2002 Winter Olympics

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XIX Olympic Winter Games
2002 Winter Olympics logo.svg
Emblem of the 2002 Winter Olympics [lower-alpha 1]
Host city Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
MottoLight The Fire Within
Nations78
Athletes2,399 (1,513 men, 886 women)
Events78 in 7 sports (15 disciplines)
Opening February 8
Closing February 24
Opened by
Cauldron
Members of the 1980 U.S. Olympic hockey team, led by team captain Mike Eruzione
Stadium Rice–Eccles Stadium
Winter
Nagano 1998 Turin 2006
Summer
Sydney 2000 Athens 2004
Countdown clock used for the games in the shape of an arrowhead 2002 Winter Olympics - Countdown Clock - 5 September 2012.jpg
Countdown clock used for the games in the shape of an arrowhead
Salt Lake City during the 2002 Winter Olympics Slcolympics.jpg
Salt Lake City during the 2002 Winter Olympics
Curling at The Ice Sheet at Ogden on February 22, 2002 2002 Olympic curling.jpg
Curling at The Ice Sheet at Ogden on February 22, 2002
2002 Olympic Winter Games $5 coin created by the US Mint 2002SLC proof gold.JPG
2002 Olympic Winter Games $5 coin created by the US Mint

The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially the XIX Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event that was celebrated from February 8 to February 24, 2002, in and around Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.

Contents

The Games featured 2,399 athletes from 78 nations, participating in 78 events in 15 disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. [1] [2] The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee (SLOC), the first time that both events were organized by a single committee. [3] Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games, after Missouri, New York, California, and Georgia. These are the most recent Olympics to be held in the United States and the first to take place under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge.

The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, and sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. [3] Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, and music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. [4] Salt Lake City became the most populous area ever to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger. [5] Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were also larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals and Germany won the most medals overall. [6]

The Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid. Nevertheless, from sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history; records were set in both the broadcasting and marketing programs. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours. [7] The Games were also financially successful, raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues. [7]

NBC became the telecast provider hereafter for the Winter Games in the United States after a three-Olympics run with CBS from 1992–1998. The games were succeeded by the 2002 Winter Paralympics.

Host city selection

Salt Lake City was chosen over Québec City, Canada; Sion, Switzerland; and Östersund, Sweden, on June 16, 1995, at the 104th IOC Session in Budapest, Hungary. [8] Salt Lake City had previously come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano, Japan, and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Denver, Colorado, withdrew. The 1976 Winter Olympics were ultimately awarded to Innsbruck, Austria.

2002 Winter Olympics bidding result [9]
CityCountryRound 1
Salt Lake City Flag of the United States.svg United States54
Östersund Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden14
Sion Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland14
Quebec City Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada7

Venues

Competitive venues

VenueEventsGross capacityRef.
Deer Valley Alpine skiing (slalom), freestyle skiing 13,400 [10]
E Center Ice hockey 10,500 [11]
Park City Mountain Resort Alpine skiing (giant slalom), snowboarding 16,000 [12]
Peaks Ice Arena Ice hockey8,400 [13]
Salt Lake Ice Center 1 Figure skating, short track speed skating 17,500 [11]
Snowbasin Alpine skiing (combined, downhill, super-G)22,500 [14]
Soldier Hollow Biathlon, cross-country skiing, Nordic combined (cross-country skiing portion)15,200 [15]
The Ice Sheet at Ogden Curling 2,000 [16]
Utah Olympic Oval Speed skating 5,236 [17]
Utah Olympic Park
(bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track)
Bobsleigh, luge, skeleton, Nordic combined (ski jumping portion), ski jumping 18,100 (ski jumping)
15,000 (sliding track)
[18]

1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics on venues, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center".

Non-competitive venues

VenueEvents/purposeGross capacityRef.
Main Media Center International Broadcast Center and Main Press Center
2002 Olympic Medals PlazaOlympic medal presentations and Olympic Celebration Series concerts20,000 [19]
2002 Olympic Village Olympic Village and Olympic Family Hotel
Park City Main StreetMain Street celebration area, Park City Technical Center, NBC broadcast center, sponsor showcases [20]
Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium Opening and closing ceremoniesapprox. 50,000 [21]
Salt Lake Olympic SquareOlympic Medals Plaza, Salt Lake Ice Center, Olympic Superstore, sponsor showcases [22]

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. [23] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, and costs of US$51 billion [24] and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%.

In February 1999, in response to the bid scandal and a financial shortfall for the Games, Mitt Romney, then CEO of the private equity firm Bain Capital (and future U.S. presidential candidate, U.S. Senator, and Governor of Massachusetts), was hired as the new president and CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. [25] Romney, Kem C. Gardner, a Utah commercial real estate developer, and Don Stirling, the Olympics' local marketing chief, raised "millions of dollars from Mormon families with pioneer roots: the Eccles family, whose forebears were important industrialists and bankers" to help rescue the Games, according to a later report. [26] An additional $410 million was received from the federal government. [27] U.S. Federal subsidies amounted to $1.3 billion (for infrastructure improvements only), compared to $45 billion of federal funding received by the Sochi 2014 Organizing committee from the Russian government. [24] [28] The Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues. [7]

Participating nations

Participating nations 2002 Winter Olympic games countries.svg
Participating nations

A total of 78 [2] National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong (China), Nepal, Tajikistan, and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games.

Participating National Olympic Committees

Sports

The 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports.

  1. Biathlon
  2. Bobsleigh
  3. Curling
  4. Ice hockey
  5. Luge
  6. Skating
  7. Skiing

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline.

Calendar

Andrea Nahrgang competing at Soldier Hollow on February 18, 2002 Andrea Nahrgang 2002 Olympics.jpg
Andrea Nahrgang competing at Soldier Hollow on February 18, 2002

In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport are held. The number in each box represents the number of finals that were contested on that day. [29]

All dates are in Mountain Standard Time (UTC−7)
OCOpening ceremonyEvent competitions1Event finalsEGExhibition galaCCClosing ceremony
February8th
Fri
9th
Sat
10th
Sun
11th
Mon
12th
Tue
13th
Wed
14th
Thu
15th
Fri
16th
Sat
17th
Sun
18th
Mon
19th
Tue
20th
Wed
21st
Thu
22nd
Fri
23rd
Sat
24th
Sun
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg CeremoniesOCCC
Alpine skiing pictogram.svg Alpine skiing 111111111110
Biathlon pictogram.svg Biathlon 222118
Bobsleigh pictogram.svg Bobsleigh 1113
Cross country skiing pictogram.svg Cross country skiing 22111211112
Curling pictogram.svg Curling 112
Figure skating pictogram.svg Figure skating 1111EG4
Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg Freestyle skiing 11114
Ice hockey pictogram.svg Ice hockey 112
Luge pictogram.svg Luge 1113
Nordic combined pictogram.svg Nordic combined 1113
Short track speed skating pictogram.svg Short track speed skating 12238
Skeleton pictogram.svg Skeleton 22
Ski jumping pictogram.svg Ski jumping 1113
Snowboarding pictogram.svg Snowboarding 1124
Speed skating pictogram.svg Speed skating 111111111110
Total events456464564457547278
Cumulative total491519252934404448536065697678
February8th
Fri
9th
Sat
10th
Sun
11th
Mon
12th
Tue
13th
Wed
14th
Thu
15th
Fri
16th
Sat
17th
Sun
18th
Mon
19th
Tue
20th
Wed
21st
Thu
22nd
Fri
23rd
Sat
24th
Sun
Events

Medal table

Ski jumping medals being awarded at the Salt Lake Medal Plaza on February 13, 2002 Slc awards plaza ski jumping medals.jpg
Ski jumping medals being awarded at the Salt Lake Medal Plaza on February 13, 2002
Fireworks at the Salt Lake Medal Plaza Fireworks medal plaza SLC.jpg
Fireworks at the Salt Lake Medal Plaza
Vonetta Flowers and Jill Bakken during their medal ceremony at the Salt Lake Medal Plaza, after winning gold for the United States in the two-woman bobsleigh Vonetta Flowers and Jill Bakken during the medal ceremony in Salt Lake City.JPEG
Vonetta Flowers and Jill Bakken during their medal ceremony at the Salt Lake Medal Plaza, after winning gold for the United States in the two-woman bobsleigh

  *   Host nation (United States)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of Norway.svg  Norway  (NOR)135725
2Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)1216836
3Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)*10131134
4Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada  (CAN)73717
5Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  (RUS)54413
6Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)45211
7Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)44513
8Flag of Finland.svg  Finland  (FIN)4217
9Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands  (NED)3508
10Flag of Austria.svg  Austria  (AUT)341017
11–24remaining15152353
Totals (24 nations)807678234

Records

Several medal records were set and/or tied, including:

Note: All of the above records were broken at the Vancouver Olympics in 2010.

Podium sweeps

DateSportEventNOCGoldSilverBronze
February 11 Snowboarding Men's halfpipe Flag of the United States.svg  United States Ross Powers Danny Kass Jarret Thomas
February 13 Luge Women's singles Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Sylke Otto Barbara Niedernhuber Silke Kraushaar

Highlights

Members of the US Olympic team at the Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium holding the American flag that flew over the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 US Navy 020208-N-3995K-002 2002 Olympics - WTC Flag.jpg
Members of the US Olympic team at the Rice–Eccles Olympic Stadium holding the American flag that flew over the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001
The men's 10km sprint biathlon race at Soldier Hollow during the Games on February 13, 2002 Lawton Redman 2002 Winter Olympics b.jpg
The men's 10km sprint biathlon race at Soldier Hollow during the Games on February 13, 2002
The E Center during a hockey match on February 11, 2002 E center interior 2002 olympic venue.jpg
The E Center during a hockey match on February 11, 2002

Opening ceremony

The announcement of past Winter Olympic Games at the opening ceremony on February 8, 2002 SLC flags opening ceremony.jpg
The announcement of past Winter Olympic Games at the opening ceremony on February 8, 2002
An American Indian Chief during the opening ceremony at the Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium on February 8, 2002 SLC Indian chief opening ceremony.jpg
An American Indian Chief during the opening ceremony at the Rice–Eccles Olympic Stadium on February 8, 2002
U.S. President George W. Bush takes a phone call from an athlete's family during the opening ceremony George W. Bush with US Olympic Team at 2002 Winter Olympics opening ceremony.jpg
U.S. President George W. Bush takes a phone call from an athlete's family during the opening ceremony
Olympic flame being lit by the 1980 US Olympic hockey team during the opening ceremony at the Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium 2002 Winter Olympics flame.jpg
Olympic flame being lit by the 1980 US Olympic hockey team during the opening ceremony at the Rice–Eccles Olympic Stadium

Prior to the ceremony, the turf inside the stadium was removed and a giant, abstract shaped ice rink, designed by Seven Nielsen, was installed, covering a large part of the stadium floor. Performers would later perform on ice skates, rather than shoes. [35]

An American flag rescued from the World Trade Center Site on September 11 was carried into the stadium by an honor guard of American athletes and was carried in by firefighters and police officers from the NYPD, Port Authority Police, and FDNY. The Mormon Tabernacle Choir, clad in white sweaters, performed The Star Spangled Banner, the U.S. national anthem, as the flag was raised. The parade of the 2,300 athletes was led by the Child of Light and began traditionally with Greece and ending with the host nation, the United States of America. As the artistic section kicked off, the five native Utah Native American tribes arrived together on horseback and performed several traditional "Welcome" stomp dances. The Dixie Chicks also performed.

The beauty of the Utah landscape was showcased as huge puppets of native Utah animals, including a 15-foot-long bison and the American bald eagle (the national bird and animal of the U.S.), entered the stadium, as well as dancing pioneer settlers as two trains came together on, symbolizing the U.S. railroad industry which was beneficial to Utah's economy beginning in the 1860s, as well as economically linking the Western U.S. and the Eastern U.S. At the end of their performance, the performers unfurled a giant quilt that covered the entire stadium floor with the 2002 Winter Olympics logo in the center. [36] Two figure skaters, Olympians Kristi Yamaguchi and Scott Hamilton performed on the oversized ice rink as "Light the Fire Within", the 2002 Winter Olympic's theme song was sung by LeAnn Rimes. [36]

After speeches by Jacques Rogge, President over the IOC and Mitt Romney, the CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee, the Olympic flame, which had traveled 13,500 miles (21,700 km) was carried into the stadium by gold medalists Dorothy Hamill and Dick Button. They passed the flame to other pairs U.S. Olympic heroes, who either ran or skated their short relay. Gold medalists in Nagano 1998 Picabo Street and Cammi Granato carried the flame up the steps to the towering cauldron where they were met by Mike Eruzione, captain of the miracle on ice hockey team that won the Olympic gold medal in 1980. Eruzione summoned the other members of the team, who together lit the Olympic cauldron. [37] The Opening Ceremony would win seven Emmy Awards. [36]

The President opened the Games standing among the US athletes, while previous heads of state opened the Games from an official box. NBC's Bob Costas applauded the move during the network's coverage of the Opening Ceremony.

The official box was occupied by the President's Olympic delegation:

2002 Olympic symbols

Olympic emblem

The 2002 Olympic emblem on the bobsleigh track at Utah Olympic Park 020222-N-LW438-002.JPEG
The 2002 Olympic emblem on the bobsleigh track at Utah Olympic Park
Delta's Boeing 777-200 in livery commemorating the Games Boeing 777-200.jpg
Delta's Boeing 777-200 in livery commemorating the Games
Powder, Copper and Coal, the 2002 Olympic mascots Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Mascots.svg
Powder, Copper and Coal, the 2002 Olympic mascots

The 2002 Olympic emblem is a snowflake, which consists of three separate sections. The yellow top section symbolizes the Olympic Flame, and represents the athletes' courage. The orange center section symbolizes the ancient weaving styles of Utah's Native Americans, and represents the region's culture. The blue/purple bottom section symbolizes a snow-capped mountain, and represents the contrast of Utah's mountain and desert areas. The orange/yellow colors above the blue/purple bottom section also give the appearance of a sun rising from behind a mountain.

Theme colors

An official palette of colors, ranging from cool blues to warm reds and oranges, was created for Salt Lake 2002. The palette became part of the official design theme named Land of Contrast – Fire and Ice, with the blues representing the cooler, snowy, mountainous regions of Northern Utah, and the oranges and red representing the warmer, rugged, red-rock areas of Southern Utah. [38]

Pictograms

As with all Olympic Games, pictograms were specifically designed for Salt Lake 2002, to easily identify the venues, sports, and services for spectators without using a written language. The pictograms for these Games mimicked the designs of branding-irons found in the western United States, and used the Fire and Ice theme colors of the Salt Lake 2002 Games. The line thickness and 30-degree angles found in the pictograms mirror those found in the snowflake emblem. [38]

Mascots

The mascots represent three of the indigenous animals of the Western United States, and are named after natural resources which have long been important to Utah's economy, survival, and culture. All three animals are major characters in the legends of local Native Americans, and each mascot wears a charm around its neck with an original Anasazi or Fremont-style petroglyph.

Olympic Torch and relay

Salt Lake 2002 torch cu.jpg
Detail of the 2002 Winter Olympic Torch
Olympic torch.jpg
Torchbearer in Olympic livery

The 2002 Olympic Torch is modeled after an icicle, with a slight curve to represent speed and fluidity. The torch measures 33 inches (84 cm) long, 3 inches (7.6 cm) wide at the top, 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) at the bottom, and was designed by Axiom Design of Salt Lake City. [39] [40] It was created with three sections, each with its own meaning and representation. [39]

The torch relay was a 65-day run, from December 4, 2001 to February 8, 2002, which carried the Olympic flame through 46 of the 50 states in the United States. [41] The torch covered 13,500 miles (21,700 km), passed through 300 communities, and was carried by 12,012 torchbearers. [41]

Olympic Cauldron

The Olympic Cauldron was designed with the official motto Light the Fire Within and the Fire and Ice theme in mind. It was designed to look like an icicle, and was made of glass which allowed the fire to be seen burning within. The actual glass cauldron stands atop a twisting glass and steel support, is 12 feet (3.7 m) high, and the flame within burns at 900 °F (482.2 °C). [42] Together with its support, the cauldron stands 117 feet (36 m) tall and was made of 738 individual pieces of glass. Small jets send water down the glass sides of the cauldron, both to keep the glass and metal cooled (so they would not crack or melt), and to give the effect of melting ice. [43] The cauldron was designed by WET Design of Los Angeles, its frame built by roller coaster manufacturer Arrow Dynamics of Clearfield, Utah, and its glass pieces created by Western Glass of Ogden, Utah. The cauldron's cost was 2 million dollars, and it was unveiled to the public when originally installed at the Rice–Eccles Stadium (2002 Olympic Stadium) on January 8, 2002. [44] Following the completion of the 2002 Winter Olympics, the cauldron was moved to the permanent Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Cauldron Park, next to the 2002 Olympic Stadium in Salt Lake City.

A second Olympic cauldron burned at the Awards Plaza in downtown Salt Lake City during the Games. It was known as the Hero's Cauldron and was in the backdrop of every awards ceremony.

Marketing

Sponsors

Sponsors of the 2002 Winter Olympics
Worldwide Olympic Partners:
Official Partners:
Official Sponsors:
Official Suppliers:

Economic effect of the 2002 Winter Olympics

Public transportation

Public transportation has expanded greatly as a result of hosting the Olympics. The biggest project that has been completed is the TRAX light rail system which continues to be used by many locals. Other expansions include widened freeways and roadways throughout the city. TRAX includes a line that extends to the airport, making transit easier for tourists and visitors. One article from the Salt Lake Tribune states that 37% of locals use TRAX to commute daily while 25% of travelers within the city use this service. [45] This is a direct result of holding the Olympic Games in Salt Lake City and just one of the many positive economic effects on the city.

Ski industry and winter sport

Utah Olympic Oval Utah Olympic Oval.jpg
Utah Olympic Oval

The 2002 Winter Olympics brought a huge amount of success to the Utah skiing industry. Since hosting the Winter Games, Utah has seen a 42% increase in skier and snowboarder visits as of 2010–11. This increase resulted in direct expenditures from skiers and snowboarders growing 67% from $704 million in 2002–2003 to $1.2 billion in 2010–2011. [46]

Fourteen venues were constructed or expanded in preparation for the Winter Games. One of the venues constructed for the Games was the Utah Olympic Park, which has proven to be one of the most successful venues to date because it has been maintained in top competition form. Due to the routine maintenance of the park, Utah has been able to host a large number of winter competitions since 2002, including more than 60 World Cup events (e.g. the FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup), as well as seven world championships, and various other sporting events. Hosting these high profile competitions has resulted in approximately $1 billion being injected into the local economy. [47] During 2013–2014, Utah held 16 various winter sport events, bringing $27.3 million to the economy of Utah. [48] After holding the Olympics, Utah became home to two National Governing Bodies of Sport. [49] The U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association is headquartered in Park City, Utah and the U.S. Olympic speed skating team is based out of the Utah Olympic Oval.

In 2017, an exploratory committee was formed to consider whether Salt Lake City should bid to host the Olympics for a second time in 2026 or 2030. [50] On December 14, 2018, Salt Lake City was given the green light to bid for a future Winter Olympics. [51]

University of Utah expansion

The University of Utah was one of the hosts of the 2002 Winter Olympics, the planning committee approached the University of Utah and asked them to build several student dormitories which would serve as athletes' accommodation during the Games. It was agreed that the University would pay approximately $98 million out of the total required amount of $110 million in order to complete the construction. Students of the university have benefited as almost 3,500 of them would be housed here after the Games. This was a great economic benefit to the university since the amount of money used to complete such dormitories could take long to be afforded. Apart from that, the University was also asked to expand Rice Eccles Stadium to accommodate 50,000 people up from 32,000. The University would then be refunded almost $59 million and be given an extra $40 million for its maintenance. [52] It is worth noting that the U.S. team involved in the 2010 Winter Olympics lived in the University of Utah's housing to use the stadium because of its facilities.

The 2002 Olympic Games also benefited the university economically since the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Cauldron Park was elevated by the renovations that took place. Ice rinks were very scarce in Utah, but due to the Olympic Games, they became plentiful and offered several entertainment and training opportunities for hockey players and figure skaters. The Cauldron Park located at the University of Utah which was built with $6.5 million in profits and had the following features: a visitors' center which had a theater that showed a thrilling movie about the Olympic Games of 2002 and a "park" which had a dazzling pool and a V-shaped stone wall with the names of all the medalists of the 2002 Olympic Games. Besides, the park had 17 plates which hung on the fence of the stadium celebrating the highlights of each day of the Olympics. All these features acted as tourist attraction that boosted the economic development of the university. It is indicated that the approximate value of media exposure through print during the Games was equated to $22.9 million. Mainly, this was a huge economic benefit to the university as more and more people got to know about the educational establishment, and this also boosted enrollment and future development.

Immigration

Holger Preuss in his book The Economics of Staging the Olympics: A Comparison of the Games 1972–2008 argues that "The export of the 'Olympic Games' service results in an inflow of funds to the host city, causing additional production which, in its turn, leads to employment and income effects." [53] According to the study "2002 Olympic Winter Games, Economic, Demographic and Fiscal Impacts", the estimated creation of new job years of employment was 35,424, and additional earnings of $1,544,203,000. [54] It was noted that the increase of Olympic related job started in 1996 and continued until 2003. These effects can be estimated on the ground of historical relationship between job and corresponding population growth. A lot of people migrated into the future place of the Olympic Games for expanding and favorable employment opportunities that the Olympics ensured. Although many of the higher paying jobs created by the Games were occupied by residents, many of the vacated jobs were filled by immigrants who relocated for the better employment opportunities.

Basically, the immigration rate was even larger because the employees immigrated with their families. The additional people paid diverse taxes and fees from their income that created additional revenue on the state and local levels.

Employment

Olympic related jobs in Utah started in 1996 with slight job opportunities of less than 100. However, from the job measurement conducted from 1996 to 2002, steady attainment of job opportunities established and a maximum level was noted in 2001 where there were 12,500 job opportunities attained yearly, and approximately 25,070 jobs created in 2002. [55] Therefore, from 1996 to 2002 the sum of employment equated to 35,000 jobs which lasted a year. February 2002, it is when the highest employment opportunities were created compared to other years. There were around 25,070 job opportunities created compared to 35,000 created from 1996–2001.

It is difficult to quantify the impact of the 2002 Olympics on the unemployment rates in Utah, due mostly to the effect of the early 2000s recession. In 1996, the unemployment rate in Utah was approximately 3.4% while the U.S. national average was 5.4% and by the end of 2001, the unemployment rate in Utah was around 4.8% while the national average had risen to 5.7%. [56] There was a high percentage of visitors to the Games, which raised the number of tourists whose consumption and demand prompted the establishment of job opportunities to meet the demands.

Utah alcohol laws

The alcohol laws of Utah are known for being some of the most restrictive alcohol laws in the country however having the Olympic Games in Salt Lake helped state officials ease up on a few different laws concerning alcohol in the state of Utah which has helped the nightlife grow and helped more bars and restaurants increase revenues by simply improving the accessibility of alcohol to customers.[ citation needed ]

During the Olympics, alcohol regulations were not changed to accommodate people coming in from outside Utah to watch and take part in the Games. Officials from the Olympics as well as visitors complained about the unreasonable laws. Shortly after in 2003 the tide began to turn and some of the restrictive laws were altered. The charge to join a "private club" or what is essentially a bar with a membership fee was lowered from five dollars to four dollars. Additionally, they allowed existing members or "sponsors" seven guests instead of five. The maximum amount of alcohol permitted with any one drink from a bar increased from 2 to 2.75 ounces. [57] Beer licenses were also expanded to allow restaurants to serve wine as well with their beer license. Finally, people were now allowed to have more than one drink with them at their table.

This loosening of laws lowered the bar for entry into a bar in Salt Lake City. Changing demographics, due in large part to the Olympics, disrupted the number of people looking to drink as more non-Mormons began to settle in Utah. Travelers have also increased due to the Olympics and account for a share of the increase in liquor sales since the Games. According to The Salt Lake Tribune : sales at Utah's 125 liquor outlets shows a 153 percent increase in liquor sales since 2002, from $156.2 million to $396 million. Even adjusted for inflation, sales have nearly doubled, and per capita spending on alcohol has grown by more than 50 percent. [58]

Concerns and controversies

Bid scandal

There was a scandal involving allegations of bribery used to win the rights to host the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Prior to its successful bid in 1995, the city had attempted four times to secure the games, failing each time. In 1998, members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) were accused of taking gifts from the Salt Lake Organizing Committee (SLOC) during the bidding process. The allegations resulted in the expulsion of several IOC members and the adoption of new IOC rules. Although nothing strictly illegal had been done, it was felt that the acceptance of the gifts was morally dubious. Legal charges were brought against the leaders of Salt Lake's bid committee by the United States Department of Justice. [59] Investigations were also launched into prior bidding process by other cities, finding that members of the IOC received bribes during the bidding process for both the 1998 Winter Olympics and 2000 Summer Olympics. [60] In response to the scandal, Mitt Romney was hired as the new president and CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee.

Disqualifications for doping

The 2002 Games were the first Winter Olympics held after formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency; as a result there were a large number of athletes disqualified following the new testing. [61]

Athletes in cross-country skiing were disqualified for various reasons, including doping by two Russians and one Spaniard, leading Russia to file protests and threaten to withdraw from the competition.

Judging controversies

In the first week of the Games, a controversy in the pairs' figure skating competition culminated in the French judge's scores being thrown out and the Canadian team of Jamie Salé and David Pelletier being awarded a gold medal (together with the Russians who were controversially awarded gold previously and kept their medals despite the allegations of vote swapping and buying the votes of the French judge). Allegations of bribery were leveled against many ice-skating judges, leading to the arrest of known criminal Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov in Italy (at the request of the United States). He was released by the Italian officials. [62]

Security measures

Spc. Patrick Jean-Mary, of Warwick, R.I., inspects two forms of identification during the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City WinterOlympicsMP2002.png
Spc. Patrick Jean-Mary, of Warwick, R.I., inspects two forms of identification during the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City

The 2002 Winter Games were the first Olympic Games to take place since September 11, 2001, which meant a higher level of security than ever before provided for the Games. The Office of Homeland Security (OHS) designated the Olympics a National Special Security Event (NSSE).

Aerial surveillance and radar control was provided by the U.S. Marines of Marine Air Control Squadron 2, Detachment C, from Cherry Point, North Carolina.

According to the Wall Street Journal, the FBI and NSA arranged with Qwest Communications to use intercept equipment for a period of less than six months around the time of the 2002 Winter Olympics. [63]

When he spoke during the opening ceremonies, Jacques Rogge, presiding over his first Olympics as the IOC president, told the athletes of the United States: [64]

Your nation is overcoming a horrific tragedy, a tragedy that has affected the whole world. We stand united with you in the promotion of our common ideals and hope for world peace.

See also

Related Research Articles

Winter Olympic Games Major international sporting event

The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.

1948 Winter Olympics

The 1948 Winter Olympics, officially known as the V Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event held from 30 January to 8 February 1948 in St. Moritz, Switzerland. The Games were the first to be celebrated after World War II; it had been twelve years since the last Winter Games in 1936.

2006 Winter Olympics

The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Torino 2006 or Turin 2006, was a winter multi-sport event held from 10 to 26 February 2006 in Turin, Piedmont, Italy. This marked the second time that Italy had hosted the Winter Olympics, the first being in 1956 in Cortina d'Ampezzo. Italy had also hosted the Summer Olympics in 1960 in Rome. Turin was selected as the host city for the 2006 Games in June 1999.

1932 Winter Olympics 3rd edition of Winter Olympics, held in Lake Placid (NY)

The 1932 Winter Olympics, officially known as the III Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event in the United States, held in Lake Placid, New York. The games opened on February 4 and closed on February 15. It was the first of four Winter Olympics held in the United States; Lake Placid hosted again in 1980.

1960 Winter Olympics 8th edition of Winter Olympics, in the USA in 1960

The 1960 Winter Olympics was a winter multi-sport event held from February 18 to February 29, 1960, in Squaw Valley, California, United States. The resort was chosen to host the Games at the 1956 meeting of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Squaw Valley was an undeveloped resort in 1955, so the infrastructure and all of the venues were built at a cost of US$80 million between 1956 and 1960. The layout was designed to be intimate, allowing spectators and competitors to reach most of the venues on foot.

1976 Winter Olympics

The 1976 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated in Innsbruck, Austria, from February 4 to February 15, 1976. The Games were awarded to Innsbruck after Denver, the original host city, withdrew in 1972. This was the second time the Tyrolean capital had hosted the Winter Olympics, having first done so in 1964.

2002 Winter Paralympics

The 2002 Winter Paralympics, the eighth Winter Paralympics, were held in Salt Lake City, United States, from March 7 to 16, 2002. A total of 416 athletes from 36 nations participated. They were the first Winter Paralympics in the American continent. These were the first Paralympic Winter Games for Andorra, Chile, China, Croatia, Greece, and Hungary. Ragnhild Myklebust of Norway won five gold medals in skiing and biathlon, becoming the most successful Winter Paralympic athlete of all time with 22 medals, 17 of them gold.

Rice–Eccles Stadium

Rice–Eccles Stadium is an outdoor college football stadium in the western United States, located on the campus of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah. It is the home field of the Utah Utes of the Pac-12 Conference. It served as the main stadium for the 2002 Winter Olympics; the Opening and Closing Ceremonies were held at the stadium, which was temporarily renamed "Rice–Eccles Olympic Stadium".

Maverik Center Multi-purpose arena

The Maverik Center, originally known as the E Center, is a 12,000 seat multi-purpose arena located in West Valley City, Utah, United States. Construction on the arena started in 1996 and was completed in time to hold its first event on September 22, 1997. The arena is owned by West Valley City, and managed by Centennial Management Group, Inc.

Peaks Ice Arena is an indoor ice hockey and figure skating arena in Provo, Utah, located 43 miles (69 km) south of Salt Lake City. Along with the Maverik Center in West Valley City, it was built as an ice hockey and figure skating practice venue for the 2002 Winter Olympics. It currently serves as the home of the BYU Cougars men's ice hockey team, Peaks Youth Hockey Association, several high school teams, the Peaks Figure Skating Club, and a Learn-to-Skate USA program for beginning skaters of all ages.

Jack Shea (speed skater) American speed skater

John Amos Shea, better known as Jack Shea or The Chief, was an American double-gold medalist in speed skating at the 1932 Winter Olympics. He was the first American to win two gold medals at one Winter Olympics, and was the patriarch of the first family with three generations of Winter Olympians. Along with his compatriot Irving Jaffee, he was the most successful athlete at the 1932 Winter Olympics.

United States at the 2002 Winter Olympics Sporting event delegation

The United States was the host nation for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Cauldron Park Plaza in Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.

The Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Cauldron Park is a plaza located at the south end of Rice–Eccles Stadium on the campus of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, Rice-Eccles Stadium was known as Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium and hosted the Opening and Closing Ceremonies. The plaza contained a 2002 Winter Olympic museum, the Olympic cauldron, and other memorabilia from the 2002 Olympic Games. As the University of Utah moves forward with stadium expansion and limited space, the future of the park is uncertain. The Hoberman Arch was removed in August 2014, and other portions of the park, such as the film and gallery, have since been removed as well. The cauldron is the only feature from the Olympics remaining in the plaza.

Utah Olympic Oval

The Utah Olympic Oval is an indoor speed skating oval located 14 miles (23 km) southwest of Salt Lake City, in Kearns, Utah. The Oval was built for the 2002 Winter Olympics and it hosted the long track speed skating events for the 2002 games. Inside the facility the 400 meter skating track surrounds two international sized ice sheets, and is itself surrounded by a 442 meter running track. Due to its high altitude, 4,675 feet (1,425 m), and the associated low air resistance, ten Olympic records and nine world records were set at the Oval during the 2002 games, the largest number of world records ever set at one event.

The Ice Sheet at Ogden, also known as the Weber County Ice Sheet, is located 35 miles (56 km) north of Salt Lake City on the campus of Weber State University in Ogden. The Ice Sheet opened in 1994 as a recreational training center for curling, ice hockey, and figure skating. During the 2002 Winter Olympics the Ice Sheet hosted the curling events. The Ice Sheet is also home to the Ogden Mustangs, a junior ice hockey team in the United States Premier Hockey League and Weber State University's men's hockey team.

Utah Olympic Park Track

The Utah Olympic Park Track is a bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track in the United States, located in the Utah Olympic Park near Park City, Utah. During the 2002 Winter Olympics in nearby Salt Lake City, the track hosted the bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton events. Today the track still serves as a training center for Olympic and development level athletes, and hosts numerous local and international competitions. It is one of two tracks in the nation, the other is at Mt. Van Hoevenberg near Lake Placid, New York.

Olympic Games ceremony Ceremonial events of the ancient and modern Olympic Games

The Olympic Games ceremonies of the Ancient Olympic Games were an integral part of these Games; the modern Olympic games have opening, closing, and medal ceremonies. Some of the elements of the modern ceremonies harken back to the Ancient Games from which the Modern Olympics draw their ancestry. An example of this is the prominence of Greece in both the opening and closing ceremonies. During the 2004 Games, the medal winners received a crown of olive branches, which was a direct reference to the Ancient Games, in which the victor's prize was an olive wreath. The various elements of the ceremonies are mandated by the Olympic Charter, and cannot be changed by the host nation. This requirement of seeking the approval of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) includes the artistic portion of opening and closing ceremonies.

2002 Winter Olympics torch relay

The 2002 Winter Olympics torch relay was a 65-day run, from December 4, 2001 until February 8, 2002, prior to the 2002 Winter Olympics. The runners carried the Olympic Flame throughout the United States - following its lighting in Olympia, Greece to the opening ceremony of the 2002 games at Rice-Eccles Stadium in Salt Lake City, Utah. The 2002 torch relay was also the 50th anniversary of the Winter Olympic torch relay, which was first run during the 1952 Winter Olympics.

Venues of the 2002 Winter Olympics

The 2002 Winter Olympic Games were held in and around Salt Lake City, United States from February 8 to 24, 2002, and the Paralympics from March 7 to 16, 2002. The sporting events were held in ten competitive venues, while non-competitive events, such as the opening ceremony, were held in six other venues. Three venues were also created for training purposes. All Olympic venues were scattered throughout Northern Utah.

2002 Winter Olympics opening ceremony

The opening ceremony of the 2002 Winter Olympics took place at the Rice-Eccles Olympic Stadium in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, on 8 February 2002.

References

Notes

  1. The emblem combines a snow crystal and a sun rising over a mountain. The yellow, orange, and blue colors represent the varied Utah landscape.

Citations

  1. "Factsheet, The Olympic Winter Games" (PDF). olympic.org. September 2014. p. 9. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  2. 1 2 The IOC site for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games gives figure of 77 participated NOCs, however one can count 78 nations looking through official results of 2002 Games Part 1 Archived January 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine , Part 2 Archived January 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine , Part 3 Archived January 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine . Probably this is consequence that Costa Rica's delegation of one athlete joined the Games after the Opening Ceremony, or this is consequence that Puerto Rico delegation of two athletes did not start in two-man bobsleigh event.
  3. 1 2 Salt Lake Organizing Committee (2002). Official Report of the XIX Olympic Winter Games (PDF). p. 35. ISBN   978-0-9717961-0-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  4. "Air Edel | Composers | MARK WATTERS". Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  5. Salt Lake population figures by the United States Census Archived June 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
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  7. 1 2 3 International Olympic Committee (2002). Marketing Matters (PDF). Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  8. IOC Vote History
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External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Official Film - 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics on YouTube
Preceded by
Nagano
Winter Olympics
Salt Lake City

XIX Olympic Winter Games (2002)
Succeeded by
Turin