List of IOC country codes

Last updated
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The International Olympic Committee (IOC) uses three-letter abbreviation country codes [1] to refer to each group of athletes that participate in the Olympic Games. Each geocode usually identifies a National Olympic Committee (NOC), but there are several codes that have been used for other instances in past Games, such as teams composed of athletes from multiple nations, or groups of athletes not formally representing any nation.

Contents

Several of the IOC codes are different from the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes. Other sporting organisations like FIFA use similar country codes to refer to their respective teams, but with some differences. Still others, such as the Commonwealth Games Federation or Association of Tennis Professionals, use the IOC list verbatim.

History

The 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics were the first Games to feature Initials of Nations to refer to each NOC in the published official reports. [2] However, the codes used at the next few Games were often based on the host nation's language (e.g., GIA for Japan at the 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics, both held in Italy, from Italian Giappone) or based on the French name for the nation (e.g., AUT for Austria, from Autriche). By the 1972 Winter Olympics, most codes were standardized on the current usage, but several have changed in recent years. Additionally, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, division and unification of Germany, breakup of Yugoslavia, dissolution of Czechoslovakia, and several other instances of geographical renaming have all resulted in code changes.

In addition to this list of over 200 NOCs, the participation of National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) at the Paralympic Games requires standardised IOC codes, such as Macau (or as "Macau, China" since 1999) and the Faroe Islands, coded MAC and FRO respectively. [3] [4]

Current NOCs

There are 206 current NOCs (National Olympic Committees) within the Olympic Movement. The following tables show the currently used code for each NOC and any different codes used in past Games, per the official reports from those Games. Some of the past code usage is further explained in the following sections. Codes used specifically for a Summer Games only or a Winter Games only, within the same year, are indicated by "S" and "W" respectively.

CodeNational Olympic CommitteeOther codes usedLink
AFGFlag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan
ALBFlag of Albania.svg  Albania
ALGFlag of Algeria.svg  Algeria
  • AGR (1964)
  • AGL (1968 S) from Spanish Argelia
ANDFlag of Andorra.svg  Andorra
ANGFlag of Angola.svg  Angola ANO (As referenced in IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015 Statistics Handbook) [5]
ANTFlag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda
ARGFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
ARMFlag of Armenia.svg  Armenia
ARUFlag of Aruba.svg  Aruba
ASAFlag of American Samoa.svg  American Samoa AMS [5]
AUSFlag of Australia.svg  Australia
AUTFlag of Austria.svg  Austria current code from French Autriche
AZEFlag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan
BAHFlag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas
BANFlag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh
BARFlag of Barbados.svg  Barbados BAD (1964)
BDIFlag of Burundi.svg  Burundi
BELFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
BENFlag of Benin.svg  Benin
  • DAY (1964)
  • DAH (1968–1976) as Dahomey
BERFlag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda
BHUFlag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan
BIHFlag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina BSH (1992 S), BOS [5] current code from Bosnian Bosna i Hercegovina
BIZFlag of Belize.svg  Belize HBR (1968–1972) as British Honduras Also BHO [5]
BLRFlag of Belarus.svg  Belarus
BOLFlag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia
BOTFlag of Botswana.svg  Botswana
BRAFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
BRNFlag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain BHR [5]
BRUFlag of Brunei.svg  Brunei
BULFlag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
BURFlag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso VOL (1972–1984) as Upper Volta Also BKF [5]
CAFFlag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic AFC (1968)
CAMFlag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia
CANFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
CAYFlag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands
CGOFlag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo
CHAFlag of Chad.svg  Chad CHD (1964)
CHIFlag of Chile.svg  Chile
  • CIL (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Cile
CHNFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China PRC (1952 S) as People's Republic of China
CIVFlag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast
  • IVC (1964)
  • CML (1968) from Spanish Costa de Marfil
current code from French Côte d'Ivoire
CMRFlag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon
CODFlag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo
COKFlag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands CKI [5]
COLFlag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
COMFlag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros
CPVFlag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde CVD [5]
CRCFlag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica COS (1964)
CROFlag of Croatia.svg  Croatia
CUBFlag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
CYPFlag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus
CZEFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
DENFlag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
  • DAN (1960 S
  • 1968 W)
  • DIN (1968 S)
previous codes taken from Italian Danimarca, French Danemark and Spanish Dinamarca
DJIFlag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti
DMAFlag of Dominica.svg  Dominica DMN [5]
DOMFlag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic
ECUFlag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador
EGYFlag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
previous codes taken from Italian Repubblica Araba Unita, French République Arabe Unie and Spanish República Árabe Unida
ERIFlag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea
ESAFlag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador SAL (1964–1976)
ESPFlag of Spain.svg  Spain
  • SPA (1956–1964
  • 1968 W)
current code taken from French Espagne or Spanish España
ESTFlag of Estonia.svg  Estonia
ETHFlag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia
  • ETI (1960
  • 1968)
FIJFlag of Fiji.svg  Fiji FIG (1960) from Italian Figi
FINFlag of Finland.svg  Finland
FRAFlag of France.svg  France
FSMFlag of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia
GABFlag of Gabon.svg  Gabon
GAMFlag of The Gambia.svg  The Gambia
GBRFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
  • GRB (1956 W–1960)
  • GBI (1964)
GBSFlag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau
GEOFlag of Georgia.svg  Georgia
GEQFlag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea
GERFlag of Germany.svg  Germany
GHAFlag of Ghana.svg  Ghana
GREFlag of Greece.svg  Greece
GRNFlag of Grenada.svg  Grenada
GUAFlag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala GUT (1964)
GUIFlag of Guinea.svg  Guinea
GUMFlag of Guam.svg  Guam
GUYFlag of Guyana.svg  Guyana
  • GUA (1960)
  • GUI (1964)
BGU [5]
HAIFlag of Haiti.svg  Haiti
HKGFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong, ChinaHOK (1960–1968)
HONFlag of Honduras.svg  Honduras
HUNFlag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
  • UNG (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Ungheria
INAFlag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia INS (1960)
INDFlag of India.svg  India
IRIFlag of Iran.svg  Iran
  • IRN (1956–1988)
  • IRA (1968 W)
current code from Islamic Republic of Iran
IRLFlag of Ireland.svg  Ireland current code taken from French Irlande
IRQFlag of Iraq.svg  Iraq
  • IRK (1960
  • 1968) from French/Spanish Irak
ISLFlag of Iceland.svg  Iceland
  • ICE (1960 W
  • 1964 S)
current code taken from French Islande, Icelandic Ísland or Spanish Islandia
ISRFlag of Israel.svg  Israel
ISVFlag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  Virgin Islands current code taken from French Îles Vierges (des États-Unis)
ITAFlag of Italy.svg  Italy
IVBFlag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands current code taken from French Îles Vierges britanniques
JAMFlag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica
JORFlag of Jordan.svg  Jordan
JPNFlag of Japan.svg  Japan
  • GIA (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Giappone
  • JAP (1960 W)
KAZFlag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan
KENFlag of Kenya.svg  Kenya
KGZFlag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan
KIRFlag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati
KORFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea
  • COR (1956 W
  • 1960 S
  • 1968 S
  • 1972 S)
previous code taken from Italian Corea, French Corée and Spanish Corea
KOSFlag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo
KSAFlag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia
  • ARS (1968–1976) from French Arabe saoudite
  • SAU (1980–1984)
current code from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
KUWFlag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait
LAOFlag of Laos.svg  Laos
LATFlag of Latvia.svg  Latvia
LBAFlag of Libya.svg  Libya
  • LYA (1964)
  • LBY (1968 W)
LBNFlag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon
  • LEB (1960 W
  • 1964 S)
  • LIB (1964–2016) from French Liban
LBRFlag of Liberia.svg  Liberia
LCAFlag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia
LESFlag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho
LIEFlag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein
  • LIC (1956 W
  • 1964 S
  • 1968 W)
LTUFlag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania LIT (1992 W)
LUXFlag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg
MADFlag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar MAG (1964)
MARFlag of Morocco.svg  Morocco MRC (1964); current code from French Maroc
MASFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia MAL (1964–1988)
MAWFlag of Malawi.svg  Malawi
MDAFlag of Moldova.svg  Moldova MLD (1994)
MDVFlag of Maldives.svg  Maldives
MEXFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
MGLFlag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia MON (1968 W)
MHLFlag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands
MKD Flag of North Macedonia.svg North Macedonia current code taken from Macedonian Македонија/Makedonija
MLIFlag of Mali.svg  Mali
MLTFlag of Malta.svg  Malta MAT (1960–1964)
MNEFlag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro
MONFlag of Monaco.svg  Monaco
MOZFlag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique
MRIFlag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius
MTNFlag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania
MYAFlag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar
  • BIR (1948–1960
  • 1968–1988) from French Birmanie
  • BUR (1964) as Burma
NAMFlag of Namibia.svg  Namibia
NCAFlag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua
  • NCG (1964)
  • NIC (1968)
NEDFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
  • OLA (1956 W) from Italian Olanda
  • NET (1960 W)
  • PBA (1960 S) from Italian Paesi Bassi
  • NLD (1964 S)
  • HOL (1968–1988) as Holland
current code taken from Dutch Nederland
NEPFlag of Nepal.svg  Nepal
NGRFlag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
  • NIG (1960 S)
  • NGA (1964)
NIGFlag of Niger.svg  Niger NGR (1964)
NORFlag of Norway.svg  Norway
NRUFlag of Nauru.svg  Nauru
NZLFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
  • NZE (1960
  • 1968 W)
OMAFlag of Oman.svg  Oman
PAKFlag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
PANFlag of Panama.svg  Panama
PARFlag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay
PERFlag of Peru.svg  Peru
PHIFlag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines
  • FIL (1960
  • 1968) from Italian Filippine and Spanish Filipinas
PLEFlag of Palestine.svg  Palestine
PLWFlag of Palau.svg  Palau
PNGFlag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea
  • NGY (1976–1980)
  • NGU (1984–1988)
POLFlag of Poland.svg  Poland
PORFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
PRKFlag of North Korea.svg  North Korea
  • NKO (1964 S
  • 1968 W)
  • CDN (1968) from French Corée du Nord or Spanish Corea del Norte
current code from People's Republic of Korea
PURFlag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico
  • PRI (1960)
  • PRO (1968)
QATFlag of Qatar.svg  Qatar
ROUFlag of Romania.svg  Romania
  • ROM (1956–1960
  • 1972–2006)
  • RUM (1964–1968) from obsolete spelling Rumania
current code from French Roumanie
RSAFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa SAF (1960–1972)
current code from Republic of South Africa
RUSFlag of Russia.svg  Russia
RWAFlag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda
SAMFlag of Samoa.svg  Samoa WSM (1984–1996) as Western Samoa
SENFlag of Senegal.svg  Senegal SGL (1964)
SEYFlag of Seychelles.svg  Seychelles
SGPFlag of Singapore.svg  Singapore SIN (1959–2016)
SKNFlag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis
SLEFlag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone SLA (1968)
SLOFlag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia
SMRFlag of San Marino.svg  San Marino SMA (1960–1964)
SOLFlag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands
SOMFlag of Somalia.svg  Somalia
SRBFlag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
SRIFlag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka
  • CEY (1948–1964
  • 1972) as Ceylon
  • CEI (1968 S) from Spanish Ceilán
SSDFlag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan
STPFlag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe
SUDFlag of Sudan.svg  Sudan
SUIFlag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland
  • SVI (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Svizzera
  • SWI (1960 W
  • 1964 S)
current code from French Suisse
SURFlag of Suriname.svg  Suriname
SVKFlag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia
SWEFlag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
  • SVE (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Svezia
  • SUE (1968 S) from Spanish Suecia
SWZ Flag of Eswatini.svg Eswatini current code from former name Swaziland
SYRFlag of Syria.svg  Syria SIR (1968) from Spanish Siria
TANFlag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania
TGAFlag of Tonga.svg  Tonga TON (1984)
THAFlag of Thailand.svg  Thailand
TJKFlag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan
TKMFlag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan
TLSFlag of East Timor.svg  East Timor current code taken from Timor-Leste
TOGFlag of Togo.svg  Togo
TPEFlag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei [6]
TTOFlag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago
  • TRT (1964–1968)
  • TRI (1972–2012)
TUNFlag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia
TURFlag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
TUVFlag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu
UAEFlag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates
UGAFlag of Uganda.svg  Uganda
UKRFlag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
URUFlag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay URG (1968)
USAFlag of the United States.svg  United States
  • SUA (1960 S) from Italian Stati Uniti d'America
  • EUA (1968 S) from French États-Unis d'Amérique or Spanish Estados Unidos de América
UZBFlag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan
VANFlag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu
VENFlag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela
VIEFlag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam
  • VET (1964)
  • VNM (1968–1976)
VINFlag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
YEMFlag of Yemen.svg  Yemen
ZAMFlag of Zambia.svg  Zambia NRH (1964) as Northern Rhodesia
ZIMFlag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe RHO (1960–1972) as Rhodesia

Current NPCs

Most National Paralympic Committees (NPC) cover a territory with an active NOC. In these cases the NPC codes matches the IOC codes shown above. The two current NPCs without a corresponding NOC use the following NPC codes.

CodeNational Paralympic CommitteeLink
MACFlag of Macau.svg  Macau, ChinaAssociação Recreativa dos Deficientes de Macau
FROFlag of the Faroe Islands.svg  Faroe Islands The Faroese Sport Organisation for Disabled

Historic NOCs and teams

Codes still in use

Fourteen historical NOCs or teams have codes that are still used in the IOC results database [7] to refer to past medal winners from these teams.

CodeNation/TeamOther codes used
AHOFlag of the Netherlands Antilles (1986-2010).svg  Netherlands Antilles
  • ATO (1960)
  • NAN (1964)
code from French Antilles hollandaises
ANZFlag of Australasian team for Olympic games.svg  Australasia Also AUA [5]
BOHFlag of Bohemia.svg  Bohemia
BWIFlag of the West Indies Federation.svg  British West Indies
  • ANT (1960
  • 1968) from Antilles
  • WID (1964)
EUAFlag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany GER (1956–1964)
code taken from French Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne
EUNOlympic flag.svg  Unified Team code from the French Équipe unifiée or Spanish Equipo Unificado
FRGFlag of Germany.svg  West Germany
  • ALL (1968 W) from French Allemagne
  • ALE (1968 S) from Spanish Alemania
  • GER (1972–1976)
code FRG taken from Federal Republic of Germany
GDRFlag of East Germany.svg  East Germany ADE (1968) from Spanish Alemania Democrática
code GDR taken from German Democratic Republic
RU1Flag of Russia.svg  Russian Empire
SCGFlag of Serbia and Montenegro.svg  Serbia and Montenegro code from Serbian Србија и Црна Гора / Srbija i Crna Gora
TCHFlag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia
  • CSL (1956 W)
  • CZE (1960 W)
  • CSV (1960 S)
  • CZS (1964 S)
  • CHE (1968 S) from Spanish Checoslovaquia
code taken from French Tchécoslovaquie
URSFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union SOV (1968 W)
code from French Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques (URSS)
YUGFlag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg  Yugoslavia
  • JUG (1956–1960
  • 1968 W) from Југославија/Jugoslavija in native languages
  • YUS (1964 S)
ZZXOlympic flag.svg  Mixed team

Obsolete codes

Unlike the previous list, these codes no longer appear in the IOC results database. When a past athlete from one of these teams has won a medal, the new code is shown next to them instead.

CodeNation (NOC)YearsNotes
BIRFlag of Myanmar (1974-2010).svg  Burma 1948–1988Now Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar  (MYA)
CEYFlag of Sri Lanka.svg  Ceylon 1948–1972Now Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka  (SRI)
DAHFlag of Benin.svg  Dahomey 1964–1976Now Flag of Benin.svg  Benin  (BEN)
GUIFlag of British Guiana (1955-1966).svg  British Guiana 1948–1964Now Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana  (GUY).
The code former GUI has been reassigned to Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea  (GUI) in 1965 when its new NOC was recognized by the IOC and used publicly in their first competed games in 1968. All formerly known by BGU [5]
HBRFlag of British Honduras.svg  British Honduras 1968–1972Now Flag of Belize.svg  Belize  (BIZ)
IHOFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Dutch East Indies
code from French Indes orientales hollandaises
1934–1938Now Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia  (INA)
KHMFlag of the Khmer Republic.svg  Khmer Republic 1972–1976Now Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia  (CAM)
MALFlag of Malaya.svg  Malaya 1956–1960Competed independently prior to the formation of Malaysia in 1963.
Now Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia  (MAS)
NBOFlag of North Borneo (1948-1963).svg  North Borneo 1956
NRHFlag of Northern Rhodesia (1939-1953).svg  Northern Rhodesia 1964Now Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia  (ZAM)
RAUFlag of the United Arab Republic.svg  United Arab Republic
code from French République arabe unie
1960Now Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt  (EGY) and Flag of Syria.svg  Syria  (SYR)
RHOFlag of Rhodesia.svg  Rhodesia 1960–1972Now Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe  (ZIM)
ROCFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China 1932–1976Medal winners from 1948 and earlier display as Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN), while medal winners from after 1948 display as Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei  (TPE) under which the team now competes.
SAAFlag of Saar (1947-1956).svg  Saar 1952Competed independently prior to rejoining Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany  (FRG) in 1957
UARFlag of the United Arab Republic.svg  United Arab Republic 1964–1968Now Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt  (EGY)
VOLFlag of Upper Volta.svg  Upper Volta 1972–1984Now Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso  (BUR)
WSMFlag of Samoa.svg  Western Samoa 1984–1996Now Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa  (SAM)
YARFlag of North Yemen.svg  North Yemen
code from Yemen Arab Republic
1984–1988Competed independently prior to Yemeni unification in 1990.
Now Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen  (YEM)
YMDFlag of South Yemen.svg  South Yemen
code from Yemen Democratic Republic
1988
ZAIFlag of Zaire.svg  Zaire 1972–1996Now Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo  (COD)

Two other significant code changes have occurred, both because of a change in the nation's designation as used by the IOC:

Special codes for Olympics

CodeNation/TeamYearsNotes
ANZFlag of Australasian team for Olympic games.svg  Australasia 1908–1912Used in the IOC's medal database [7] to identify the team from Australasia, composed of athletes from both Australia and New Zealand for the 1908 and 1912 Games. Both nations competed separately by 1920.
CORUnification flag of Korea (pre 2006).svg  Korea
from French Corée
2018Used for the unified Korean women's ice hockey team at the 2018 Winter Olympics. Also used when the delegations of the two Korean NOCs enter together during the opening and closing ceremonies. [8] The Unified Korea flag was used in the 2000 Summer Olympics but they are separate in the NOC code. [9]
EUAFlag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany
from French Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne
1956–1964Used in the IOC's medal database [7] to identify the United Team of Germany, composed of athletes representing the NOCs of both East Germany and West Germany for the 1956–1964 Games. The team was simply known as Germany in the official reports for those six games at the time.
EUNOlympic flag.svg  Unified Team 1992Used in 1992 (both Summer and Winter Games) for the Unified Team, composed of athletes from most of the ex-republics of the Soviet Union that chose to compete as a unified team. The Baltic states competed as independent teams in 1992; the other twelve new nations competed independently for the first time in 1994 and/or 1996.
IOPOlympic flag.svg  Independent Olympic Participants
  • 1992
  • 2014
Used for Independent Olympic Participants at the 1992 Summer Olympics as a designation used for athletes from FR Yugoslavia who could not compete as a team due to United Nations sanctions. At the 1992 Summer Olympics IOP was used as a designation for athletes from the Republic of Macedonia too. IOP was also used during the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi by Indian athletes due to the Indian Olympic Association suspension.
IOAOlympic flag.svg  Independent Olympic Athletes
  • 2000
  • 2012
  • 2016
Used for Individual Olympic Athletes in 2000, [10] a designation used for athletes from Timor-Leste prior to the formation of its NOC. IOA was used again in the 2012 Games, when it stood for Independent Olympic Athletes , [11] comprising athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles and a runner from South Sudan. The Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee's membership from the IOC was withdrawn the previous year, and South Sudan has not formed an NOC. IOA was used again in 2016 for athletes from Kuwait as a result of the suspension of its National Olympic Committee. [12]
IOCOlympic flag.svg  Athletes from Kuwait 2010–2012Used as the country code for Athletes from Kuwait , when the Kuwait Olympic Committee was suspended the first time, at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, the 2010 Asian Games and the 2011 Asian Winter Games; for the second suspension in 2015–2017, athletes from Kuwait were also competing in several international competitions under the IOC flag, but this time in the team of Individual Olympic Athletes (IOA), including (but not only) in the 2016 Summer Olympics.
MIXOlympic flag.svg  Mixed-NOCs 2010–2018Used as the country code for Mixed NOCs at the Youth Olympics. [13] [14]
OAROlympic flag.svg  Olympic Athletes from Russia 2018Used for Olympic Athletes from Russia competing as neutral athletes due to the state-sponsored doping scandal. [15]
ROCRussian Olympic Committee flag.svg  ROC 2020Used for Russian Olympic Committee athletes at the 2020 Summer Olympics following the ban on the word "Russia" due to the state-sponsored doping scandal. [16]
ROTOlympic flag.svg  Refugee Olympic Team 2016Used for the Refugee Olympic Team at the 2016 Summer Olympics for athletes to compete who have been displaced from their home countries. [17]
ZZXOlympic flag.svg  Mixed team 1896–1904Used in the IOC's medal database [7] to identify medals won by mixed teams of athletes from multiple nations (such as the combination of France and Great Britain, for example), a situation that happened several times in the Games of 1896, 1900, and 1904.

Special codes for Paralympics

CodeNation/TeamYearsNotes
IPPParalympic flag (1988-1994).svg  Independent Paralympic Participants 1992Used for Independent Paralympic Participants at the 1992 Summer Paralympics as a designation used for athletes from FR Yugoslavia and Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia who could not compete as a team due to United Nations sanctions.
IPA IPC logo (1994-2004).svg Individual Paralympic Athletes
  • 2000
De facto independent East Timor was not yet recognised as a sovereign state, and did not have a recognised National Paralympic Committee.Two athletes from the country gained the opportunity to in the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, but they competed officially as Individual Paralympic Athletes, rather than as representatives of an NPC.
API Paralympic flag (2010-2019).svg Refugee Paralympic Team
  • 2016
A team consisting of refugee and asylee Paralympic athletes competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro. This acronym is the abbreviation of the team name in Brazilian Portuguese and this code is reserved for similar situations that may happen in the future.
NPA Paralympic flag (2010-2019).svg Neutral Paralympic Athletes 2018Used for Russian athletes competing as neutral athletes due to the state-sponsored doping scandal.

See also

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Serbia and Montenegro at the Olympics Sporting event delegation

The former State Union of Serbia and Montenegro appeared at the Olympic Games on two occasions from 2004 until 2006, after which the union was dissolved and Montenegro and Serbia each declared full independence.

China at the 1952 Summer Olympics Sporting event delegation

The People's Republic of China (PRC) sent a delegation to the Olympic Games for the first time at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland.

The Finn was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled and completed. 35 sailors, on 35 boats, from 35 nations competed.

Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics – Flying Dutchman Sailing at the Olympics

The Flying Dutchman was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled and completed. 60 sailors, on 29 boats, from 29 nation competed.

The Tempest was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled and completed. 42 sailors, on 21 boats, from 21 nation competed.

The Star was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled and completed. 36 sailors, on 18 boats, from 18 nation competed.

The Soling was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled. Only six races were sailed due to weather conditions. 80 sailors, on 26 boats, from 26 nation competed.

The Dragon was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled. Only six races were sailed due to weather conditions. 70 sailors, on 23 boats, from 23 nation competed. It was the last Olympic appearance of the Dragon.

Over time, several scoring systems for Sailing were used during the Summer Olympics. Many of these systems were also used by other regatta's in their times. In order to understand how the medals in the Olympics were handed out one must have a look at the scoring system of that specific olympic sailing regatta.

References

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