Romanization of Russian

Last updated

The romanization of the Russian language (the transliteration of Russian text from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script), aside from its primary use for including Russian names and words in text written in a Latin alphabet, is also essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of typing rapidly using a native Russian keyboard layout (JCUKEN). In the latter case, they would type using a system of transliteration fitted for their keyboard layout, such as for English QWERTY keyboards, and then use an automated tool to convert the text into Cyrillic.

Contents

Pavel Datsyuk (Cyrillic: Pavel Datsiuk), a former NHL and international ice hockey player, wearing a sweater with Latin characters Pavel Datsyuk 2016.JPG
Pavel Datsyuk (Cyrillic: Павел Дацюк), a former NHL and international ice hockey player, wearing a sweater with Latin characters
A street sign in Russia with the name of the street shown in Cyrillic and Latin characters Udaltsova Street sign.jpg
A street sign in Russia with the name of the street shown in Cyrillic and Latin characters

Systematic transliterations of Cyrillic to Latin

There are a number of distinct and competing standards for the romanization of Russian Cyrillic, with none of them having received much popularity, and, in reality, transliteration is often carried out without any consistent standards. [1]

Scientific transliteration

Scientific transliteration, also known as the International Scholarly System, is a system that has been used in linguistics since the 19th century. It is based on the Czech alphabet and formed the basis of the GOST and ISO systems.

GOST

OST 8483

OST 8483 was the first Soviet standard on romanization of Russian, introduced on 16 October 1935. [2]

GOST 16876-71 (1973)

Developed by the National Administration for Geodesy and Cartography at the USSR Council of Ministers, GOST 16876-71 has been in service since 1973. Replaced by GOST 7.79-2000.

ST SEV 1362 (1978)

This standard is an equivalent of GOST 16876-71 and was adopted as an official standard of the COMECON.

GOST 7.79-2000 (2002)

GOST 7.79-2000 System of Standards on Information, Librarianship, and Publishing–Rules for Transliteration of the Cyrillic Characters Using the Latin Alphabet is an adoption of ISO 9:1995. It is the official standard of both Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

GOST 52535.1-2006 (2006)

GOST 52535.1-2006 Identification cards. Machine readable travel documents. Part 1. Machine readable passports is an adoption of an ICAO standard for travel documents. It was used in Russian passports for a short period during 2010–2013 (see below). The standard was substituted in 2013 by GOST R ISO/IEC 7501-1-2013, which does not contain romanization, but directly refers to the ICAO romanization (see below).

Street and road signs

Names on street and road signs in the Soviet Union were romanized according to GOST 10807-78 (tables 17, 18), which was amended by newer Russian GOST R 52290-2004 (tables Г.4, Г.5), the romanizations in both the standards are practically identical.

ISO

ISO/R 9

ISO/R 9, established in 1954 and updated in 1968, was the adoption of the scientific transliteration by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It covers Russian and seven other Slavic languages.

ISO 9

ISO 9:1995 is the current transliteration standard from ISO. It is based on its predecessor ISO/R 9:1968, which it deprecates; for Russian, the two are the same except in the treatment of five modern letters. ISO 9:1995 is the first language-independent, univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics) that faithfully represents the original and allows for reverse transliteration for Cyrillic text in any contemporary language.

United Nations romanization system

The UNGEGN, a Working Group of the United Nations, in 1987 recommended a romanization system for geographical names, which was based on the 1983 version of GOST 16876-71. It may be found in some international cartographic products. [3]

Library of Congress (ALA-LC)

American Library Association and Library of Congress (ALA-LC) romanization tables for Slavic alphabets are used in North American libraries and in the British Library since 1975.

The formal, unambiguous version of the system for bibliographic cataloguing requires some diacritics, two-letter tie characters, and prime marks. The standard is also often adapted as a "simplified" or "modified Library of Congress system" for use in text for a non-specialized audience, omitting the special characters and diacritics, simplifying endings, and modifying iotated initials. [4] [5]

British Standard

British Standard 2979:1958 is the main system of the Oxford University Press, [6] and a variation was used by the British Library to catalogue publications acquired up to 1975—the Library of Congress system (ALA-LC) is used for newer acquisitions. [7]

BGN/PCGN

The BGN/PCGN system is relatively intuitive for Anglophones to read and pronounce. In many publications, a simplified form of the system is used to render English versions of Russian names, typically converting ë to yo, simplifying -iy and -yy endings to -y, and omitting apostrophes for ъ and ь. It can be rendered using only the basic letters and punctuation found on English-language keyboards: no diacritics or unusual letters are required, although the interpunct character (·) may be used to avoid ambiguity.

This particular standard is part of the BGN/PCGN romanization system which was developed by the United States Board on Geographic Names and by the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use. The portion of the system pertaining to the Russian language was adopted by BGN in 1944 and by PCGN in 1947.

Transliteration of names on Russian passports

In Soviet international passports, transliteration was based on French rules but without diacritics and so all names were transliterated in a French-style system. [8]

In 1997, with the introduction of new Russian passports, a diacritic-free English-oriented system was established by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, [8] [9] but the system was also abandoned in 2010.

In 2006, GOST 52535.1-2006 was adopted, which defines technical requirements and standards for Russian international passports and introduces its own system of transliteration. In 2010, the Federal Migratory Service of Russia approved Order No. 26, [10] stating that all personal names in the passports issued after 2010 must be transliterated using GOST 52535.1-2006. Because of some differences between the new system and the old one, citizens who wanted to retain the old version of a name's transliteration, especially one that had been in the old pre-2010 passport, could apply to the local migratory office before they acquired a new passport. The standard was abandoned in 2013.

In 2013, Order No. 320 [11] of the Federal Migratory Service of Russia came into force. It states that all personal names in the passports must be transliterated by using the ICAO system, which is published in Doc 9303 "Machine Readable Travel Documents, Part 3". The system differs from the GOST 52535.1-2006 system in two things: ц is transliterated into ts (as in pre-2010 systems), ъ is transliterated into ie (a novelty).

Transliteration table

Common systems for romanizing Russian
CyrillicScholarly

[12] [13]

ISO/R 9:1968GOST 16876-71(1);
UNGEGN (1987)
GOST 16876-71(2)ISO 9:1995; GOST 7.79-2000(A)GOST 7.79-2000(B)Road
signs
ALA-LCBS 2979:1958BGN/PCGNPassport (1997)Passport (2010) Passport (2013), ICAO
Ааaaaaaaaaaaaaa
Ббbbbbbbbbbbbbb
Ввvvvvvvvvvvvvv
Ггggggggggggggg
Ддddddddddddddd
Ееeeeeeee (ye) [lower-alpha 1] eee (ye) [lower-alpha 2] e (ye) [lower-alpha 3] ee
Ёёëëëjoëyoe (ye, yo) [lower-alpha 4] ëë [lower-alpha 5] ë (yë) [lower-alpha 2] e (ye) [lower-alpha 3] ee
Жжžžžzhžzhzhzhzhzhzhzhzh
Ззzzzzzzzzzzzzz
Ииiiiiiiiiiiiii
Ййjjjj (jj) [lower-alpha 6] jjyĭĭ [lower-alpha 5] y [lower-alpha 7] y [lower-alpha 8] ii
Ккkkkkkkkkkkkkk
Ллlllllllllllll
Ммmmmmmmmmmmmmm
Ннnnnnnnnnnnnnn
Ооooooooooooooo
Ппppppppppppppp
Ррrrrrrrrrrrrrr
Ссsssssssss [lower-alpha 9] ssss
Ттttttttttt [lower-alpha 9] tttt
Ууuuuuuuuuuuuuu
Ффfffffffffffff
Ххx (ch)chhkhhxkhkhkhkhkhkhkh
Ццccccccz (c) [lower-alpha 10] tst͡sts [lower-alpha 9] ts [lower-alpha 7] tstcts
Ччčččchčchchchchchchchch
Шшšššshšshshshshshshshsh
Щщščščŝshhŝshhshchshchshchshch [lower-alpha 7] shchshchshch
Ъъ [lower-alpha 11] ʺʺʺʺʺʺʼʺ [lower-alpha 12] ˮ (") [lower-alpha 13] ˮʺie
Ыыyyyyyy'yyȳ (ui) [lower-alpha 14] y [lower-alpha 7] yyy
Ьь [lower-alpha 11] ʹʹʹʹʹʹʼʹʼ (')ʼ
Ээèèėehèe'eėé [lower-alpha 5] e [lower-alpha 7] eee
Ююjujujujuûyuyui͡uyuyuyuiuiu
Яяjajajajaâyayai͡ayayayaiaia
Pre-1918 letters
Ііiiiìi (i') [lower-alpha 15] īī
Ѳѳf (th) [lower-alpha 16] fh
Ѣѣěěěěyei͡eê
Ѵѵi (ü) [lower-alpha 16] yh
Pre-18th century letters
Єє(j)e [lower-alpha 16] -ē
Ѥѥje [lower-alpha 16] -i͡e
Ѕѕdz (ʒ) [lower-alpha 16] -jsż
u-ū
Ѡѡô (o) [lower-alpha 16] -ō
Ѿѿôt (ot) [lower-alpha 16] -ō͡t
Ѫѫǫ (u) [lower-alpha 16] -ǎǫ
Ѧѧę (ja) [lower-alpha 16] -ę
Ѭѭjǫ (ju) [lower-alpha 16] -i͡ǫ
Ѩѩję (ja) [lower-alpha 16] -i͡ę
Ѯѯks-k͡s
Ѱѱps-p͡s
CyrillicScholarlyISO/R 9:1968GOST 1971(1);
UNGEGN (1987)
GOST 1971(2)ISO9:1995; GOST 2002(A)GOST 2002(B)Road
signs
ALA-LCBS 2979:1958BGN/PCGNPassport (1997)Passport (2010)Passport (2013), ICAO

Table notes

  1. е = ye initially, after vowels, and after ъ and ь.
  2. 1 2 The digraphs ye and are used to indicate iotation at the beginning of a word, after vowels, and after й, ъ or ь.
  3. 1 2 ye after ь.
  4. ё
    = ye after consonants except ч, ш, щ, ж (ch, sh, shch, zh);
    = e after ч, ш, щ, ж (ch, sh, shch, zh);
    = yo initially, after vowels, and after ъ and ь.
  5. 1 2 3 Diacritics may be omitted when back-transliteration is not required.
  6. jj is accepted if reverse transliteration is needed
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 An optional middle dot (·) may be used to signify:
    • non-digraphs (тс = t·s, шч = sh·ch);
    • = й before а, у, ы, э (йа = y·a, йу = y·u, йы = y·y, йэ = y·e);
    • = ы before а, у, ы, э (ыа = y·a, ыу = y·u, ыы = y·y, ыэ = y·e);
    • ·y = ы after vowels;
    • ·e = э after consonants except й.
  8. ий is either iy or y, and ый is either y or yy.
  9. 1 2 3 тс is romanized t-s to distinguish it from ц = ts.
  10. It is recommended to use c before i, e, y, j, but cz in all other cases.
  11. 1 2 Unicode recommends encoding the primes used for the soft and hard signs as modifier prime and double prime, ʹ and ʺ, which may be entered with {{ softsign }} and {{ hardsign }}, and the apostrophes for the same as the modifier letter apostrophes, ʼ and ˮ.
  12. Before the 2012 revision of the table, ъ was not romanized at the end of a word. Since that date, it is always romanized.
  13. ъ is not romanized at the end of a word.
  14. The British Library uses ы = ui, ый = uy.
  15. In GOST 7.79-2000 Cyrillic і in Ukrainian and Bulgarian is always transliterated as Latin i as well as in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian texts where it is usually used before vowels. In the rare case that it falls before a consonant (for example, in the word міръ), it is transliterated with an apostrophe i'.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Some archaic letters are transcribed in different ways.

Latin script

In a second sense, the romanization or Latinization of Russian [14] may also indicate the introduction of a dedicated Latin alphabet for writing the Russian language. Such an alphabet would not necessarily bind closely to the traditional Cyrillic orthography. The transition from Cyrillic to Latin has been proposed several times throughout history (especially during the Soviet era), but was never conducted on a large scale, except for graphemic (such as the Volapuk) and phonemic (such as translit) ad hoc transcriptions.

The most serious possibility of adoption of a Latin alphabet for the Russian language was discussed in 1929–30 during the campaign of latinisation of the languages of the USSR, when a special commission was created to propose a latinisation system for Russian. [15]

Latin letter names in Russian

The letters of the Latin script are named in Russian as following (and are borrowed from French and/or German):[ citation needed ]

  • A: a (а)
  • B: be (бэ)
  • C: ce (цэ)
  • D: de (дэ)
  • E: je or e (е) or (э)
  • F: ef (эф)
  • G: ge or že (гэ) or (жэ)
  • H: or ha (аш) or (ха)
  • I: i (и)
  • J: jot or ži (йот) or (жи)
  • K: ka (ка)
  • L: elʹ (эль)
  • M: em (эм)
  • N: en (эн)
  • O: o (о)
  • P: pe (пэ)
  • Q: ku (ку)
  • R: er (эр)
  • S: es (эс)
  • T: te (тэ)
  • U: u (у)
  • V: ve (вэ)
  • W: dublʹ-ve (дубль-вэ)
  • X: iks (икс)
  • Y: igrek (игрек) or ipsilon (ипсилон)
  • Z: zet (зет)

See also

Notes

  1. Ivanov, Lyubomir (2017). "Streamlined Romanization of Russian Cyrillic". Contrastive Linguistics. Sofia. XLII (2): 66–73. ISSN   0204-8701. Archived from the original on 2022-03-03. Retrieved 2021-03-11. In general, the present practice of Russian transliteration would seem fairly messy, inconsistent, and subject to not infrequent change.
  2. Vinogradov, N. V. (1941). Karty i atlasy (in Russian). p. 44. ISBN   978-5-4475-6305-9. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
  3. Zots, I.V. (2020) Modern Romanization of Russian Toponyms per UN Technical Reference: Phonological and Orthographic Analysis. Archived 2020-09-19 at the Wayback Machine Preprints, 2020060095
  4. Shaw, J. Thomas (1967). Transliteration of Modern Russian for English-Language Publications. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  5. Guide to Style and Presentation of MSS (Pamphlet). Slavonic and East European Review. c. 1966.
  6. Waddingham, Anne (2014). New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide. Oxford University Press. p. 240. ISBN   978-0-19-957002-7. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
  7. "Search for Cyrillic items in the catalogue". British Library. 2014. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  8. 1 2 Ministry of Internal Affairs. "Order No. 310 (26 May 1997)" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  9. Ministry of Internal Affairs (22 January 2004). "Order No. 1047 (31 December 2003)" (in Russian). No. 3386. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Archived from the original on 25 September 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  10. Federal Migratory Service (5 March 2010). "Order No. 26 (3 February 2010)" (in Russian). No. 5125. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  11. Federal Migratory Service (27 March 2013). "Order No. 320 (15 October 2012)" (in Russian). No. 6041. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  12. Lunt, Horace Grey (2001). Old Church Slavonic Grammar (7 ed.). Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 17–18. ISBN   3-11-016284-9. Archived from the original on 2016-04-30. Retrieved 2015-10-11.
  13. Timberlake, Alan (2004). A Reference Grammar of Russian. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521772921. Archived from the original on 2016-04-28. Retrieved 2015-10-11.
  14. Wellisch, Hans H. (1978). The Conversion of Scripts, Its Nature, History, and Utilization. New York: Wiley. ISBN   0471016209.
  15. ""О латинизации русского алфавита"". 18 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-08-30. Retrieved 2013-04-26.

Related Research Articles

Cyrillic script Writing system developed in Bulgaria and used for various languages of Eurasia

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic, Turkic, Mongolic, Uralic, Caucasian and Iranic-speaking countries in Southeastern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Asia, and East Asia.

Romanization Transliteration or transcription to Latin characters

Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of text from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision.

Russian alphabet Alphabet that uses letters from the Cyrillic script

The Russian alphabet is used to write Russian words. It comes from the Cyrillic script, which was devised in the 9th century for the first Slavic literary language, Old Slavonic. Initially an old variant of the Bulgarian alphabet, it became used in the Kievan Rus' since the 10th century to write what would become the Russian language.

ISO 9 is an international standard establishing a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages.

Two scripts are currently used for the Tatar language: Arabic and Cyrillic.

Soft sign Letter of the Cyrillic script

The soft sign also known as the front yer, front jer, or er malak is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In Old Church Slavonic, it represented a short front vowel. As with its companion, the back yer ⟨ъ⟩, the vowel phoneme that it designated was later partly dropped and partly merged with other vowels.

Yery Cyrillic letter ⟨ы⟩

Yery, Yeru, Ery or Eru, usually called Ы [ɨ] in modern Russian or еры yerý historically and in modern Church Slavonic, is a letter in the Cyrillic script. It represents the close central unrounded vowel after non-palatalised (hard) consonants in the Belarusian and Russian alphabets, and after any consonant in most of Rusyn standards, where it represents the unrounded close-mid back unrounded vowel sound.

The romanization of Ukrainian, or Latinization of Ukrainian, is the representation of the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration and transcription.

Ukrainian alphabet Alphabet that uses letters from the Cyrillic script

The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, which is the official language of Ukraine. It is one of several national variations of the Cyrillic script. The modern Ukrainian alphabet consists of 33 letters.

Romanization of Bulgarian Transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet

Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names and place names in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage. Several different standards of transliteration exist, one of which was chosen and made mandatory for common use by the Bulgarian authorities in a law of 2009.

Hard sign Letter of the Cyrillic script

The letter Ъ of the Cyrillic script is known as er golyam in the Bulgarian alphabet, as the hard sign in the modern Russian and Rusyn alphabets, as the debelo jer in pre-reform Serbian orthography, and as ayirish belgisi in the Uzbek Cyrillic alphabet. The letter is called back yer or back jer and yor or jor in the pre-reform Russian orthography, in Old East Slavic, and in Old Church Slavonic.

Kazakh alphabets Alphabets used to write the Kazakh language

Three alphabets are used to write the Kazakh language: in the Cyrillic, Latin and Arabic scripts. The Cyrillic script is used in Kazakhstan and Mongolia. An October 2017 Presidential Decree in Kazakhstan ordered that the transition from Cyrillic to a Latin script be completed by 2025. The Arabic script is used in parts of China, Iran and Afghanistan.

Scientific transliteration, variously called academic, linguistic, international, or scholarly transliteration, is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This system is most often seen in linguistics publications on Slavic languages.

BGN/PCGN romanization system for Russian is a method for romanization of Cyrillic Russian texts, that is, their transliteration into the Latin alphabet as used in the English language.

GOST 16876-71 is a romanization system devised by the National Administration for Geodesy and Cartography of the Soviet Union. It is based on the scientific transliteration system used in linguistics. GOST was an international standard so it included provision for a number of the languages of the Soviet Union. The standard was revised twice in 1973 and 1980 with minor changes.

Tajik alphabet Alphabet used to write the Tajik language

The Tajik language has been written in three alphabets over the course of its history: an adaptation of the Perso-Arabic script, an adaptation of the Latin script and an adaptation of the Cyrillic script. Any script used specifically for Tajik may be referred to as the Tajik alphabet, which is written as алифбои тоҷикӣ in Cyrillic characters, الفبای تاجیکی with Perso-Arabic script and alifʙoji toçikī in Latin script.

Cyrillic alphabets Related alphabets based on Cyrillic scripts

Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script. The early Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School by Saint Clement of Ohrid and Saint Naum and replaced the earlier Glagolitic script developed by the Byzantine theologians Cyril and Methodius. It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of Southeastern Europe and Northern Eurasia, especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages. About half of them are in Russia. Cyrillic is one of the most-used writing systems in the world.

JCUKEN is the main Cyrillic keyboard layout for the Russian language in computers and typewriters. Earlier in Russia JIUKEN (ЙІУКЕН) layout was the main layout, but it was replaced by JCUKEN when the Russian alphabet reform of 1917 removed the letters Ѣ, І, Ѵ, and Ѳ. The letter Ъ had decreased in usage significantly after the reform.

The Komi language, a Uralic language spoken in the north-eastern part of European Russia, has been written in several different alphabets. Currently, Komi writing uses letters from the Cyrillic script. There have been five distinct stages in the history of Komi writing:

Mordvinic alphabets is a writing system used to write Mordovian languages. From its inception in the 18th century to the present, it has been based on the Cyrillic alphabet. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the alphabet did not have a stable norm and was often changed. The modern alphabet has been in operation since the late 1920s.

References