Snowboarding

Last updated

Snowboarding
Snowboarding.jpg
A snowboarder making a turn in fresh snow
First played1965, Muskegon, Michigan, U.S.
Characteristics
TypeOutdoor
Equipment Snowboard, bindings, boots
Presence
Olympic 1998
Paralympic 2014

Snowboarding is a recreational and competitive activity that involves descending a snow-covered surface while standing on a snowboard that is almost always attached to a rider's feet. It features in the Winter Olympic Games and Winter Paralympic Games.

Contents

The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surfing, and skiing. It was developed in the United States in the 1960s, became a Winter Olympic Sport at Nagano in 1998 [1] and featured in the Winter Paralympics at Sochi in 2014. [2] As of 2015, its popularity (as measured by equipment sales) in the United States peaked in 2007 and has been in a decline since. [3] [4]

History

Snowboarding in Valfréjus, France
Snowboarder riding off of a cornice Squaw3.jpg
Snowboarder riding off of a cornice
Freeride snowboarding, in areas off of the main trails Snowboarder in the trees.jpg
Freeride snowboarding, in areas off of the main trails

Modern snowboarding began in 1965 when Sherman Poppen, an engineer in Muskegon, Michigan, invented a toy for his daughters by fastening two skis together and attaching a rope to one end so he would have some control as they stood on the board and glided downhill. Dubbed the "snurfer" (combining snow and surfer) by his wife Nancy, the toy proved so popular among his daughters' friends that Poppen licensed the idea to a manufacturer, Brunswick Corporation, that sold about a million snurfers over the next decade. [5] And, in 1966 alone, over half a million snurfers were sold. [6]

In February 1968, Poppen organized the first snurfing competition at a Michigan ski resort that attracted enthusiasts from all over the country. [7] One of those early pioneers was Tom Sims, a devotee of skateboarding (a sport born in the 1950s when kids attached roller skate wheels to small boards that they steered by shifting their weight). In the 1960s, as an eighth grader in Haddonfield, New Jersey, Sims crafted a snowboard in his school shop class by gluing carpet to the top of a piece of wood and attaching aluminum sheeting to the bottom. [8] He produced commercial snowboards in the mid-70s. [9]

The pioneers were not all from the United States; in 1976, Welsh skateboard enthusiasts Jon Roberts and Pete Matthews developed their own snowboards to use at their local dry ski slope. [10] [11]

Also during this same period, in 1977, Jake Burton Carpenter, a Vermont native who had enjoyed snurfing since the age of 14, impressed the crowd at a Michigan snurfing competition with bindings he had designed to secure his feet to the board. That same year, he founded Burton Snowboards in Londonderry, Vermont. [12] The "snowboards" were made of wooden planks that were flexible and had water ski foot traps. Very few people picked up snowboarding because the price of the board was considered too high at $38 and were not allowed on many ski hills, but eventually Burton would become the biggest snowboarding company in the business. [13] Burton's early designs for boards with bindings became the dominant features in snowboarding.

The first competitions to offer prize money were the National Snurfing Championship, held at Muskegon State Park in Muskegon, Michigan. [14] In 1979, Jake Burton Carpenter came from Vermont to compete with a snowboard of his own design. There were protests about Jake entering with a non-snurfer board. Paul Graves, and others, advocated that Jake be allowed to race. A "modified" "Open" division was created and won by Jake as the sole entrant. That race was considered the first competition for snowboards and is the start of what became competitive snowboarding. Ken Kampenga, John Asmussen and Jim Trim placed 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively in the Standard competition with best two combined times of 24.71, 25.02 and 25.41; and Jake Carpenter won prize money as the sole entrant in the "open" division with a time of 26.35. [15] In 1980 the event moved to Pando Winter Sports Park near Grand Rapids, Michigan because of a lack of snow that year at the original venue. [16] [17]

In the early 1980s, Aleksey Ostatnigrosh and Alexei Melnikov, two Snurfers from the Soviet Union, patented design changes to the Snurfer to allow jumping by attaching a bungee cord, a single footed binding to the Snurfer tail, and a two-foot binding design for improved control. [18] [19] [20]

As snowboarding became more popular in the 1970s and 1980s, pioneers such as Dimitrije Milovich (founder of Winterstick out of Salt Lake City, UT), Jake Burton Carpenter (founder of Burton Snowboards from Londonderry, Vermont), Tom Sims (founder of Sims Snowboards), David Kemper (founder of Kemper Snowboards) and Mike Olson (founder of Gnu Snowboards) came up with new designs for boards and mechanisms that slowly developed into the snowboards and other related equipment. [21] From these developments, modern snowboarding equipment usually consists of a snowboard with specialized bindings [22] and boots. [23]

In April 1981, the "King of the Mountain" Snowboard competition was held at Ski Cooper in Colorado. [24] Tom Sims along with an assortment of other snowboarders of the time were present. [25] One entrant showed up on a homemade snowboard with a formica bottom that turned out to not slide so well on the snow.

In 1982, the first USA National Snowboard race was held near Woodstock, Vermont, at Suicide Six. The race, organized by Graves, was won by Burton's first team rider Doug Bouton. [26]

In 1983, the first World Championship halfpipe competition was held at Soda Springs, California. Tom Sims, founder of Sims Snowboards, organized the event with the help of Mike Chantry, a snowboard instructor at Soda Springs. [27]

In 1985, the first World Cup was held in Zürs, Austria, [28] further cementing snowboarding's recognition as an official international competitive sport.

In 1990, the International Snowboard Federation (ISF) was founded to provide universal contest regulations. [29] In addition, the United States of America Snowboard Association (USASA) provides instructing guidelines and runs snowboard competitions in the U.S. today, high-profile snowboarding events like the Winter X Games, Air & Style, US Open, Olympic Games and other events are broadcast worldwide. Many alpine resorts have terrain parks.

At the 1998 Winter Olympic Games in Nagano, Japan, Snowboarding became an official Olympic event. [30] France's Karine Ruby was the first ever to win an Olympic gold medal for Woman's Snowboarding at the 1998 Olympics, while Canadian Ross Rebagliati [31] was the first ever to win an Olympic gold medal for Men's Snowboarding.

Initially, ski areas adopted the sport at a much slower pace than the winter sports public. Indeed, for many years, there was animosity between skiers and snowboarders, which led to an ongoing skier vs snowboarder feud. [32] Early snowboards were banned from the slopes by park officials. For several years snowboarders would have to take a small skills assessment prior to being allowed to ride the chairlifts. It was thought that an unskilled snowboarder would wipe the snow off the mountain. In 1985, only seven percent of U.S. ski areas allowed snowboarding, [33] with a similar proportion in Europe. As equipment and skills improved, gradually snowboarding became more accepted. In 1990, most major ski areas had separate slopes for snowboarders. Now, approximately 97% of all ski areas in North America and Europe allow snowboarding, and more than half have jumps, rails and half pipes.

In 2004, snowboarding had 6.6 million active participants. [34] An industry spokesman said that "twelve year-olds are out-riding adults." The same article said that most snowboarders are 18–24 years old and that women constitute 25% of participants.

There were 8.2 million snowboarders in the US and Canada for the 2009–2010 season. There was a 10% increase over the previous season, accounting for more than 30% of all snow sports participants. [35]

On 2 May 2012, the International Paralympic Committee announced that adaptive snowboarding (dubbed "para-snowboarding") would debut as a men's and women's medal event in the 2014 Paralympic Winter Games taking place in Sochi, Russia. [36]

Styles

Since snowboarding's inception as an established winter sport, it has developed various styles, each with its own specialized equipment and technique. The most common styles today are: freeride, freestyle, and freecarve/race. These styles are used for both recreational and professional snowboarding. While each style is unique, there is overlap between them.

Jibbing

"Jibbing" is the term for technical riding on non-standard surfaces. The word "jib" is both a noun and a verb, depending on the usage of the word. As a noun: a jib includes metal rails, boxes, benches, concrete ledges, walls, vehicles, rocks and logs. As a verb: to jib is referring to the action of jumping, sliding, or riding on top of objects other than snow. [37] It is directly influenced by grinding a skateboard. Jibbing is a freestyle snowboarding technique of riding. Typically jibbing occurs in a snowboard resort park but can also be done in urban environments.

Freeriding snowboarding Snowboarding in Hippach, Austria.jpg
Freeriding snowboarding

Freeriding

Freeriding is a style without a set of governing rules or set course, typically on natural, un-groomed terrain. The basic allows for various snowboarding styles in a fluid motion and spontaneity through naturally rugged terrain. It can be similar to freestyle with the exception that no man-made features are utilized. See also Backcountry snowboarding.

Freestyle snowboarding Snowboarding1.jpg
Freestyle snowboarding

Freestyle

Freestyle snowboarding is any riding that includes performing tricks. In freestyle, the rider utilizes natural and man-made features such as rails, jumps, boxes, and innumerable others to perform tricks. It is a popular all-inclusive concept that distinguishes the creative aspects of snowboarding, in contrast to a style like alpine snowboarding.

Alpine snowboarding

An Alpine snowboarder executes a heel-side carved turn, the typical style in alpine snowboarding Alpine boarder.JPG
An Alpine snowboarder executes a heel-side carved turn, the typical style in alpine snowboarding
Video of a snowboarder practicing carving on a hard slope, equipped with a boardercross board and hard boots

Alpine snowboarding is a discipline within the sport of snowboarding. [38] It is practiced on groomed pistes. It has been an Olympic event since 1998.

Sometimes called freecarving or hardbooting(due to the equipment used), this discipline usually takes place on hard packed snow or groomed runs(although it can be practiced in any and all conditions) and focuses on carving linked turns, much like surfing or longboarding, and is seen as superior to other disciplines in many Europeans countries.[ according to whom? ] Little or no jumping takes place in this discipline. Alpine Snowboarding consists of a small portion of the general snowboard population, that has a well connected social community and its own specific board manufacturers, most situated in Europe. Alpine Snowboard equipment includes a ski-like hardshell boot and plate binding system with a true directional snowboard that is stiffer and narrower to manage linking turns with greater forces and speed. [39] Shaped skis can thank these "freecarve" snowboards for the cutting-edge technology leading to their creation. [40] A skilled alpine snowboarder can link numerous turns into a run placing their body very close to the ground each turn, similar to a motocross turn or waterski carve. Depending on factors including stiffness, turning radius and personality this can be done slowly or fast. Carvers make perfect half-circles out of each turn, changing edges when the snowboard is perpendicular to the fall line and starting every turn on the downhill edge. Carving on a snowboard is like riding a roller coaster, because the board will lock into a turn radius and provide what feels like multiple Gs of acceleration. [41]

Alpine snowboarding shares more visual similarities with skiing equipment than it does with snowboarding equipment. [42] Compared to freestyle snowboarding gear: [43]

Snowboarder in Tannheim, Tyrol, Austria Snowboarder in flight (Tannheim, Austria).jpg
Snowboarder in Tannheim, Tyrol, Austria

Slopestyle

Competitors perform tricks while descending a course, moving around, over, across, up, or down terrain features. The course is full of obstacles including boxes, rails, jumps, jibs, or anything else the board or rider can slide across. Slopestyle is a judged event and winning a slopestyle contest usually comes from successfully executing the most difficult line in the terrain park while having a smooth flowing line of difficult, mistake-free tricks performed on the obstacles. However, overall impression and style can play factor in winning a slopestyle contest and the rider who lands the hardest tricks will not always win over the rider who lands easier tricks on more difficult paths.

Big air

Sebastien Toutant at the downtown Quebec big air competition Big air Quebec 2011.jpg
Sebastien Toutant at the downtown Québec big air competition
Snowboarder in the halfpipe Snowboarder in halfpipe.jpg
Snowboarder in the halfpipe

Big air competitions are contests where riders perform tricks after launching off a man made jump built specifically for the event. [44] Competitors perform tricks in the air, aiming to attain sizable height and distance, all while securing a clean landing. Many competitions also require the rider to do a complex trick. Not all competitions call for a trick to win the gold; some intermittent competitions are based solely on height and distance of the launch of the snowboarder. Some competitions also require the rider to do a specific trick to win the major prize. [45] One of the first snowboard competitions where Travis Rice attempted and landed a "double back flip backside 180" took place at the 2006 Red Bull Gap Session. [46]

Half-pipe

The half-pipe is a semi-circular ditch dug into the mountain or purpose-built ramp made up of snow, with walls between 8 and 23 feet (7.0 m). Competitors perform tricks while going from one side to the other and while in the air above the sides of the pipe.

Snowboard Cross

Snowboard Cross, also known as "Boardercross", "Boarder X", or "Snowboard X", and commonly abbreviated as "SBX", or just "BX", is a snowboarding discipline consisting of several (typically 4 to 6) riders racing head-to-head down a course with jumps, berms and other obstacles constructed out of snow. Snowboard cross began in the 1980s, earning its place as an official Winter Olympic event in the 2006 Turin games. Unlike other snowboard racing disciplines such as parallel giant slalom, competitors race on a single course together.

Snowboard racing

In snowboard racing, riders must complete a downhill course constructed of a series of turning color indicators (gates) placed in the snow at prescribed distances apart. A gate consists of a tall pole and a short pole, connected by a triangular panel. The racer must pass around the short side of the gate, passing the long side of the gate doesn't count. There are 3 main formats used in snowboard racing including; single person, parallel courses or multiple people on the course at the same time (SBX).

Competitions

Snowboarding contests are held throughout the world and range from grassroots competitions to professional events contested worldwide.

2016 Winter X Games in Aspen, Colorado. Winter X Games (4309318283).jpg
2016 Winter X Games in Aspen, Colorado.

Some of the larger snowboarding contests include: the European Air & Style, the Japanese X-Trail Jam, Burton Global Open Series, Shakedown, FIS World Championships, the annual FIS World Cup, the Winter X Games, Freeride World Tour and the Winter Dew Tour.

Snowboarding has been a Winter Olympic sport since 1998 Winter Olympics. Since its inauguration, Olympic snowboarding has seen many additions and removals of events. During the 2018 Winter Olympics, snowboarding events contested included big air, halfpipe, parallel giant slalom, slopestyle and snowboard cross.

Snowboarder Magazine's Superpark [47] event was created in 1996. Over 150 of the World's top pros are invited to advance freestyle snowboarding on the most progressive terrain parks. [48]

Part of the snowboarding approach is to ensure maximum fun, friendship and event quality. Reflecting this perspective of snowboarding, you can find "Anti Contests" including [49] are an important part of its identity including The Holy Oly Revival [50] at The Summit at Snoqualmie, The Nate Chute Hawaiian Classic at Whitefish, the original anti-contest, the World Quarterpipe Championships and the Grenade Games.

The United States of America Snowboarding and Freeski Association (USASA) features grassroots-level competitions designed to be a stepping stone for aspiring athletes looking to progress up the competition pipeline. The USASA consists of 36 regional series in which anyone can compete against athletes in a multitude of classes. For snowboarding, USASA contests regional events in six primary disciplines (Slalom, Giant Slalom, Slopestyle, Halfpipe, Boardercross, and Rail Jam), where competitors earn points towards a national ranking and qualify to compete at the USASA National Championships.

Subculture

The snowboarding way of life came about as a natural response to the culture from which it emerged. Early on, there was a rebellion against skiing culture and the view that snowboarders were inferior. Skiers did not easily accept this new culture on their slopes. The two cultures contrasted each other in several ways including how they spoke, acted, and their entire style of clothing. Snowboarders first embraced the punk and later the hip-hop look into their style. Words such as "dude", "gnarly", and "Shred the Gnar" are some examples of words used in the snowboarding culture. Snowboarding subculture became a crossover between the urban and suburban styles on snow, which made an easy transition from surfing and skateboarding culture over to snowboarding culture. [51] In fact many skateboarders and surfers in the winter months snowboarded, and were the early snowboarders. [52]

The early stereotypes of snowboarding included "lazy", "grungy", "punk", "stoners", "troublemakers", and numerous others, many of which are associated with skateboarding and surfing as well. However, these stereotypes may be considered "out of style". Snowboarding has become a sport that encompasses a very diverse international based crowd and fanbase of many millions, so much so that it is no longer possible to stereotype such a large community. Reasons for these dying stereotypes include how mainstream and popular the sport has become, with the shock factor of snowboarding's quick take off on the slopes wearing off. Skiers and snowboarders are becoming used to each other, showing more respect to each other on the mountain. "The typical stereotype of the sport is changing as the demographics change". [53] While these two subcultures are now becoming accustomed to each other, there are still three resorts, in the United States, which do not allow snowboarding. Alta, Deer Valley, and Mad River Glen are the last skiing only resorts in North America and have become a focal point over time for the remaining animosity between snowboarding and skiing.

Safety and precautions

Like some other winter sports, snowboarding comes with a certain level of risk. [54]

The injury rate for snowboarding is about four to six per thousand persons per day, which is around double the injury rate for alpine skiing. [55] Injuries are more likely amongst beginners, especially those who do not take lessons with professional instructors. A quarter of all injuries occur to first-time riders and half of all injuries occur to those with less than a year of experience. Experienced riders are less likely to suffer injury, but the injuries that do occur tend to be more severe. [56]

Two thirds of injuries occur to the upper body and one third to the lower body. This contrasts with alpine skiing where two thirds of injuries are to the lower body. The most common types of injuries are sprains, which account for around 40% of injuries. [57] The most common point of injury is the wrists – 40% of all snowboard injuries are to the wrists and 24% of all snowboard injuries are wrist fractures. [56] There are around 100,000 wrist fractures worldwide among snowboarders each year. [58] For this reason the use of wrist guards, either separate or built into gloves, is very strongly recommended. They are often compulsory in beginner's classes and their use reduces the likelihood of wrist injury by half. [59] In addition it is important for snow boarders to learn how to fall without stopping the fall with their hand by trying to "push" the slope away, as landing a wrist which is bent at a 90 degree angle increase the chance of it breaking. Rather, landing with the arms stretched out (like a wing) and slapping the slope with the entire arm is an effective way to break a fall. This is the method used by practitioners of judo and other martial arts to break a fall when they are thrown against the floor by a training partner.

The risk of head injury is two to six times greater for snowboarders than for skiers and injuries follow the pattern of being rarer, but more severe, with experienced riders. Head injuries can occur both as a consequence of a collision and when failing to carry out a heel-side turn. The latter can result in the rider landing on his or her back and slamming the back of his or her head onto the ground, resulting in an occipital head injury. [60] For this reason, helmets are widely recommended. Protective eyewear is also recommended as eye injury can be caused by impact and snow blindness can be a result of exposure to strong ultra-violet light in snow-covered areas. The wearing of ultra-violet-absorbing goggles is recommended even on hazy or cloudy days as ultra-violet light can penetrate clouds. [61]

Unlike ski bindings, snowboard bindings are not designed to release automatically in a fall. The mechanical support provided by the feet being locked to the board has the effect of reducing the likelihood of knee injury – 15% of snowboard injuries are to the knee, compared with 45% of all skiing injuries. Such injuries are typically to the knee ligaments, bone fractures are rare. [56] Fractures to the lower leg are also rare but 20% of injuries are to the foot and ankle. Fractures of the talus bone are rare in other sports but account for 2% of snowboard injuries – a lateral process talus fracture is sometimes called "snowboarder's ankle" by medical staff. This particular injury results in persistent lateral pain in the affected ankle yet is difficult to spot in a plain X-ray image. It may be misdiagnosed as just a sprain, with possibly serious consequences as not treating the fracture can result in serious long-term damage to the ankle. [56] The use of portable ultrasound for mountainside diagnostics has been reviewed and appears to be a plausible tool for diagnosing some of the common injuries associated with the sport. [62]

Four to eight percent of snowboarding injuries take place while the person is waiting in ski-lift lines or entering and exiting ski lifts. Snowboarders push themselves forward with a free foot while in the ski-lift line, leaving the other foot (usually that of the lead leg) locked on the board at a 9–27 degree angle, placing a large torque force on this leg and predisposing the person to knee injury if a fall occurs. [63] [64] Snowboard binding rotating devices are designed to minimize the torque force, Quick Stance [65] being the first developed in 1995. [66] They allow snowboarders to turn the locked foot straight into the direction of the tip of the snowboard without removing the boot from the boot binding.

Avalanches are a clear danger when on snowy mountain slopes. [67] It is best to learn the different kinds of avalanches, how to prevent causing one and how to react when one is going to happen. Also when going out onto the snow, all who practice an activity with increased chances of injury should have a basic First Aid knowledge and know how to deal with injuries that may occur. [68]

Snowboarding boots should be well-fitted, with toes snug in the end of the boot when standing upright and slightly away from the end when in the snowboarding position. [69] Padding or "armor" is recommended on other body parts such as hips, knees, spine, and shoulders. To further help avoid injury to body parts, especially knees, it is recommended to use the right technique. To acquire the right technique, one should be taught by a qualified instructor. Also, when snowboarding alone, precaution should be taken to avoid tree wells, a particularly dangerous area of loose snow that may form at the base of trees.

Some care is also required when waxing a board as fluorocarbon waxes emit toxic fumes when overheated. Waxing is best performed in a ventilated area with care being taken to use the wax at the correct temperature – the wax should be melted but not smoking or smoldering. [60]

In a study conducted to examine the types of snowboarding injuries and changes in injury patterns over time, data was collected on injured snowboarders and skiers in a base-lodge clinic of a ski resort in Vermont over 18 seasons (1988–2006) and included extensive information about injury patterns, demographics, and experience. In conclusion of the study, the highest rate of injury was among young, inexperienced, female snowboarders. Injury rates in snowboarders have fluctuated over time but still remain higher than skiers. No evidence was found that those who spend more time in terrain parks are over represented in the injury population. [70]

Media

Films

Snowboarding films have become a main part of progression in the sport. Each season, many films are released, usually in autumn. These are made by many snowboard-specific video production companies as well as manufacturing companies that use these films as a form of advertisement. Snowboarding videos usually contain video footage of professional riders sponsored by companies. An example of commercial use of snowboarding films would be The White Album , a film by snowboarding legend and filmmaker Dave Seoane about Shaun White, that includes cameos by Tony Hawk and was sponsored by PlayStation, Mountain Dew and Burton Snowboards. Snowboarding films are also used as documentation of snowboarding and showcasing of current trends and styles of the sport. In addition, the 2011 movie The Art of Flight showcased snowboarders such as Travis Rice attempting to attain greater feats in the sport of snowboarding.

However, sometimes the snowboarding industry is not supportive of all snowboarding-themed films. In 2013, The Crash Reel , a feature-length documentary by filmmaker Lucy Walker about former Shaun White rival Kevin Pearce, premiered on the film festival circuit to critical acclaim and was subsequently broadcast on HBO. Using Pearce's career-ending traumatic brain injury and subsequent recovery as a backdrop, the film examines the physical dangers inherent to pro snowboarders and other extreme sports professional athletes under pressure by sponsors and the media to perform increasingly spectacular feats. [71] Although there are significant references to various brands in the film, Walker is "adamant" that the snowboarding industry did not sponsor the film in any way and in fact has been unsupportive, [72] despite the film's mainstream media success.

Magazines

Snowboard magazines are integral in promoting the sport, although less so with the advent of the internet age. Photo incentives are written into many professional riders' sponsorship contracts giving professionals not only a publicity but a financial incentive to have a photo published in a magazine. Snowboard magazine staff travel with professional riders throughout the winter season and cover travel, contests, lifestyle, rider and company profiles, and product reviews. Snowboard magazines have recently made a push to expand their brands to the online market, and there has also been a growth in online-only publications. Popular magazines include Transworld Snowboarding (USA), Snowboarder Magazine (USA), Snowboard Magazine (USA), and Whitelines (UK).

Video games

Snowboarding video games provide interactive entertainment on and off season. Most games for this genre have been made for consoles, such as the Xbox and PlayStation. A plethora of online casual snowboarding games also exist along with games for mobile phone.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Snowboard</span> Winter sport equipment

Snowboards are boards where the user places both feet, usually secured, to the same board. The board itself is wider than most skis, with the ability to glide on snow. Snowboards widths are between 6 and 12 inches or 15 to 30 centimeters. Snowboards are differentiated from monoskis by the stance of the user. In monoskiing, the user stands with feet inline with direction of travel, whereas in snowboarding, users stand with feet transverse to the longitude of the board. Users of such equipment may be referred to as snowboarders. Commercial snowboards generally require extra equipment such as bindings and special boots which help secure both feet of a snowboarder, who generally ride in an upright position. These types of boards are commonly used by people at ski hills, mountains, backcountry, or resorts for leisure, entertainment, and competitive purposes in the activity called snowboarding.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Skiing</span> Recreational activity and sport using snow skis

Skiing is the use of skis to glide on snow. Variations of purpose include basic transport, a recreational activity, or a competitive winter sport. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the International Ski Federation (FIS).

Boardsports are active outdoor sports that are played with some sort of board as the primary equipment. These sports take place on a variety of terrain, from paved flat-ground and snow-covered hills to water and air. Most boardsports are considered action sports or extreme sports, and thus often appeal to youth. Some board sports were marginalized in the past. However, many board sports are gaining mainstream recognition, and with this recognition have enjoyed wider broadcast, sponsorship and inclusion in institutional sporting events, including the Olympic Games.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Terrain park</span>

A terrain park or snow park is an outdoor recreation area containing terrain that allows skiers, snowboarders and snowbikers to perform tricks. Terrain parks have their roots in skateparks and many of the features are common to both.

Terje Håkonsen is a Norwegian professional snowboarder. He is considered one of the most influential snowboarders in the history of the sport. In the book The way of the snowboarder, Rob Reed wrote that "Haakonsen took the young sport of snowboarding and revolutionized nearly every aspect of it".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Snowskate</span>

A snowskate is a hybrid of a skateboard and a snowboard, intended primarily to allow for skateboard-style tricks on the snow. There are many types depending on the brand or style of snowskate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Snowkiting</span> Outdoor individual winter sport using kite power to glide on snow or ice

Snowkiting or kite skiing is an outdoor winter sport where people use kite power to glide on snow or ice. The skier uses a kite to give them power over large jumps. The sport is similar to water-based kiteboarding, but with the footwear used in snowboarding or skiing. The principles of using the kite are the same, but in different terrain. In the early days of snowkiting, foil kites were the most common type; nowadays many kiteboarders use inflatable kites. However, since 2013, newly developed racing foil kites seem to dominate speed races and expedition races, like Red Bull Ragnarok and the Vake mini-expedition race. Snowkiting differs from other alpine sports in that it is possible for the snowkiter to travel uphill and downhill with any wind direction. Like kiteboarding, snowkiting can be very hazardous and should be learned and practiced with care. Snowkiting has become more popular in places often associated with skiing and snowboarding, such as Russia, Canada, Iceland, France, Switzerland, Austria, Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Northern and Central United States. The sport has become more diverse as adventurers use kites to travel great distances and sports enthusiasts push the boundaries of freestyle, big air, speed and back country exploration.

Jake Burton Carpenter, occasionally also known as Jake Burton or Jakie, was an American snowboarder founder of Burton Snowboards and one of the inventors of the modern day snowboard. A native of New York, he grew up in Cedarhurst, New York.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antti Autti</span> Finnish snowboarder

Antti-Matias Antero Autti is a Finnish snowboarding star who shot to fame when he defeated big-name talents Danny Kass, Andy Finch, and Shaun White in the Men's Superpipe at the 2005 Winter X Games to claim the gold. He is one of two snowboarders, along with Steve Fisher, ever to beat Shaun White in the X Games Superpipe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Freeriding (sport)</span>

Freeriding is a style of snowboarding or skiing performed on natural, un-groomed terrain, without a set course, goals or rules. It evolved throughout the sport's formative early years as a contrary response to the highly regimented style of ski competition prevalent at the time. Snowboarders primarily refer to freeriding as backcountry, sidecountry, or off-piste snowboarding, and sometimes big mountain or extreme riding.

Burton Snowboards is a privately-owned snowboard manufacturing company that was founded by Jake Burton Carpenter in 1977. The company specializes in products aimed at snowboarders, such as snowboards, bindings, boots, outerwear, and accessories. The company, whose flagship store is in Burlington, Vermont, is privately owned: by Jake Burton Carpenter, until his death in 2019, and by his wife, Donna Carpenter, who has been active in the business since 1983.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Snurfer</span>

The Snurfer was the predecessor of the snowboard. It was a monoski, ridden like a snowboard, but like a skateboard or surfboard, it had no binding. According to the 1966 patent by inventor Sherman Poppen, it was wider and shorter than a pair of skis, with an anti-skid foot rest. Like a sled, it had a lanyard attached to the front.

Alexis Waite, is an American professional snowboarder. She learned to snowboard when she was 12 years old near her hometown of Seattle. Currently residing in Albuquerque, New Mexico teaching yoga Hotel Chaco and leading retreats La Vida Retreats and making custom jewelry Feral Stone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">U.S. Snowboarding</span>

U.S. Snowboarding, the snowboarding arm of the United States Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA), is committed to the progression of snowboarding by providing athletic programs, services, and competitions for male and female athletes of all ages, coast-to-coast.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Backcountry snowboarding</span>

Backcountry snowboarding is snowboarding in a sparsely inhabited rural region over ungroomed and unmarked slopes or pistes in the backcountry, frequently amongst trees, usually in pursuit of fresh fallen snow, known as powder. Often, the land and the snow pack are not monitored, patrolled, or maintained. Fixed mechanical means of ascent such as ski lifts are typically not present, but alternative means such as splitboarding, hiking, snow shoeing and helicopters ("heliskiing") are sometimes used to reach the mountain's peak.

Danny Davis is a professional snowboarder. He was voted 2006 Rookie of the Year in the Transworld Snowboarding Riders Poll Awards, 2006 Rookie of the Year for Snowboarder Magazine, and 2008 Snowboarder Magazine Top 10 Riders of the Year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jamie Anderson (snowboarder)</span> American professional snowboarder

Jamie Louise Anderson is an American professional snowboarder. She won the gold medal in the inaugural Women's Slopestyle Event at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia and repeated the feat at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, making her the first female snowboarder to win more than one Olympic gold medal. She has won gold medals in slopestyle at the Winter X Games in consecutive years in 2007/8 and 2012/3. She has 25 total medals: eighteen gold, five silver, and two bronze.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Half-pipe skiing</span> Sport of riding snow skis on a half-pipe

Half-pipe skiing is the sport of riding snow skis on a half-pipe. Competitors perform a series of tricks while going down the pipe. The current world record for highest jump in a half-pipe is held by Joffrey Pollet-Villard, with 26 feet 3 inches. The sport is considered to be dangerous compared to other sports, and helmets are required to be worn during competitions. Half-pipe skiing has been part of the Winter X Games since 2002, and made its Olympic debut at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. David Wise of the United States of America became the first Olympic champion in this discipline with a total of 92.00 points.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ester Ledecká</span> Czech snowboarder and skier (born 1995)

Ester Ledecká is a Czech snowboarder and alpine skier. At the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, Ledecká won gold medals in the super-G in alpine skiing and in the parallel giant slalom in snowboarding, becoming the first person to not only compete in the Winter Olympics using two different types of equipment but further to win two gold medals and do so at the same Winter Olympics. She was the second woman to win Olympic gold in two separate disciplines but the first to do so at the same Winter Olympics. She was the first Czech to win the parallel giant slalom in snowboarding at the FIS Snowboard World Cup.

This glossary of skiing and snowboarding terms is a list of definitions of terms and jargon used in skiing, snowboarding, and related winter sports.

References

  1. "Snowboard equipment and history". International Olympic Committee. 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  2. "About IPC Snowboard". International Paralympic Committee. March 2016. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  3. Sheridan, Tom (February 22, 2015). "Is Snowboarding Melting in Popularity?". Orange County Register . p. News 3. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  4. "SNOWBOARDING'S GROWING PAINS". Tahoe Quarterly. October 4, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  5. Sisjord, Mari Kristin (December 1, 2013). "Women's snowboarding – some experiences and perceptions of competition". Leisure Studies. 32 (5): 507–523. doi:10.1080/02614367.2012.685334. hdl:11250/218904. ISSN   0261-4367. S2CID   144101427.
  6. "American English | A Website for Teachers and Learners of English As a Foreign Language Abroad" (PDF). Exchanges.state.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  7. "Muskegon Area Sports Hall of Fame - History of the Snurfer, Snurfing and the sport of Snowboarding - 1968". www.mashf.com. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
  8. Chamber, Creation. "SIMS Snowboards History". www.simsnow.com. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
  9. "Tom Sims: Snowboarding pioneer and world champion who became a Bond". The Independent. September 22, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  10. "Dry Slope Skiing - What It Means to Us". Snow.Guide. June 28, 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  11. "Snowboarding History – RideDaily.com". ridedaily.com. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  12. "Men's Snowboards". Burton Snowboards. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  13. "History of Snowboarding". bulgariaski.com. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
  14. "National Snurfing Championship - 1978, Muskegon, MI." Muskegon Area Sports Hall of Fame.
  15. "National Snurfing Championship - 1979, Muskegon, MI." Muskegon Area Sports Hall of Fame.
  16. "Grand Rapids Press". Grand Rapids Press. Grand Rapids, Michigan. January 15, 2008. pp. B1–B2. Archived from the original on October 18, 2000.
  17. "main page". Pando website. Retrieved January 16, 2008.
  18. "Монолыжа — SU 1391670".
  19. "Монолыжа — SU 1584972".
  20. "Монолыжа — SU 1584971".
  21. "First Stoke". SnowBoard Education. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
  22. "Snowboard Bindings - Snowboard Equipment - Mechanics of Snowboarding". www.mechanicsofsport.com. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  23. "Snowboard Boots - Snowboarding Equipment - Mechanics of Snowboarding". www.mechanicsofsport.com. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  24. Moran, Lauren. "Snowboarding History: Technology boosts snowboarding growth in 1980s". www.summitdaily.com. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
  25. Rebagliati, Ross (2009). Off the Chain: An Insider's History of Snowboarding. Greystone Books Ltd. p. 19. ISBN   978-1-55365-487-2.
  26. "Snowboard History". the beginning of Snowboarding. Retrieved January 17, 2008.
  27. "Transworld Snowboarding". A Complete History of the Snowboard Halfpipe. Archived from the original on January 10, 2008. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
  28. Kenetics, Human; Schrag, Myles (December 14, 2018). The Sports Rules Book. Human Kinetics. p. 255. ISBN   978-1-4925-6759-2.
  29. Winand, Mathieu; Anagnostopoulos, Christos (2019). Research Handbook on Sport Governance. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 172. ISBN   978-1-78643-482-1.
  30. "Olympic Snowboarding - Winter Olympic Sport". International Olympic Committee. December 3, 2020. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
  31. Ross Rebagliati
  32. "Skiers vs Snow boarders: The Dying Feud". Snowsphere.com. October 1, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  33. Corporation, Xap. "CFNC.org - Cluster Article". www1.cfnc.org. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  34. Marquardt, Katy (September 29, 2008). "Burton Snowboards Is King of the Hill". U.S. News & World Report .
  35. Mike Lewis (June 29, 2011). "snowboard participation increases 10%". Transworld Business.
  36. "Para-Snowboard Included in Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games | IPC". Paralympic.org. May 28, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
  37. "Jib - Snowboard - Definitions - Glossary". Snowboarding.about.com. April 9, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  38. "Snowboard World Cup - Alpine Snowboard". FIS. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  39. "Alpine Snowboarding - Using a rigid setup for carving and control". Snowboard-Coach.com. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  40. "How to Buy an Alpine Snowboard" (PDF). 2005. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
  41. "The Carver's Almanac - Hard booting and carving on an alpine snowboard". Alpinecarving.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  42. "Alpine snowboarding" . Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  43. "Alpine Snowboarding" . Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  44. "Making it Big in Big Air". Archived from the original on March 11, 2016.
  45. "Big air competitions" . Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  46. "Search Results". snowrev.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010.
  47. Snowboardermag.com Archived June 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  48. Snowboarder-community.com Archived April 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  49. "The Anti Contests". Yobeat.com. February 5, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  50. Summitatsnoqualmie.com Archived February 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  51. Heino, Rebecca (2000). "New Sports: What is So Punk about Snowboarding". Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 24, 176-199. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from EBSCOHost.
  52. Heino, Rebecca (2000). "New Sports: What is So Punk about Snowboarding". Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 24, 176-199. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from EBSCOHost.
  53. BYU NewsNet - Snowboarder stereotype squelched Archived 2008-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
  54. "Snowboarding Safety & Guidelines". Abc-of-snowboarding.com. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  55. Roberts, William O. (February 2004). Bull's Handbook of Sports Injuries. McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 550. ISBN   0-07-140291-8.
  56. 1 2 3 4 Roberts, William O. (February 2004). Bull's Handbook of Sports Injuries. McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 555. ISBN   0-07-140291-8.
  57. Bladin, C.; McCrory, P. (1995). "Snowboarding Injuries - An Overview". Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.). Sports-Med. 19 (5): 358–64. doi:10.2165/00007256-199519050-00005. PMID   7618012. S2CID   9918887.
  58. "Snowboarding Injuries - Wrist Fractures". Abc-of-snowboarding.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  59. Roberts, William O. (February 2004). Bull's Handbook of Sports Injuries. McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 556. ISBN   0-07-140291-8.
  60. 1 2 Roberts, William O. (February 2004). Bull's Handbook of Sports Injuries. McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 557. ISBN   0-07-140291-8.
  61. Peterson, Lars; Renstrom, Per (February 2001). Sports Injuries, Their Prevention and Treatment. Martin Dunitz. p. 464. ISBN   1-85317-119-0.
  62. Nowak, M. R.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Bouffard, J. A.; Amponsah, D.; Dulchavsky, S. A. (March 2009). "Snowboarding injuries: a review of the literature and an analysis of the potential use of portable ultrasound for mountainside diagnostics". Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2 (1): 25–9. doi:10.1007/s12178-008-9040-5. PMC   2684950 . PMID   19468915.
  63. Davidson TM, Laliotis AT (1996) Snowboarding injuries, a four-year study with comparison with alpine ski injuries. West J Med; p.231
  64. Callé SC, Evans JT. (1995) Snowboarding trauma. J Pediatr Surg; p.791
  65. "Quick Stance Website". Quickstance.com. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  66. "United States Patent: 1995". Patft.uspto.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  67. "Snowboarding Safety - Avalanche Awareness". Abc-of-snowboarding.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  68. "Ski Safety - First Aid for Snowboarding & Skiing". Abc-of-snowboarding.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  69. "Best Way to Choose Right Snowboard Bindings". Extremepedia. October 27, 2015. Archived from the original on October 26, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  70. Kim, Suezie; Endres, N. K.; Johnson, R. J. (April 1, 2012). "Snowboarding Injuries Trends Over Time and Comparisons With Alpine Skiing Injuries". American Journal of Sports Medicine. 40 (4): 770–776. doi:10.1177/0363546511433279. PMID   22268231. S2CID   9892333.
  71. "Home". The Crash Reel. January 19, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
  72. POV | American Documentary Inc. "And Now A Word NOT From Our Sponsors | Doc Soup | POV Blog". PBS. Retrieved November 13, 2013.