The International Olympic Committee (IOC) uses three-letter abbreviation country codesto refer to each group of athletes that participate in the Olympic Games. Each geocode usually identifies a National Olympic Committee (NOC), but there are several codes that have been used for other instances in past Games, such as teams composed of athletes from multiple nations, or groups of athletes not formally representing any nation.
Several of the IOC codes are different from the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes. Other sporting organisations like FIFA use similar country codes to refer to their respective teams, but with some differences. Still others, such as the Commonwealth Games Federation or Association of Tennis Professionals, use the IOC list verbatim.
The 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics were the first Games to feature Initials of Nations to refer to each NOC in the published official reports.However, the codes used at the next few Games were often based on the host nation's language (e.g., GIA for Japan at the 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics, both held in Italy, from Italian Giappone) or based on the French name for the nation (e.g., AUT for Austria, from Autriche). By the 1972 Winter Olympics, most codes were standardized on the current usage, but several have changed in recent years. Additionally, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, division and unification of Germany, breakup of Yugoslavia, dissolution of Czechoslovakia, and several other instances of geographical renaming have all resulted in code changes.
In addition to this list of over 200 NOCs, the participation of National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) at the Paralympic Games requires standardised IOC codes, such as Macau (or as "Macau, China" since 1999) and the Faroe Islands, coded MAC and FRO respectively.
There are 206 current NOCs (National Olympic Committees) within the Olympic Movement. The following tables show the currently used code for each NOC and any different codes used in past Games, per the official reports from those Games. Some of the past code usage is further explained in the following sections. Codes used specifically for a Summer Games only or a Winter Games only, within the same year, are indicated by "S" and "W" respectively.
|Code||National Olympic Committee||Other codes used||Link|
|ANG||Angola||ANO (As referenced in IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015 Statistics Handbook)|
|ANT||Antigua and Barbuda|
|AUT||Austria||current code from French Autriche|
|BIH||Bosnia and Herzegovina||BSH (1992 S), BOS current code from Bosnian Bosna i Hercegovina|
|BIZ||Belize||HBR (1968–1972) as British Honduras Also BHO|
|BUR||Burkina Faso||VOL (1972–1984) as Upper Volta Also BKF|
|CAF||Central African Republic||AFC (1968)|
|CGO||Republic of the Congo|
|CHN||China||PRC (1952 S) as People's Republic of China|
current code from French Côte d'Ivoire
|COD||Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|CRC||Costa Rica||COS (1964)|
previous codes taken from Italian Danimarca, French Danemark and Spanish Dinamarca
previous codes taken from Italian Repubblica Araba Unita, French République Arabe Unie and Spanish República Árabe Unida
|ESA||El Salvador||SAL (1964–1976)|
current code taken from French Espagne or Spanish España
|FIJ||Fiji||FIG (1960) from Italian Figi|
|FSM||Federated States of Micronesia|
|HKG||Hong Kong, China||HOK (1960–1968)|
current code from Islamic Republic of Iran
|IRL||Ireland||current code taken from French Irlande|
current code taken from French Islande, Icelandic Ísland or Spanish Islandia
|ISV||Virgin Islands||current code taken from French Îles Vierges (des États-Unis)|
|IVB||British Virgin Islands||current code taken from French Îles Vierges britanniques|
previous code taken from Italian Corea, French Corée and Spanish Corea
current code from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
|LTU||Lithuania||LIT (1992 W)|
|MAR||Morocco||MRC (1964); current code from French Maroc|
|MGL||Mongolia||MON (1968 W)|
|MKD||North Macedonia||current code taken from Macedonian Македонија/Makedonija|
|PNG||Papua New Guinea|
current code from People's Republic of Korea
current code from French Roumanie
|RSA||South Africa||SAF (1960–1972)|
current code from Republic of South Africa
|SAM||Samoa||WSM (1984–1996) as Western Samoa|
|SKN||Saint Kitts and Nevis|
|SLE||Sierra Leone||SLA (1968)|
|SMR||San Marino||SMA (1960–1964)|
|STP||São Tomé and Príncipe|
current code from French Suisse
|SWZ||Eswatini||current code from former name Swaziland|
|SYR||Syria||SIR (1968) from Spanish Siria|
|TLS||East Timor||current code taken from Timor-Leste|
|TTO||Trinidad and Tobago|
|UAE||United Arab Emirates|
|VIN||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines|
|ZAM||Zambia||NRH (1964) as Northern Rhodesia|
|ZIM||Zimbabwe||RHO (1960–1972) as Rhodesia|
Most National Paralympic Committees (NPC) cover a territory with an active NOC. In these cases the NPC codes matches the IOC codes shown above. The two current NPCs without a corresponding NOC use the following NPC codes.
|Code||National Paralympic Committee||Link|
|MAC||Macau, China||Associação Recreativa dos Deficientes de Macau|
|FRO||Faroe Islands||The Faroese Sport Organisation for Disabled|
Fourteen historical NOCs or teams have codes that are still used in the IOC results databaseto refer to past medal winners from these teams.
|Code||Nation/Team||Other codes used|
code from French Antilles hollandaises
|BWI||British West Indies|
|EUA||United Team of Germany||GER (1956–1964)|
code taken from French Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne
|EUN||Unified Team||code from the French Équipe unifiée or Spanish Equipo Unificado|
code FRG taken from Federal Republic of Germany
|GDR||East Germany||ADE (1968) from Spanish Alemania Democrática|
code GDR taken from German Democratic Republic
|SCG||Serbia and Montenegro||code from Serbian Србија и Црна Гора / Srbija i Crna Gora|
code taken from French Tchécoslovaquie
|URS||Soviet Union||SOV (1968 W)|
code from French Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques (URSS)
Unlike the previous list, these codes no longer appear in the IOC results database. When a past athlete from one of these teams has won a medal, the new code is shown next to them instead.
|BIR||Burma||1948–1988||Now Myanmar (MYA)|
|CEY||Ceylon||1948–1972||Now Sri Lanka (SRI)|
|DAH||Dahomey||1964–1976||Now Benin (BEN)|
|GUI||British Guiana||1948–1964||Now Guyana (GUY).|
The code former GUI has been reassigned to Guinea (GUI) in 1965 when its new NOC was recognized by the IOC and used publicly in their first competed games in 1968. All formerly known by BGU
|HBR||British Honduras||1968–1972||Now Belize (BIZ)|
|IHO|| Dutch East Indies |
code from French Indes orientales hollandaises
|1934–1938||Now Indonesia (INA)|
|KHM||Khmer Republic||1972–1976||Now Cambodia (CAM)|
|MAL||Malaya||1956–1960||Competed independently prior to the formation of Malaysia in 1963.|
Now Malaysia (MAS)
|NRH||Northern Rhodesia||1964||Now Zambia (ZAM)|
|RAU|| United Arab Republic |
code from French République arabe unie
|1960||Now Egypt (EGY) and Syria (SYR)|
|RHO||Rhodesia||1960–1972||Now Zimbabwe (ZIM)|
|ROC||Republic of China||1932–1976||Medal winners from 1948 and earlier display as China (CHN), while medal winners from after 1948 display as Chinese Taipei (TPE) under which the team now competes.|
|SAA||Saar||1952||Competed independently prior to rejoining West Germany (FRG) in 1957|
|UAR||United Arab Republic||1964–1968||Now Egypt (EGY)|
|VOL||Upper Volta||1972–1984||Now Burkina Faso (BUR)|
|WSM||Western Samoa||1984–1996||Now Samoa (SAM)|
|YAR|| North Yemen |
code from Yemen Arab Republic
|1984–1988||Competed independently prior to Yemeni unification in 1990.|
Now Yemen (YEM)
|YMD|| South Yemen |
code from Yemen Democratic Republic
|ZAI||Zaire||1972–1996||Now Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD)|
Two other significant code changes have occurred, both because of a change in the nation's designation as used by the IOC:
|ANZ||Australasia||1908–1912||Used in the IOC's medal database to identify the team from Australasia, composed of athletes from both Australia and New Zealand for the 1908 and 1912 Games. Both nations competed separately by 1920.|
|COR|| Korea |
from French Corée
|2018||Used for the unified Korean women's ice hockey team at the 2018 Winter Olympics. Also used when the delegations of the two Korean NOCs enter together during the opening and closing ceremonies. The Unified Korea flag was used in the 2000 Summer Olympics but they are separate in the NOC code.|
|EUA|| United Team of Germany |
from French Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne
|1956–1964||Used in the IOC's medal database to identify the United Team of Germany, composed of athletes representing the NOCs of both East Germany and West Germany for the 1956–1964 Games. The team was simply known as Germany in the official reports for those six games at the time.|
|EUN||Unified Team||1992||Used in 1992 (both Summer and Winter Games) for the Unified Team, composed of athletes from most of the ex-republics of the Soviet Union that chose to compete as a unified team. The Baltic states competed as independent teams in 1992; the other twelve new nations competed independently for the first time in 1994 and/or 1996.|
|IOP||Independent Olympic Participants||Used for Independent Olympic Participants at the 1992 Summer Olympics as a designation used for athletes from FR Yugoslavia who could not compete as a team due to United Nations sanctions. At the 1992 Summer Olympics IOP was used as a designation for athletes from the Republic of Macedonia too. IOP was also used during the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi by Indian athletes due to the Indian Olympic Association suspension.|
|IOA||Independent Olympic Athletes||Used for Individual Olympic Athletes in 2000, a designation used for athletes from Timor-Leste prior to the formation of its NOC. IOA was used again in the 2012 Games, when it stood for Independent Olympic Athletes , comprising athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles and a runner from South Sudan. The Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee's membership from the IOC was withdrawn the previous year, and South Sudan has not formed an NOC. IOA was used again in 2016 for athletes from Kuwait as a result of the suspension of its National Olympic Committee.|
|IOC||Athletes from Kuwait||2010–2012||Used as the country code for Athletes from Kuwait , when the Kuwait Olympic Committee was suspended the first time, at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, the 2010 Asian Games and the 2011 Asian Winter Games; for the second suspension in 2015–2017, athletes from Kuwait were also competing in several international competitions under the IOC flag, but this time in the team of Individual Olympic Athletes (IOA), including (but not only) in the 2016 Summer Olympics.|
|MIX||Mixed-NOCs||2010–2018||Used as the country code for Mixed NOCs at the Youth Olympics.|
|OAR||Olympic Athletes from Russia||2018||Used for Olympic Athletes from Russia competing as neutral athletes due to the state-sponsored doping scandal.|
|ROC||ROC||2020||Used for Russian Olympic Committee athletes at the 2020 Summer Olympics following the ban on the word "Russia" due to the state-sponsored doping scandal.|
|ROT||Refugee Olympic Team||2016||Used for the Refugee Olympic Team at the 2016 Summer Olympics for athletes to compete who have been displaced from their home countries.|
|ZZX||Mixed team||1896–1904||Used in the IOC's medal database to identify medals won by mixed teams of athletes from multiple nations (such as the combination of France and Great Britain, for example), a situation that happened several times in the Games of 1896, 1900, and 1904.|
|IPP||Independent Paralympic Participants||1992||Used for Independent Paralympic Participants at the 1992 Summer Paralympics as a designation used for athletes from FR Yugoslavia and Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia who could not compete as a team due to United Nations sanctions.|
|IPA||Individual Paralympic Athletes||De facto independent East Timor was not yet recognised as a sovereign state, and did not have a recognised National Paralympic Committee.Two athletes from the country gained the opportunity to in the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, but they competed officially as Individual Paralympic Athletes, rather than as representatives of an NPC.|
|API||Refugee Paralympic Team||A team consisting of refugee and asylee Paralympic athletes competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro. This acronym is the abbreviation of the team name in Brazilian Portuguese and this code is reserved for similar situations that may happen in the future.|
|NPA||Neutral Paralympic Athletes||2018||Used for Russian athletes competing as neutral athletes due to the state-sponsored doping scandal.|
Ivory Coast competed at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, United States. The nation returned to the Olympic Games after participating in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. Gabriel Tiacoh won Ivory Coast's first ever Olympic medal.
Albania competed at the Summer Olympic Games for the first time at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany. Five competitors, four men and one woman, took part in three events in two sports.
Germany competed at the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, Norway after not having been invited to the 1948 Winter Olympics because of their role in World War II, and because the NOC restored in 1947 as Deutscher Olympischer Ausschuß did not represent a recognized state yet. The Federal Republic of Germany was founded in 1949, the NOC for Germany was renamed and in 1951 recognized by the IOC while recognition of a separate NOC of the GDR was declined. East Germans were told to cooperate in a single team Germany, which they declined in 1952, but accepted for 1956 and later.
Ivory Coast competed at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea.
Athletes from Burma competed at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. The nation sent a small delegation of two athletes and three officials.
Ivory Coast competed at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, Mexico under the IOC country code CML due to the Ivory Coast in Spanish being Costa de Marfil.
Ivory Coast competed at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany.
The former State Union of Serbia and Montenegro appeared at the Olympic Games on two occasions from 2004 until 2006, after which the union was dissolved and Montenegro and Serbia each declared full independence.
The People's Republic of China (PRC) sent a delegation to the Olympic Games for the first time at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland.
The Finn was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled and completed. 35 sailors, on 35 boats, from 35 nations competed.
The Flying Dutchman was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled and completed. 60 sailors, on 29 boats, from 29 nation competed.
The Tempest was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled and completed. 42 sailors, on 21 boats, from 21 nation competed.
The Star was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled and completed. 36 sailors, on 18 boats, from 18 nation competed.
The Soling was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled. Only six races were sailed due to weather conditions. 80 sailors, on 26 boats, from 26 nation competed.
The Dragon was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics program in Kiel-Schilksee. Seven races were scheduled. Only six races were sailed due to weather conditions. 70 sailors, on 23 boats, from 23 nation competed. It was the last Olympic appearance of the Dragon.
Over time, several scoring systems for Sailing were used during the Summer Olympics. Many of these systems were also used by other regatta's in their times. In order to understand how the medals in the Olympics were handed out one must have a look at the scoring system of that specific olympic sailing regatta.