ISO 4217

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An airline ticket showing the price in the ISO 4217 code "EUR" (bottom left) and not the currency sign EUR Flugschein.JPG
An airline ticket showing the price in the ISO 4217 code "EUR" (bottom left) and not the currency sign

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables:

International Organization for Standardization An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national organizations for standards

The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

A currency, in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money in common use, especially for people in a nation. Under this definition, US dollars (US$), pounds sterling (£), Australian dollars (A$), European euros (€), Russian rubles (₽) and Indian Rupees (₹) are examples of currencies. These various currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance.

Country code alphabetic or numeric geographical codes that represent countries and dependent areas

Country codes are short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) developed to represent countries and dependent areas, for use in data processing and communications. Several different systems have been developed to do this. The term country code frequently refers to international dialing codes, the E.164 country calling codes.

Contents

The tables, history and ongoing discussion are maintained by SIX Interbank Clearing on behalf of ISO and the Swiss Association for Standardization. [4]

SIX Interbank Clearing AG, based in Zurich, Switzerland, is a subsidiary of SIX Group.

The ISO 4217 code list is used in banking and business globally. In many countries the ISO codes for the more common currencies are so well known publicly that exchange rates published in newspapers or posted in banks use only these to delineate the currencies, instead of translated currency names or ambiguous currency symbols. ISO 4217 codes are used on airline tickets and international train tickets to remove any ambiguity about the price.

Business Organization undertaking commercial, industrial, or professional activity

Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit. It does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."

Exchange rate rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another

In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another. It is also regarded as the value of one country's currency in relation to another currency. For example, an interbank exchange rate of 114 Japanese yen to the United States dollar means that ¥114 will be exchanged for each US$1 or that US$1 will be exchanged for each ¥114. In this case it is said that the price of a dollar in relation to yen is ¥114, or equivalently that the price of a yen in relation to dollars is $1/114.The government has the authority to change exchange rate when needed.

Bank financial institution

A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit. Lending activities can be performed either directly or indirectly through capital markets. Due to their importance in the financial stability of a country, banks are highly regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are generally subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords.

Code formation

A list of exchange rates for various base currencies given by a money changer in Thailand, with the Thailand Baht as the counter (or quote) currency. Note the Korean currency code should be KRW South East Asia Exchange Rates (6031878489).jpg
A list of exchange rates for various base currencies given by a money changer in Thailand, with the Thailand Baht as the counter (or quote) currency. Note the Korean currency code should be KRW

The first two letters of the code are the two letters of the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes (which are also used as the basis for national top-level domains on the Internet) and the third is usually the initial of the currency itself. So Japan's currency code is JPY —JP for Japan and Y for yen. This eliminates the problem caused by the names dollar, franc, peso and pound being used in dozens of countries, each having significantly differing values. Also, if a currency is revalued, the currency code's last letter is changed to distinguish it from the old currency. In some cases, the third letter is the initial for "new" in that country's language, to distinguish it from an older currency that was revalued; the code sometimes outlasts the usage of the term "new" itself (for example, the code for the Mexican peso is MXN). Other changes can be seen, however; the Russian ruble, for example, changed from RUR to RUB, where the B comes from the third letter in the word "ruble".

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. They are the most widely used of the country codes published by ISO, and are used most prominently for the Internet's country code top-level domains. They are also used as country identifiers extending the postal code when appropriate within the international postal system for paper mail, and has replaced the previous one consisting one-letter codes. They were first included as part of the ISO 3166 standard in its first edition in 1974.

A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code.

Internet Global system of connected computer networks

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

Another example of the third letter not being the initial of the unit's name is EUR for the euro.

X currencies

In addition to codes for most active national currencies ISO 4217 provides codes for "supranational" currencies, procedural purposes, and several things which are "similar to" currencies:

Precious metal rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic and cultural value

A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value. Chemically, the precious metals tend to be less reactive than most elements. They are usually ductile and have a high lustre. Historically, precious metals were important as currency but are now regarded mainly as investment and industrial commodities. Gold, silver, platinum, and palladium each have an ISO 4217 currency code.

Gold Chemical element with atomic number 79

Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium.

Silver Chemical element with atomic number 47

Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

The use of an initial letter "X" for these purposes is facilitated by the ISO 3166 rule that no official country code beginning with X will ever be assigned. Because of this rule ISO 4217 can use "X" codes for non-country-specific currencies without risk of clashing with a future country code. ISO 3166 country codes beginning with "X" are used for private custom use (reserved), never for official codes. For instance, the ISO 3166-based NATO country codes (STANAG 1059, 9th edition) use "X" codes for imaginary exercise countries ranging from XXB for "Brownland" to XXR for "Redland", as well as for major commands such as XXE for SHAPE or XXS for SACLANT.

The inclusion of EU (denoting the European Union) in the ISO 3166-1 reserved codes list, allows the euro to be coded as EUR rather than assigned a code beginning with X, even though it is a supranational currency.

Treatment of minor currency units (the "exponent")

The ISO 4217 standard includes a crude mechanism for expressing the relationship between a major currency unit and its corresponding minor currency unit. This mechanism is called the currency "exponent" and assumes a base of 10. For example, USD (the United States dollar) is equal to 100 of its minor currency unit the "cent". So the USD has exponent 2 (10 to the power 2 is 100, which is the number of cents in a dollar). The code JPY (Japanese yen) is given the exponent 0, because its minor unit, the sen, although nominally valued at 1/100 of a yen, is of such negligible value that it is no longer used. Usually, as with the USD, the minor currency unit has a value that is 1/100 of the major unit, but in some cases (including most varieties of the dinar) 1/1000 is used, and sometimes ratios apply which are not integer powers of 10. Mauritania does not use a decimal division of units, setting 1 ouguiya (UM) equal to 5 khoums, and Madagascar has 1 ariary = 5 iraimbilanja. Some currencies do not have any minor currency unit at all and these are given an exponent of 0, as with currencies whose minor units are unused due to negligible value.

Currency numbers

There is also a three-digit code number assigned to each currency, in the same manner as there is also a three-digit code number assigned to each country as part of ISO 3166. This numeric code is usually the same as the ISO 3166-1 numeric code. For example, USD (United States dollar) has code 840 which is also the numeric code for the US (United States).

Position of ISO 4217 code in amounts

The ISO standard does not regulate either the spacing, prefixing or suffixing in usage of currency codes. According however to the European Union's Publication Office, [5] in English, Irish, Latvian and Maltese texts, the ISO 4217 code is to be followed by a hard space [6] and the amount:

a sum of EUR 30

In Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Lithuanian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish and Swedish the order is reversed; the amount is followed by a hard space and the ISO 4217 code:

une somme de 30 EUR

Note that, as illustrated, the order is determined not by the currency, but by the native language of the document context.

History

In 1973, the ISO Technical Committee 68 decided to develop codes for the representation of currencies and funds for use in any application of trade, commerce or banking. At the 17th session (February 1978), the related UN/ECE Group of Experts agreed that the three-letter alphabetic codes for International Standard ISO 4217, "Codes for the representation of currencies and funds", would be suitable for use in international trade.

Over time, new currencies are created and old currencies are discontinued. Such changes usually originate from the formation of new countries, treaties between countries on shared currencies or monetary unions, or redenomination from an existing currency due to excessive inflation. As a result, the list of codes must be updated from time to time. The ISO 4217 maintenance agency (MA), SIX Interbank Clearing, is responsible for maintaining the list of codes.

Active codes

The following is a list of active codes of official ISO 4217 currency names. In the standard the values are called "alphabetic code", "numeric code", and "minor unit".

CodeNumE [lower-alpha 1] CurrencyLocations using this currency
AED7842 United Arab Emirates dirham Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates
AFN9712 Afghan afghani Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan
ALL0082 Albanian lek Flag of Albania.svg  Albania
AMD0512 Armenian dram Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia
ANG5322 Netherlands Antillean guilder Flag of Curacao.svg  Curaçao (CW), Flag of Sint Maarten.svg  Sint Maarten (SX)
AOA9732 Angolan kwanza Flag of Angola.svg  Angola
ARS0322 Argentine peso Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
AUD0362 Australian dollar Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia, Flag of Christmas Island.svg  Christmas Island (CX), Flag of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.svg  Cocos (Keeling) Islands (CC), Flag of Australia.svg  Heard Island and McDonald Islands (HM), Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati (KI), Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru (NR), Flag of Norfolk Island.svg  Norfolk Island (NF), Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu (TV)
AWG5332 Aruban florin Flag of Aruba.svg  Aruba
AZN9442 Azerbaijani manat Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan
BAM9772 Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina
BBD0522 Barbados dollar Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados
BDT0502 Bangladeshi taka Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh
BGN9752 Bulgarian lev Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
BHD0483 Bahraini dinar Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain
BIF1080 Burundian franc Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi
BMD0602 Bermudian dollar Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda
BND0962 Brunei dollar Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei
BOB0682 Boliviano Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia
BOV9842Bolivian Mvdol (funds code)Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia
BRL9862 Brazilian real Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
BSD0442 Bahamian dollar Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas
BTN0642 Bhutanese ngultrum Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan
BWP0722 Botswana pula Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana
BYN9332 Belarusian ruble Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus
BZD0842 Belize dollar Flag of Belize.svg  Belize
CAD1242 Canadian dollar Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
CDF9762 Congolese franc Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo
CHE9472 WIR Euro (complementary currency)Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
CHF7562 Swiss franc Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland, Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein (LI)
CHW9482 WIR Franc (complementary currency)Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
CLF9904 Unidad de Fomento (funds code)Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
CLP1520 Chilean peso Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
CNY1562 Renminbi (Chinese) yuan [7] Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
COP1702 Colombian peso Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
COU9702 [8] Unidad de Valor Real (UVR) (funds code) [8] Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
CRC1882 Costa Rican colon Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica
CUC9312 Cuban convertible peso Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
CUP1922 Cuban peso Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
CVE1322 Cape Verdean escudo Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cabo Verde
CZK2032 Czech koruna Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechia [9]
DJF2620 Djiboutian franc Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti
DKK2082 Danish krone Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark, Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg  Faroe Islands (FO), Flag of Greenland.svg  Greenland (GL)
DOP2142 Dominican peso Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic
DZD0122 Algerian dinar Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria
EGP8182 Egyptian pound Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
ERN2322 Eritrean nakfa Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea
ETB2302 Ethiopian birr Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia
EUR9782 Euro Flag of Aland.svg  Åland Islands (AX), Flag of Europe.svg  European Union (EU), Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra (AD), Flag of Austria.svg  Austria (AT), Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium (BE), Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus (CY), Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia (EE), Flag of Finland.svg  Finland (FI), Flag of France.svg  France (FR), Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.svg  French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TF), Flag of Germany.svg  Germany (DE), Flag of Greece.svg  Greece (GR), Flag of France.svg  Guadeloupe (GP), Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland (IE), Flag of Italy.svg  Italy (IT), Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia (LV), Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania (LT), Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg (LU), Flag of Malta.svg  Malta (MT), Flag of France.svg  French Guiana (GF), Flag of France.svg  Martinique (MQ), Flag of France.svg  Mayotte (YT), Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco (MC), Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro (ME), Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands (NL), Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal (PT), Flag of France.svg  Réunion (RE), Flag of France.svg  Saint Barthélemy (BL), Flag of France.svg  Saint Martin (MF), Flag of France.svg  Saint Pierre and Miquelon (PM), Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino (SM), Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia (SK), Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia (SI), Flag of Spain.svg  Spain (ES), Flag of the Vatican City.svg  Holy See (VA)
FJD2422 Fiji dollar Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji
FKP2382 Falkland Islands pound Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg  Falkland Islands (pegged to GBP 1:1)
GBP8262 Pound sterling Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom, Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg  British Indian Ocean Territory (IO) (also uses USD), the Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Isle of Man (IM, see Manx pound), Flag of Jersey.svg  Jersey (JE, see Jersey pound), and Flag of Guernsey.svg  Guernsey (GG, see Guernsey pound)
GEL9812 Georgian lari Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia
GHS9362 Ghanaian cedi Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana
GIP2922 Gibraltar pound Flag of Gibraltar.svg  Gibraltar (pegged to GBP 1:1)
GMD2702 Gambian dalasi Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia
GNF3240 Guinean franc Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea
GTQ3202 Guatemalan quetzal Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala
GYD3282 Guyanese dollar Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana
HKD3442 Hong Kong dollar Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong
HNL3402 Honduran lempira Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras
HRK1912 Croatian kuna Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia
HTG3322 Haitian gourde Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti
HUF3482 Hungarian forint Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
IDR3602 Indonesian rupiah Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
ILS3762 Israeli new shekel Flag of Israel.svg  Israel, Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestinian Authority [10]
INR3562 Indian rupee Flag of India.svg  India, Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan
IQD3683 Iraqi dinar Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq
IRR3642 Iranian rial Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
ISK3520 Icelandic króna Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland
JMD3882 Jamaican dollar Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica
JOD4003 Jordanian dinar Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan
JPY3920 Japanese yen Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
KES4042 Kenyan shilling Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya
KGS4172 Kyrgyzstani som Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan
KHR1162 Cambodian riel Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia
KMF1740 Comoro franc Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros
KPW4082 North Korean won Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea
KRW4100 South Korean won Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea
KWD4143 Kuwaiti dinar Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait
KYD1362 Cayman Islands dollar Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands
KZT3982 Kazakhstani tenge Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan
LAK4182 Lao kip Flag of Laos.svg  Laos
LBP4222 Lebanese pound Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon
LKR1442 Sri Lankan rupee Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka
LRD4302 Liberian dollar Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia
LSL4262 Lesotho loti Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho
LYD4343 Libyan dinar Flag of Libya.svg  Libya
MAD5042 Moroccan dirham Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco, Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Western Sahara
MDL4982 Moldovan leu Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova
MGA9692* [11] Malagasy ariary Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar
MKD8072 Macedonian denar Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia
MMK1042 Myanmar kyat Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar
MNT4962 Mongolian tögrög Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia
MOP4462 Macanese pataca Flag of Macau.svg  Macau
MRU [12] 9292* [11] Mauritanian ouguiya Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania
MUR4802 Mauritian rupee Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius
MVR4622 Maldivian rufiyaa Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives
MWK4542 Malawian kwacha Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi
MXN4842 Mexican peso Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
MXV9792 Mexican Unidad de Inversion (UDI) (funds code)Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
MYR4582 Malaysian ringgit Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
MZN9432 Mozambican metical Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique
NAD5162 Namibian dollar Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia
NGN5662 Nigerian naira Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
NIO5582 Nicaraguan córdoba Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua
NOK5782 Norwegian krone Flag of Norway.svg  Norway, Flag of Norway.svg  Svalbard and Flag of Norway.svg  Jan Mayen (SJ), Flag of Norway.svg  Bouvet Island (BV)
NPR5242 Nepalese rupee Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal
NZD5542 New Zealand dollar Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand, Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands (CK), Flag of Niue.svg  Niue (NU), Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg  Pitcairn Islands (PN; see also Pitcairn Islands dollar), Flag of Tokelau.svg  Tokelau (TK)
OMR5123 Omani rial Flag of Oman.svg  Oman
PAB5902 Panamanian balboa Flag of Panama.svg  Panama
PEN6042 Peruvian sol Flag of Peru.svg  Peru
PGK5982 Papua New Guinean kina Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea
PHP6082 Philippine peso [13] Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines
PKR5862 Pakistani rupee Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
PLN9852 Polish złoty Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
PYG6000 Paraguayan guaraní Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay
QAR6342 Qatari riyal Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar
RON9462 Romanian leu Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
RSD9412 Serbian dinar Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
RUB6432 Russian ruble Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
RWF6460 Rwandan franc Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda
SAR6822 Saudi riyal Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia
SBD0902 Solomon Islands dollar Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands
SCR6902 Seychelles rupee Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles
SDG9382 Sudanese pound Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan
SEK7522 Swedish krona/kronorFlag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
SGD7022 Singapore dollar Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore
SHP6542 Saint Helena pound Flag of Saint Helena.svg  Saint Helena (SH-SH), The Flag of Ascension Island.svg  Ascension Island (SH-AC), Flag of Tristan da Cunha.svg  Tristan da Cunha
SLL6942 Sierra Leonean leone Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone
SOS7062 Somali shilling Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia
SRD9682 Surinamese dollar Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname
SSP7282 South Sudanese pound Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan
STN [14] 9302 São Tomé and Príncipe dobra Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe
SVC2222 Salvadoran colón Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador
SYP7602 Syrian pound Flag of Syria.svg  Syria
SZL7482 Swazi lilangeni Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini [13]
THB7642 Thai baht Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand
TJS9722 Tajikistani somoni Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan
TMT9342 Turkmenistan manat Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan
TND7883 Tunisian dinar Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia
TOP7762 Tongan paʻanga Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga
TRY9492 Turkish lira Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
TTD7802 Trinidad and Tobago dollar Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago
TWD9012 New Taiwan dollar Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan
TZS8342 Tanzanian shilling Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania
UAH9802 Ukrainian hryvnia Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
UGX8000 Ugandan shilling Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda
USD8402 United States dollar Flag of the United States.svg  United States, Flag of American Samoa.svg  American Samoa (AS), Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados (BB) (as well as Barbados Dollar), Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda (BM) (as well as Bermudian Dollar), Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg  British Indian Ocean Territory (IO) (also uses GBP), Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands (VG), Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Caribbean Netherlands (BQ – Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba), Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador (EC), Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador (SV), Flag of Guam.svg  Guam (GU), Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti (HT), Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands (MH), Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia (FM), Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg  Northern Mariana Islands (MP), Flag of Palau.svg  Palau (PW), Flag of Panama.svg  Panama (PA) (as well as Panamanian Balboa), Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico (PR), Flag of East Timor.svg  Timor-Leste (TL), Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg  Turks and Caicos Islands (TC), Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  U.S. Virgin Islands (VI), Flag of the United States.svg  United States Minor Outlying Islands (UM) Cambodia also uses the USD officially.
USN9972United States dollar (next day) (funds code)Flag of the United States.svg  United States
UYI9400Uruguay Peso en Unidades Indexadas (URUIURUI) (funds code)Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay
UYU8582 Uruguayan peso Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay
UYW9274Unidad previsional [15] Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay
UZS8602 Uzbekistan som Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan
VES9282 Venezuelan bolívar soberano [13] Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela
VND7040 Vietnamese đồng Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam
VUV5480 Vanuatu vatu Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu
WST8822 Samoan tala Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa
XAF9500 CFA franc BEAC Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon (CM), Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic (CF), Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo (CG), Flag of Chad.svg  Chad (TD), Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea (GQ), Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon (GA)
XAG961. Silver (one troy ounce)
XAU959. Gold (one troy ounce)
XBA955. European Composite Unit (EURCO) (bond market unit)
XBB956. European Monetary Unit (E.M.U.-6) (bond market unit)
XBC957. European Unit of Account 9 (E.U.A.-9) (bond market unit)
XBD958. European Unit of Account 17 (E.U.A.-17) (bond market unit)
XCD9512 East Caribbean dollar Flag of Anguilla.svg  Anguilla (AI), Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda (AG), Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica (DM), Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada (GD), Flag of Montserrat.svg  Montserrat (MS), Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis (KN), Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia (LC), Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (VC)
XDR960. Special drawing rights International Monetary Fund
XOF9520 CFA franc BCEAO Flag of Benin.svg  Benin (BJ), Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso (BF), Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Côte d'Ivoire (CI), Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau (GW), Flag of Mali.svg  Mali (ML), Flag of Niger.svg  Niger (NE), Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal (SN), Flag of Togo.svg  Togo (TG)
XPD964. Palladium (one troy ounce)
XPF9530 CFP franc (franc Pacifique)French territories of the Pacific Ocean: Flag of French Polynesia.svg  French Polynesia (PF), Flag of FLNKS.svg  New Caledonia (NC), Flag of France.svg  Wallis and Futuna (WF)
XPT962. Platinum (one troy ounce)
XSU994. SUCRE Unified System for Regional Compensation (SUCRE) [16]
XTS963.Code reserved for testing
XUA965. ADB Unit of Account African Development Bank [17]
XXX999.No currency
YER8862 Yemeni rial Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen
ZAR7102 South African rand Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho, Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia, Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
ZMW9672 Zambian kwacha Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia
ZWL9322 Zimbabwean dollar Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe

USD/USS/USN, three currency codes belonging to the US

The US dollar has two codes assigned: USD and USN (next day). The USS (same day) code is not in use any longer, and was removed from the list of active ISO 4217 codes in March 2014.

According to UN/CEFACT recommendation 9, paragraphs 8–9 ECE/TRADE/203, 1996, available online:

8. In applications where monetary resources associated with a currency (i.e. funds) need not be specified and where a field identifier indicating currency is used, the first two (leftmost) characters are sufficient to identify a currency—example: US for United States dollars for general, unspecified purposes where a field identifier indicating currency is present. (A field identifier can be a preprinted field heading in an aligned document or a similarly-agreed application in electronic transmission of data.)
9. In applications where there is a need to distinguish between types of currencies, or where funds are required as in the banking environment, or where there is no field identifier, the third (rightmost) character of the alphabetic code is an indicator, preferably mnemonic, derived from the name of the major currency unit or fund—example: USD for general, unspecified purposes; USN for United States dollar next-day funds, and USS for funds which are immediately available for Federal Reserve transfer, withdrawal in cash or transfer in like funds (same-day funds). Since there is no need for such a distinction in international trade applications, the funds codes have not been included in the Annex to the present Recommendation.

Future codes

As of August 2018, there are no new codes planned to be added to the standard.

Non ISO 4217 currencies

Currencies without ISO 4217 currency codes

A number of active currencies do not have a ISO 4217 code, because they may be: (1) a minor currency pegged at par (1:1) to a larger currency, even if independently regulated, (2) a currency only used for commemorative banknotes or coins, or (3) a currency of an unrecognized or partially recognized state. These currencies include:

See Category:Fixed exchange rate for a list of all currently pegged currencies.

Unofficial currency codes

Despite having no official recognition in ISO 4217, the following non-ISO codes are sometimes used locally or commercially.

CodeNumE [lower-alpha 1] CurrencyLocations using this currencyNotes
CNH [19] 2 Chinese yuan Hong Kong Used for offshore trading.
GGP [20] 2 Guernsey pound Guernsey
IMP [20] 2 Isle of Man pound Isle of Man Also known as the Manx pound.
JEP [20] 2 Jersey pound Jersey
KID [21] 2 Kiribati dollar Kiribati
NIS2 Israeli new shekel Israel [22] NIS stands for New Israeli Shekel: NIS conflicts with ISO 4217, because NI stands for Nicaragua.
NTD2 New Taiwan dollar Taiwan
PRB2 Transnistrian ruble Transnistria PRB conflicts with ISO 4217, because PR stands for Puerto Rico.
SLS2 Somaliland shilling Somaliland SLS conflicts with ISO 4217, because SL stands for Sierra Leone.
RMB2 Renminbi (Chinese) yuan Mainland China RMB is an abbreviation of its official name, RenMinBi.
TVD [20] 2 Tuvalu dollar Tuvalu
ZWB [23] 2 Zimbabwean bonds Zimbabwe Also known as the RTGS Dollar.

In addition, GBX is sometimes used (for example on the London Stock Exchange) to denote Penny sterling, a subdivision of pound sterling, the currency for the United Kingdom.

Cryptocurrencies

Recently, cryptocurrencies have unofficially used ISO-like codes on various cryptocurrency exchanges, for instance LTC for Litecoin, NMC for Namecoin and XRP for the XRP Ledger. SIX Interbank Clearing (a Maintenance Agency of ISO) is currently studying the impact and role of cryptocurrencies and other independent currencies on ISO 4217. [24]

CodeNumE [lower-alpha 1] CurrencyNotes
DASH_8 Dash
ETH_18 Ether ETH conflicts with ISO 4217, because ET stands for Ethiopia.
VTC_8 Vertcoin
XBC_8 Bitcoin Cash XBC conflicts with European Unit of Account 9 (E.U.A.-9)
XBT [25] [20] _8 Bitcoin BTC conflicts with ISO 4217, because BT stands for Bhutan.
XLM_8 Stellar Lumen
XMR_12 Monero
XRP_6 XRP
ZEC_8 Zcash

Historical currency codes

A number of currencies had official ISO 4217 currency codes and currency names until their replacement by another currency. The table below shows the ISO currency codes of former currencies and their common names (which do not always match the ISO 4217 names).

CodeNumE [lower-alpha 1] CurrencyFromUntilReplaced by
ADF...2 Andorran franc 19601999-01-01EUR
ADP0200 Andorran peseta 18691999-01-01EUR
AFA004 Afghan afghani 19252003AFN
AOK...0 Angolan kwanza 1977-01-081990-09-24AON (AOA)
AON0240 Angolan new kwanza 1990-09-251995-06-30AOR (AOA)
AOR9820 Angolan kwanza readjustado 1995-07-011999-11-30AOA
ARL...2 Argentine peso ley 1970-01-011983-05-05ARP (ARS)
ARP0322 Argentine peso argentino 1983-06-061985-06-14ARA (ARS)
ARA0322 Argentine austral 1985-06-151991-12-31ARS
ATS0402 Austrian schilling 19451999-01-01EUR
AZM0310 Azerbaijani manat 1992-08-152006-01-01AZN
BAD0702 Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar 1992-07-011998-02-04BAM
BEF0562 Belgian franc 18321999-01-01EUR
BGL1002 Bulgarian lev 19621999-08-31BGN
BOP...2 Bolivian peso 1963-01-011987-01-01BOB
BRB...2 Brazilian cruzeiro 19701986-02-28BRC (BRL)
BRC0762 Brazilian cruzado 1986-02-281989-01-15BRN (BRL)
BRN0762 Brazilian cruzado novo 1989-01-161990-03-15BRE (BRL)
BRE0762 Brazilian cruzeiro 1990-03-151993-08-01BRR (BRL)
BRR9872 Brazilian cruzeiro real 1993-08-011994-06-30BRL
BYB1122 Belarusian ruble 19921999-12-31BYR (BYN)
BYR9740 Belarusian ruble 2000-01-012016-06-30BYN
CSD8912 Serbian dinar 2003-07-032006-06-19RSD
CSK200 Czechoslovak koruna 1919-04-101993-02-08CZK/SKK (CZK/EUR)
CYP1962 Cypriot pound 18792006-01-01EUR
DDM278 East German mark 1948-06-211990-07-01DEM (EUR)
DEM276 [lower-alpha 2] 2 German mark 19481999-01-01EUR
ECS2180 Ecuadorian sucre 18842000-02-29USD
ECV983.Ecuador Unidad de Valor Constante (funds code)19932000-02-29
EEK2332 Estonian kroon 19922010-01-01EUR
ESA996Spanish peseta (account A)19781981ESP (EUR)
ESB995Spanish peseta (account B)?1994-12ESP (EUR)
ESP7240 Spanish peseta 18691999-01-01EUR
FIM2462 Finnish markka 18601999-01-01EUR
FRF2502 French franc 19601999-01-01EUR
GNE... Guinean syli 19711985-12-31GNF
GHC2880 Ghanaian cedi 19672007-07-01GHS
GQE... Equatorial Guinean ekwele 19751985-12-31XAF
GRD3002 Greek drachma 1954-05-01 [27] 2001-01-01 [27] EUR
GWP624 Guinea-Bissau peso 19751997-05-31XOF
HRD191 Croatian dinar 1991-12-231994-05-30HRK
IEP3722 Irish pound 19381999-01-01EUR
ILP...3, 2 Israeli lira 19481980-02-20ILR (ILS)
ILR...2 Israeli shekel 1980-02-241985-12-31ILS
ISJ...2 Icelandic old króna 19221981-06-30ISK
ITL3800 Italian lira 18611999-01-01EUR
LAJ... Lao kip 19651979-12-31LAK
LTL4402 Lithuanian litas 19932015-01-01EUR
LUF4422 Luxembourg franc 19441999-01-01EUR
LVL4282 Latvian lats 19922013-01-01EUR
MAF... Moroccan franc 19211960–1976MAD
MCF...2 Monegasque franc 19601995-03-31FRF (EUR)
MGF4502 Malagasy franc 1963-07-012005-01-01MGA
MKN... Old Macedonian denar 1992-04-27 [28] 1993-06-30MKD
MLF466 Mali franc ?1984-01-01XOF
MVQ... Maldivian rupee ?1981-12-31MVR
MRO478 Mauritanian Ouguiya 1973-06-292018-01-01MRU
MXP... Mexican peso ?1993-03-31MXN
MZM5080 Mozambican metical 19802006-06-30MZN
MTL4702 Maltese lira 1972-05-26 [29] 2006-01-01EUR
NIC...2 Nicaraguan córdoba 19881990-10-31NIO
NLG5282 Dutch guilder 1810s1999-01-01EUR
PEH... Peruvian old sol 18631985-02-01PEI (PEN)
PEI604 Peruvian inti 1985-02-011991-10-01PEN
PLZ616 Polish zloty 1950-10-301994-12-31PLN
PTE6200 Portuguese escudo 1911-05-221999-01-01EUR
ROL642 Romanian leu 1952-01-282005RON
RUR8102 Russian ruble 19921997-12-31RUB
SDD736 Sudanese dinar 1992-06-082007-01-10SDG
SDP... Sudanese old pound 19561992-06-08SDD (SDG)
SIT7052 Slovenian tolar 1991-10-082005-01-01EUR
SKK7032 Slovak koruna 1993-02-082007-01-01EUR
SML...0 San Marinese lira 18641992-08-31ITL (EUR)
SRG740 Suriname guilder ?2004SRD
STD678 São Tomé and Príncipe Dobra 19772018-04-01STN
SUR... Soviet Union ruble 19611991-12-26RUR (RUB/AMD/AZN/BYN/EUR/GEL/KZT/KGS/MDL/TJS/TMT/UAH/UZS)
TJR762 Tajikistani ruble 1995-05-102000-10-30TJS
TMM7950 Turkmenistani manat 1993-11-12008-12-31TMT
TPE626 Portuguese Timorese escudo 19591976USD
TRL7920 Turkish lira 18432005-12-31TRY
UAK804 Ukrainian karbovanets 1992-10-11996-09-01UAH
UGS... Ugandan shilling ?1987-12-31UGX
USS9982United States dollar (same day) (funds code) [30] ?2014-03-28 [31]
UYP... Uruguay peso 18961975-07-01UYN
UYN... Uruguay new peso 1975-07-01 [32] 1993-03-01UYU
VAL...0 Vatican lira 19291994-12-31ITL (EUR)
VEB8622 Venezuelan bolívar ?2008-01-01VEF (VES)
VEF9372 Venezuelan bolívar fuerte ?2018-08-20 [13] VES
XEU954. European Currency Unit 1979-03-131998-12-31EUR
XFO... Gold franc (special settlement currency)18032003XDR
XFU.... UIC franc (special settlement currency)?2013-11-07 [33] EUR
YDD720 South Yemeni dinar ?1996-06-11YER
YUD...2 Yugoslav dinar 1966-01-011989-12-31YUN (MKD/RSD/EUR/HRK/BAM)
YUN8902 Yugoslav dinar 1990-01-011992-06-30YUR (MKD/RSD/EUR/HRK/BAM)
YUR...2 Yugoslav dinar 1992-07-011993-09-30YUO (RSD/EUR) [lower-alpha 3]
YUO...2 Yugoslav dinar 1993-10-011993-12-31YUG (RSD/EUR)
YUG...2 Yugoslav dinar 1994-01-011994-01-23YUM (RSD/EUR)
YUM8912 Yugoslav dinar 1994-01-242003-07-02CSD (RSD/EUR)
ZAL991.South African financial rand (funds code)1985-09-011995-03-13
ZMK8942 Zambian kwacha 1968-01-16 [34] 2013-01-01ZMW
ZRZ1803 Zairean zaire 19671993ZRN (CDF)
ZRN1802 Zairean new zaire 19931997CDF
ZWC...2 Rhodesian dollar 1970-02-171980ZWD (USD/RTGS Dollar)
ZWD7162 Zimbabwean dollar 1980-04-182006-07-31ZWN (USD/RTGS Dollar)
ZWN9422 Zimbabwean dollar 2006-08-012008-07-31ZWR (USD/RTGS Dollar)
ZWR9352 Zimbabwean dollar 2008-08-012009-02-02ZWL (USD/RTGS Dollar)
ZWL9322 Zimbabwean dollar 2009-02-032009-04-12USD/RTGS Dollar

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 The number of digits after the decimal separator.
  2. The numeric code for the German Mark was originally 280: it was changed to 276 on 16 April 1999. [26]
  3. Croatia and North Macedonia issued their own currencies before the 1992 dinar entered circulation. Bosnia and Herzegovina issued their own currency when the 1992 dinar entered circulation.

Related Research Articles

Euro European currency

The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, and counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019. The euro is the second-largest and second-most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar, and is divided into 100 cents.

European Currency Unit Basket of the currencies of the European Community member states

The European Currency Unit was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity. The ECU itself replaced the European Unit of Account, also at parity, on 13 March 1979. The European Exchange Rate Mechanism attempted to minimize fluctuations between member state currencies and the ECU. The ECU was also used in some international financial transactions, where its advantage was that securities denominated in ECUs provided investors with the opportunity for foreign diversification without reliance on the currency of a single country.

Special drawing rights are supplementary foreign exchange reserve assets defined and maintained by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). SDRs are units of account for the IMF, and not a currency per se. They instead represent a claim to currency held by IMF member countries for which they may be exchanged. SDRs were created in 1969 to supplement a shortfall of preferred foreign exchange reserve assets, namely gold and U.S. dollars.

The UIC Franc was a virtual currency unit used by the International Union of Railways (UIC). It was withdrawn from the ISO-4217 currency list in 2013. The euro has taken its place.

Listed below is a table of historical exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar, at present the most widely traded currency in the world. An exchange rate represents the value of one currency in another. An exchange rate between two currencies fluctuates over time. The value of a currency relative to a third currency may be obtained by dividing one U.S. dollar rate by another. For example, if there are ¥120 to the dollar and €1.2 to the dollar then the number of yen per euro is 120/1.2 = 100.

Surinamese dollar currency

The Surinamese dollar has been the currency of Suriname since 2004. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively Sr$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

ISO 3166-1 numeric codes are three-digit country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. They are similar to the three-digit country codes developed and maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division, from which they originate in its UN M.49 standard. They were first included as part of the ISO 3166 standard in its second edition in 1981, but they were released by the United Nations Statistics Division since as early as 1970.

Turkish lira currency of Turkey ( old lira and new lira )

The Turkish lira is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

A currency pair is the quotation of the relative value of a currency unit against the unit of another currency in the foreign exchange market. The currency that is used as the reference is called the counter currency, quote currency or currency and the currency that is quoted in relation is called the base currency or transaction currency.

The Smithsonian Agreement, announced in December 1971, created a new dollar standard, whereby the currencies of a number of industrialized nations were pegged to the US dollar. These currencies were allowed to fluctuate by 2.25% against the dollar. The Smithsonian Agreement was created by the Group of Ten (G-10) nations raised the price of gold to 38 dollars, an 8.5% increase over the previous price at which the US government had promised to redeem dollars for gold. In effect, the changing gold price devalued the dollar by 7.9%.

International use of the U.S. dollar

Besides being the main currency of the United States, the American dollar is used as the standard unit of currency in international markets for commodities such as gold and petroleum. Some non-U.S. companies dealing in globalized markets, such as Airbus, list their prices in dollars.

References

  1. "Current currency & funds code list – ISO Currency". SIX.
  2. "Current funds codes list – ISO Currency". SIX.
  3. "List of codes for historic denominations of currencies & funds – ISO Currency". SIX.
  4. "Currency Code Services – ISO 4217 Maintenance Agency" . Retrieved 2013-03-25.
  5. OP/B.3/CRI, Publications Office -. "Publications Office — Interinstitutional style guide — 7.3.3. Rules for expressing monetary units". publications.europa.eu.
  6. The original document uses “hard space” NOT “fixed space” that is confusable. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-breaking_space#cite_note-1
  7. "Renminbi Services". The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation . Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  8. 1 2 "Unidad de valor real (UVR) – Banco de la República de Colombia" [Unit of Real Value (UVR)]. Banco de la República (in Spanish). Retrieved 2013-11-29.
  9. "ISO 4217 amendment to the names" (PDF).
  10. According to Article 4 of the 1994 Paris Protocol The Protocol allows the Palestinian Authority to adopt additional currencies. In the West Bank the Jordanian dinar is widely accepted and in the Gaza Strip the Egyptian pound is often used.
  11. 1 2 The Malagasy ariary and the Mauritanian ouguiya are technically divided into five subunits (the iraimbilanja and khoum respectively) the coins display "1/5" on their face and are referred to as a "fifth" (Khoum/cinquième); These are not used in practice, but when written out, a single significant digit is used. E.g. 1.2 UM.
  12. "ISO 4217 AMENDMENT NUMBER 165" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-15.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  13. 1 2 3 4 "ISO 4217 AMENDMENT NUMBER 168" (PDF). 2018-08-02. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  14. "ISO 4217 AMENDMENT NUMBER 164" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-15.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  15. "ISO 4217 AMENDMENT NUMBER 169" (PDF). 2018-08-17. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  16. "Amendment of ISO 4217" (PDF). 17 October 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2014.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  17. "Amendment of ISO 4217" (PDF). 7 April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  18. "The Order of Malta, A little history" . Retrieved 2011-03-30.
  19. "China's currency: the RMB, CNY, CNH..." Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 "Currency Table: Euro (EUR)". XE.com. Newmarket, Ontario: XE.com Inc. 2019-08-10. Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  21. Hammett, Mike (2001). Dictionary of International Trade Finance Terms. Canterbury: Financial World Publishing. p. 176. ISBN   978-085297-576-3 . Retrieved 2013-11-29.
  22. "Bank of Israel - Currency". www.boi.org.il.
  23. Efron, Arnoldo, ed. (2018). "Zimbabwe". MRI Bankers' Guide to Foreign Currency (90 ed.). Houston, Texas: Monetary Research Institute. p. 253. ISBN   096293397X.
  24. "SIX Interbank ISO 4217: A controversial standard" (PDF).
  25. Romain Dillet (2013-08-09). "Bitcoin Ticker Available On Bloomberg Terminal For Employees". TechCrunch . Retrieved 2015-02-07.
  26. "ISO 4217 Amendment Number 102" (PDF). London: British Standards Institution. 1999-04-16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  27. 1 2 "Greek drachma". BPstat. Lisbon: Banco de Portugal. 2010-10-15. Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  28. "Annual Report 1992" (PDF). Skopje: National Bank of the Republic of North Macedonia. 1993. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  29. Sammut, Joseph (March 2004). "Malta coins along the years". Coins of Malta. Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
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  33. "ISO 4217 Amendment Number 157" (PDF). Zurich: SIX Interbank Clearing. 2013-11-07. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-01. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  34. "Bank of Zambia – Zambian Currency History". Archived from the original on 5 September 2006.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)