Standard

British Standard 2979:1958 "Transliteration of Cyrillic and Greek Characters", [15] from BSI, is used by the Oxford University Press. [16] A variation is used by the British Museum and British Library, but since 1975 their new acquisitions have been catalogued using Library of Congress transliteration. [9]

In addition to the "British" system, the standard also includes tables for the "International" system for Cyrillic, corresponding to ISO/R 9:1968 (and ISO's recommendation reciprocally has an alternate system corresponding to BSI's). [17] It also includes tables for romanization of Greek.

BGN/PCGN

BGN/PCGN romanization is a series of standards approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use. Pronunciation is intuitive for English-speakers. For Ukrainian, the former BGN/PCGN system was adopted in 1965, but superseded there by the Ukrainian National System in 2019. [18] A modified version is also mentioned in the Oxford Style Manual. [16]

Requires only ASCII characters if optional separators are not used.

GOST (1971, 1983)/Derzhstandart (1995)

The Soviet Union's GOST, COMECON's SEV, and Ukraine's Derzhstandart are government standards bodies of the former Eurasian communist countries. They published a series of romanization systems for Ukrainian, which were replaced by ISO 9:1995. For details, see GOST 16876-71.

ISO 9

ISO 9 is a series of systems from the International Organization for Standardization. The ISO published editions of its "international system" for romanization of Cyrillic as recommendations (ISO/R 9) in 1954 and 1968, and standards (ISO 9) in 1986 and 1995. This was originally derived from scientific transliteration in 1954, and is meant to be usable by readers of most European languages. The 1968 edition also included an alternative system identical to the British Standard. [17]

The 1995 edition supports most national Cyrillic alphabets in a single transliteration table. It is a pure transliteration system, with each Cyrillic character represented by exactly one unique Latin character, making it reliably reversible, but sacrificing readability and adaptation to individual languages. It considers only graphemes and disregards phonemic differences. So, for example, г (Ukrainian He or Russian Ge) is always represented by the transliteration g; ґ (Ukrainian letter Ge) is represented by .

Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires Unicode, and a few characters are rarely present in computer fonts, for example g-grave: g̀.

Ukrainian National transliteration

This is the official system of Ukraine, also employed by the United Nations and many countries' foreign services. It is currently widely used to represent Ukrainian geographic names, which were almost exclusively romanized from Russian before Ukraine's independence in 1991, and for personal names in passports. It is based on English orthography, and requires only ASCII characters with no diacritics.

Its first version was codified in Decision No. 9 of the Ukrainian Committee on Issues of Legal Terminology on April 19, 1996, [19] [20] stating that the system is binding for the transliteration of Ukrainian names in English in legislative and official acts.

A new official system was introduced for transliteration of Ukrainian personal names in Ukrainian passports in 2007.

An updated 2010 version became the system is used for transliterating all proper names and was approved as Resolution 55 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, January 27, 2010. [21] [22] This modified earlier laws and brought together a unified system for official documents, publication of cartographic works, signs and indicators of inhabited localities, streets, stops, subway stations, etc.

It has been adopted internationally. The 27th session of the UN Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) held in New York 30 July and 10 August 2012 after a report by the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine (now known as Derzhheokadastr: Ukraine State Service of Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre) experts [23] approved the Ukrainian system of romanization. [24] The BGN/PCGN jointly adopted the system in 2020. [25]

Official geographic names are romanized directly from the original Ukrainian and not translated. For example, Kyivska oblast not Kyiv Oblast , Pivnichnokrymskyi kanal not North Crimean Canal . [26]

Romanization for other languages than English

Romanization intended for readers of other languages than English is usually transcribed phonetically into the familiar orthography. For example, y, kh, ch, sh, shch for anglophones may be transcribed j, ch, tsch, sch, schtsch for German readers (for letters й, х, ч, ш, щ), ir it may be rendered in Latin letters according to the normal orthography of another Slavic language, such as Polish or Croatian (such as the established system of scientific transliteration, described above).

Ad hoc romanization

Users of public-access computers or mobile text messaging services sometimes improvise informal romanization due to limitations in keyboard or character set. These may include both sound-alike and look-alike letter substitutions. Example: YKPAIHCbKA ABTOPKA for "УКРАЇНСЬКА АВТОРКА". See also Volapuk encoding.

This system uses the available character set.

Ukrainian telegraph code

For telegraph transmission. Each separate Ukrainian letter had a 1:1 equivalence to a Latin letter. Latin Q, W, V, and X are equivalent to Ukrainian Я (or sometimes Щ), В, Ж, Ь. Other letters are transcribed phonetically. This equivalency is used in building the KOI8-U table.

Transcription

Transcription is the representation of the spoken word. Phonological, or phonemic, transcription represents the phonemes, or meaningful sounds of a language, and is useful to describe the general pronunciation of a word. Phonetic transcription represents every single sound, or phone, and can be used to compare different dialects of a language. Both methods can use the same sets of symbols, but linguists usually denote phonemic transcriptions by enclosing them in slashes / ... /, while phonetic transcriptions are enclosed in square brackets [ ... ].

IPA

The International Phonetic Alphabet precisely represents pronunciation. Requires a special Unicode font.

Conventional romanization of proper names

In many contexts, it is common to use a modified system of transliteration that strives to be read and pronounced naturally by anglophones. Such transcriptions are also used for the surnames of people of Ukrainian ancestry in English-speaking countries (personal names have often been translated to equivalent or similar English names, e.g., "Alexander" for Oleksandr, "Terry" for Taras).

Typically such a modified transliteration is based on the ALA-LC, or Library of Congress (in North America), or, less commonly, the British Standard system. Such a simplified system usually omits diacritics and ligatures (tie-bars) from, e.g., i͡e, ï or ĭ, often simplifies -yĭ and -iĭ word endings to "-y", omits romanizing the Ukrainian soft sign (ь) and apostrophe ( ' ), and may substitute ya, ye, yu, yo for ia, ie, iu, io at the beginnings of words. It may also simplify doubled letters. Unlike in the English language where an apostrophe is punctuation, in the Ukrainian language it is a letter. Therefore sometimes Rus' is translated with an apostrophe, even when the apostrophe is dropped for most other names and words.

Conventional transliterations can reflect the history of a person or place. Many well-known spellings are based on transcriptions into another Latin alphabet, such as the German or Polish. Others are transcribed from equivalent names in other languages, for example Ukrainian Pavlo ("Paul") may be called by the Russian equivalent Pavel, Ukrainian Kyiv by the Russian equivalent Kiev.

The employment of romanization systems can become complex. For example, the English translation of Kubijovyč's Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopædia uses a modified Library of Congress (ALA-LC) system as outlined above for Ukrainian and Russian names—with the exceptions for endings or doubled consonants applying variously to personal and geographic names. For technical reasons, maps in the Encyclopedia follow different conventions. Names of persons are anglicized in the encyclopedia's text, but also presented in their original form in the index. Various geographic names are presented in their anglicized, Russian, or both Ukrainian and Polish forms, and appear in several forms in the index. Scientific transliteration is used in linguistics articles. The Encyclopedia's explanation of its transliteration and naming convention occupies 2-1/2 pages. [27]

Tables of romanization systems

Common systems for romanizing Ukrainian
CyrillicBritish [lower-alpha 1] BGN/PCGN 1965 [lower-alpha 2] ALA-LC [lower-alpha 3] LC without diacritics [10] modified LC [lower-alpha 4] Ukrainian NationalGerman dictionary [28] French dictionary [29]
А аaaaaaaaa
Б бbbbbbbbb
В вvvvvvvwv
Г гhhhhhh, gh [lower-alpha 5] hh
Ґ ґgggggggg
Д дdddddddd
Е еeeeeeeee
Є єyeyei͡eieie, ye-ie, ye- [lower-alpha 6] jeie
Ж жzhzhz͡hzhzhzhshj
З зzzzzzzsz
И иȳyyyyyyy
І іiiiiiiii
Ї їyiyiïïii, yi- [lower-alpha 6] jiï
Й й ĭ yĭii, y-i, y- [lower-alpha 6] jy
К кkkkkkkkk
Л лllllllll
М мmmmmmmmm
Н нnnnnnnnn
О оoooooooo
П пpppppppp
Р рrrrrrrrr
С сsssssss, sss
Т тtttttttt
У уuuuuuuuou
Ф фffffffff
Х хkhkhkhkhkhkhchkh
Ц цtstst͡stststszts
Ч чchchchchchchtschtch
Ш шshshshshshshschch
Щ щshchshchshchshchshchshchschtschchtch
Ь ьʼ, 'ʼʹʹ
Ю юyuyui͡uiuiu, yu-iu, yu- [lower-alpha 6] juiou
Я яyayai͡aiaia, yaia, ya- [lower-alpha 6] jaia
ʼˮ, "ˮʼ
Historical letters
Ъ ъ ˮ, "
Ѣ ѣ i
  1. British Standard: The character sequence тс = t-s, to distinguish it from ц = ts. Accents and diacritics may be omitted when back-transliteration is not required.
  2. BGN/PCGN 1965: The character sequences зг = z·h, кг = k·h, сг = s·h, тс = t·s, and цг = ts·h may be romanized with midpoints to differentiate them from the digraphs ж = zh, х = kh, ш = sh, ц = ts, and the letter sequence тш = tsh. Superseded by the Ukrainian National system in 2020.
  3. ALA-LC: When applied strictly, ALA-LC requires the use of the ligature (U+0361), but in practice these are often omitted.
  4. Modified Library of Congress: used for personal and place names. Initial Є‑ (I͡E‑), Й‑ (Ĭ‑), Ю‑ (I͡U‑), and Я‑ (I͡A‑) are rendered as Ye‑, Y‑, Yu‑, and Ya‑. Surname endings ‑ий (‑yĭ) and ‑ій (‑iĭ) are simplified as ‑y. Familiar names may be anglicized, for example, Михайло (Mykhaĭlo) = Michael, Олександр (Oleksandr) = Alexander. Practices vary.
  5. Ukrainian National system: gh is used in the romanization of зг = zgh, avoiding confusion with ж = zh.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Ukrainian National system: The second variant is used at the beginning of a word.
International systems for romanizing Ukrainian
CyrillicScientific (OUk) [30] Scientific (MUk) [30] Scientific [lower-alpha 1] [30] Prussian Instr. [31] ISO 1954ISO 1968 basicISO 1968 Ukr. var.ISO 1995
А аaaaaaaaa
Б бbbbbbbbb
В вvvvvvvvv
Г гghhhgghg
Ґ ґggġġgg
Д дdddddddd
Е еeeeeeeee
Є єjejejejejeê
Ж жžžžžžžžž
З зzzzzzzzz
И иiyyiiiyi
І іiyiīiīiì
Ї їjijiïïï
Й йjjjjjjj
К кkkkkkkkk
Л лllllllll
М мmmmmmmmm
Н нnnnnnnnn
О оoooooooo
П пpppppppp
Р рrrrrrrrr
С сssssssss
Т тtttttttt
У уuuuuuuuu
Ф фffffffff
Х хxxxchhhchh
Ц цcccccccc
Ч чčččččččč
Ш шšššššššš
Щ щščščščščščščščŝ
Ь ььʼʼʹʼʹʹʹ
Ю юjujujujujujujuû
Я яjajajajajajajaâ
ʼʺ, ʼʺʺʼ
Historical letters
Ъ ъ ъʺ_ʺʺ
Ы ы yyyy
Ѣ ѣ iiiii
Ѥ ѥ jeje
Ѧ ѧ ęę
Ѩ ѩ
Ѫ ѫ ǫǫăȧʺ̣
Ѭ ѭ
Ѯ ѯ ksks
Ѱ ѱ psps
Ѳ ѳ thth
Ѵ ѵ
Ѡ ѡ oo
  1. Scientific transliteration: Where two transliterations appear, the first is according to the traditional system, and the second according to ISO/R 9:1968.
Ukrainian official systems for romanizing Ukrainian
CyrillicGOST 1971GOST 1986Derzhstandart 1995National 1996 [lower-alpha 1] Passport 2004Passport 2007 [32] National 2010 [21]
А аaaaaaaa
Б бbbbbbbb
В вvvvvv, wvv
Г гggghh, gh [lower-alpha 2] h, ggh, gh [lower-alpha 2]
Ґ ґggg, hgg
Д дddddddd
Е еeeeeeee
Є єjejejeie, ye- [lower-alpha 3] ie, ye- [lower-alpha 3] ieie, ye- [lower-alpha 3]
Ж жzhžzhzhzh, jzhzh
З зzzzzzzz
И иiiyyyyy
І iiiiiiii
Ї їjiijii, yi- [lower-alpha 3] i, yi- [lower-alpha 3] ii, yi- [lower-alpha 3]
Й йjjj [lower-alpha 4] i, y- [lower-alpha 3] i, y- [lower-alpha 3] ii, y- [lower-alpha 3]
К кkkkkk, ckk
Л лlllllll
М мmmmmmmm
Н нnnnnnnn
О оooooooo
П пppppppp
Р рrrrrrrr
С сsssssss
Т тttttttt
У уuuuuuuu
Ф фfffffff
Х хkhhkhkhkhkhkh
Ц цccctstststs
Ч чchčchchchchch
Ш шshšshshshshsh
Щ щshhščshhschshchshchshch
Ь ьʹʹj [lower-alpha 5] ʼʹ
Ю юjujujuiu, yu- [lower-alpha 3] iu, yu- [lower-alpha 3] iuiu, yu- [lower-alpha 3]
Я яjajajaia, ya- [lower-alpha 3] ia, ya- [lower-alpha 3] iaia, ya- [lower-alpha 3]
ʼ*ʺʼ [lower-alpha 6] ˮ
  1. National (1996) system: transliteration can be rendered in a simplified form. Doubled consonants ж, х, ц, ч, ш are simplified, for example Запоріжжя = Zaporizhia. Apostrophe and soft sign are omitted, but always render ьо = 'o and ьї = 'i.
  2. 1 2 gh is used in the romanization of зг (zgh), avoiding confusion with ж (zh).
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 The second transliteration is used word-initially.
  4. Word-initially, after vowels or after the apostrophe.
  5. After consonants.
  6. Apostrophe is used before iotated ja, ju, je, ji, jo, and to distinguish the combination ьа (j'a) in compound words from я (ja), for example, Волиньавто = Volynj'avto.

See also

Notes

  1. Rudnyckyj 1948, p. 1.
  2. Transliteration Timeline on the website of the University of Arizona Library
  3. George Shevelov, A Historical Phonology of the Ukrainian Language, p. 21, 40, Wikidata   Q104552122
  4. Cutter, Charles Ammi (1885). "Report of the A.L.A. Transliteration Committee, 1885". Library Journal. 10: 302–309.
  5. Cutter, Charles Ammi (1908). "Report of the A.L.A. Transliteration Committee". Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries. Chicago, IL: American Library Association and the (British) Library Association. pp. 65–73.
  6. Gerych, G. (1965). Transliteration of Cyrillic Alphabets (master's dissertation). Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
  7. Gjelsness, Rudolph, ed. (1941). A.L.A. Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries. Chicago, IL: American Library Association. pp. 335–36.
  8. "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". The Library of Congress. 2011. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  9. 1 2 Searching for Cyrillic items in the catalogues of the British Library: guidelines and transliteration tables
  10. 1 2 Brief Submission Guidelines (PDF). Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute Publications Office. 2019. Literary, historical, and social sciences texts adhere to the Library of Congress conventions, without ligatures. . . . We preserve the spelling of ï. To indicate the soft sign we use a slanted prime . . . We preserve the Ukrainian apostrophe as a single curly quotation mark. . . . Omit primes in place-names (except Rusʹ).
  11. J. Thomas Shaw (1979). The transliteration of modern Russian for English-language publications. New York City: Modern Language Association. ISBN   978-0-87352-086-7. LCCN   66-22858. OCLC   1068026551. OL   11116653M. Wikidata   Q104518479.
  12. Volodymyr Kubijovyč; Danylo Husar Struk (eds.). "Explanatory Notes". Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Toronto, 1984–2001). Volume I (A-F). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN   978-0-802-03362-8. LCCN   85142719. OL   7873066M. Wikidata   Q104635282.|volume= has extra text (help)
  13. Mykhailo Hrushevskyi. "Editorial Preface". In Frank E. Sysyn; with the assistance of; Serhii Plokhy; Myroslav Yurkevich; Dushan Bednarsky; Andrij Hornjatkevyč (eds.). History of Ukraine-Rusʹ. Volume I (From prehistory to the eleventh century). Translated by Marta Skorupsky. Edmonton, Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. p. xv. ISBN   978-1-895571-19-6. LCCN   00361329. OL   29539868M. Wikidata   Q104836760.|volume= has extra text (help)
  14. Kuhut, Zenon E.; Nebesio, Bohdan Y.; Yurkevich, Myroslav (2005). "Note on Transliteration, Terminology, and Dates". Historical Dictionary of Ukraine. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press. pp. xi. ISBN   0-8108-5387-6.
  15. BS 2979:1958 Transliteration of Cyrillic and Greek Characters, BSI Group, 30 July 1958, Wikidata   Q105693940
  16. 1 2 Oxford Style Manual (2003), "Slavonic Languages", s 11.41.2, p 350. Oxford University Press.
  17. 1 2 Hans H. Wellisch (1978), The Conversion of Scripts, New York City: Wiley, p. 262, Wikidata   Q104231343
  18. "Official Ukrainian-English transliteration system adopted by the Ukrainian Legal Terminology Commission (in English)". Archived from the original on 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
  19. Рішення Української Комісії з питань правничої термінології (in Ukrainian)
  20. 1 2 Resolution no. 55 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, January 27, 2010
  21. Romanization system in Ukraine, paper presented on East Central and South-East Europe Division of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
  22. The document prepared for the UNGEGN session by Ukrainian Experts.
  23. "UNGEGN WGRS. Resolution X/9". www.eki.ee. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  24. "Guidance on the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN)/Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN) romanization systems". GOV.UK. 2020-04-24. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  25. Syvak, Nina; Ponomarenko, Valerii; Khodzinska, Olha; Lakeichuk, Iryna (2011). Veklych, Lesia (ed.). "Toponymic Guidelines for Map and Other Editors for International Use" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division . scientific consultant Iryna Rudenko; reviewed by Nataliia Kizilowa; translated by Olha Khodzinska. Kyiv: DerzhHeoKadastr and Kartographia. ISBN   978-966-475-839-7 . Retrieved 2020-10-06.
  26. Kubijovyč, Volodymyr, ed. (1963). Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopædia, Vol. 1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. xxxii–xxxiv. ISBN   0-8020-3105-6.
  27. Duden (22nd ed.). Mannheim: Dudenverlag. 2000.
  28. Girodet, Jean, ed. (1976). Dictionnaire de la langue française. Paris: Éditions Bordas.
  29. 1 2 3 George Shevelov (1979). A Historical Phonology of the Ukrainian Language. Historical Phonology of the Slavic Languages. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag C. Winter. p. 21. ISBN   3-533-02786-4. OL   22276820M. Wikidata   Q105081119.
  30. Hans H. Wellisch (1978), The Conversion of Scripts, New York City: Wiley, pp. 260–62, Wikidata   Q104231343
  31. Decision no. 858 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, July 26, 2007

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Romanization of Bulgarian Transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet

Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names and place names in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage. Several different standards of transliteration exist, one of which was chosen and made mandatory for common use by the Bulgarian authorities in a law of 2009.

The romanization of Arabic refers to the standard norms for rendering written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language works, language education when used moreover or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists. These formal systems, which often make use of diacritics and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based Arabic chat alphabet.

The romanization of Khmer refers to the romanization of the Khmer (Cambodian) language, that is, the representation of that language using letters of the Latin (Roman) alphabet. This is most commonly done with Khmer proper nouns such as names of people and geographical names, as in a gazetteer.

Scientific transliteration, variously called academic, linguistic, international, or scholarly transliteration, is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This system is most often seen in linguistics publications on Slavic languages.

Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian from Cyrillic to the Latin.

BGN/PCGN romanization system for Russian is a method for romanization of Cyrillic Russian texts, that is, their transliteration into the Latin alphabet as used in the English language.

The American Library Association and Library of Congress Romanization Tables for Russian, or the Library of Congress system, are a set of rules for the romanization of Russian-language text from Cyrillic script to Latin script.

The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names in foreign contexts, or for informal writing of Macedonian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of Romanization by North Macedonia's authorities is found, for instance, on road signage and in passports. Several different codified standards of transliteration currently exist and there is widespread variability in practice.

Latin script writing system used for most European languages

Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist, which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet.

Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian is the representation of the Persian language with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.

There are various systems of romanization of the Armenian alphabet.

Romanization of the Burmese alphabet is representation of the Burmese language or Burmese names in the Latin alphabet.

References

Transliteration systems