Giant slalom

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A skier attacks a gate in GS Iver Bjerkestrand giant slalom Norway 2011.jpg
A skier attacks a gate in GS

Giant slalom (GS) is an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline. It involves skiing between sets of poles (gates) spaced at a greater distance from each other than in slalom but less than in Super-G.

Contents

Giant slalom and slalom make up the technical events in alpine ski racing. This category separates them from the speed events of Super-G and downhill. The technical events are normally composed of two runs, held on different courses on the same ski run.

Course

The vertical drop for a GS course must be 250–450 m (820–1,480 ft) for men, and 250–400 m (820–1,310 ft) for women. The number of gates in this event is 56–70 for men and 46–58 for women. The number of direction changes in a GS course equals 11–15% of the vertical drop of the course in metres, 13–18% for children. As an example, a course with a vertical drop of 300 m (984 ft) would have 33–45 direction changes for an adult race. [1]

Speed

Olympian Lotte Smiseth Sejersted
in a GS race Lotte Smiseth Sejersted women's giant slalom Norway 2011 (jump).jpg
Olympian Lotte Smiseth Sejersted
in a GS race

Although giant slalom is not the fastest event in skiing, on average a well-trained racer may reach average speeds of 40 km/h (25 mph).

Equipment

Top: giant slalom skis from 2006,
bottom: slalom skis. Skis carving race cross slalom 02.jpg
Top: giant slalom skis from 2006,
bottom: slalom skis.

Giant slalom skis are shorter than super-G and downhill skis, and longer than slalom skis.

In an attempt to increase safety for the 2003–04 season, the International Ski Federation (FIS) increased the minimum sidecut radius for giant slalom skis to 21 m (69 ft) and for the first time imposed minimum ski lengths for GS: 185 cm (72.8 in) for men and 180 cm (70.9 in) for women. A maximum stand height (the distance from the snow to the sole of the boot) of 55 mm (2.17 in) was also established for all disciplines.

In May 2006, the FIS announced further changes to the rules governing equipment. Beginning with the 2007–08 season, the minimum radius for GS skis was increased to 27 m (89 ft) for men and 23 m (75 ft) for women. Additionally, the minimum ski width at the waist was increased from 60 to 65 mm (2.36 to 2.56 in), and the maximum stand height for all disciplines was reduced to 50 mm (1.97 in). [1] The best skiers tended to use a bigger sidecut radius, like Ted Ligety at 29 m (95 ft), and Lindsey Vonn at 27 m (89 ft).

For the 2012–13 season, the FIS increased the sidecut radius to 35 m (115 ft) and the minimal length to 195 cm (76.8 in). Many athletes criticized this decision. Often David Dodge was cited. Dodge argues that FIS used studies which do not represent a scientific proof. He states that it is well known that if one tips the ski 7° more the 35 m ski will have the same turning radius as the 28 m ski. He states as well that knee injuries are decreasing since the 1990s, when carving skis started to be used. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

History

The first giant slalom was set in 1935 on the Mottarone in Italy, over the Lake Maggiore, near Stresa, on January 20. [7] After one month, the second giant slalom was set on the Marmolada in Italy's Dolomite mountains, by Guenther Langes. [8]

The giant slalom was added to the world championships in 1950 at Aspen, Colorado, and debuted at the Winter Olympics in 1952 at Oslo, Norway, run at Norefjell. The GS has been run in every world championships and Olympics since. Originally a one-run event, a second run was added for men at the world championships in 1966, run on consecutive days, and at the Olympics in 1968. The second run for women was added at the world championships in 1978, and made its Olympic debut in 1980.

The world championships changed to a one-day format for the giant slalom in 1974, but the Olympics continued the GS as a two-day event through 1980. Also scheduled for two days in 1984, both giant slaloms became one-day events after repeated postponements of the downhills. Following the extra races added to the program in 1988, the GS has been scheduled as a one-day event at the Olympics.

Upon its introduction, giant slalom briefly displaced the combined event at the world championships; it was absent in 1950 and 1952. The combined returned in 1954 in Åre, Sweden, but as a "paper race," using the results of the three events (downhill, giant slalom, and slalom), a format used through 1980. The combined returned as a stand-alone event at the world championships in 1982 at Schladming, Austria, and at the 1988 Calgary Olympics. It was changed to the super-combined format (one run of slalom on same day as downhill) at the world championships in 2007 and the Olympics in 2010.

Men's World Cup podiums

In the following table men's giant slalom World Cup podiums from the World Cup first edition in 1967. [9]

Season1st2nd3rd
1967 Flag of France.svg Jean-Claude Killy Flag of France.svg Georges Mauduit Flag of the United States.svg Jimmy Heuga
1968 Flag of France.svg Jean-Claude Killy Flag of Switzerland.svg Edmund Bruggmann Flag of Austria.svg Herbert Huber
1969 Flag of Austria.svg Karl Schranz Flag of Austria.svg Reinhard Tritscher Flag of France.svg Jean-Noel Augert
1970 Flag of Italy.svg Gustav Thöni Flag of Switzerland.svg Patrick Russel
Flag of France.svg Dumeng Giovanoli
1971 Flag of Italy.svg Gustav Thöni
Flag of France.svg Patrick Russel
Flag of Switzerland.svg Edmund Bruggmann
1972 Flag of Italy.svg Gustav Thöni Flag of Switzerland.svg Edmund Bruggmann Flag of France.svg Rogers Rossat-Mignod
1973 Flag of Austria.svg Hans Hinterseer Flag of Norway.svg Erik Håker Flag of Switzerland.svg Adolf Rösti
1974 Flag of Italy.svg Piero Gros Flag of Austria.svg Hans Hinterseer Flag of Italy.svg Gustav Thöni
1975 Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark Flag of Italy.svg Piero Gros Flag of Norway.svg Erik Håker
1976 Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark Flag of Italy.svg Gustav Thöni Flag of Italy.svg Piero Gros
1977 Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark
Flag of Switzerland.svg Heini Hemmi
Flag of Austria.svg Klaus Heidegger
1978 Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Andreas Wenzel Flag of the United States.svg Phil Mahre
1979 Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark Flag of Switzerland.svg Peter Lüscher Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Bojan Križaj
1980 Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark Flag of Austria.svg Hans Enn Flag of Switzerland.svg Jacques Lüthy
1981 Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Alexander Zhirov Flag of the United States.svg Phil Mahre
1982 Flag of the United States.svg Phil Mahre Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark Flag of Luxembourg.svg Marc Girardelli
1983 Flag of the United States.svg Phil Mahre Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark
Flag of Switzerland.svg Max Julen
1984 Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark
Flag of Switzerland.svg Pirmin Zurbriggen
Flag of Austria.svg Hans Enn
1985 Flag of Luxembourg.svg Marc Girardelli Flag of Switzerland.svg Pirmin Zurbriggen Flag of Switzerland.svg Thomas Bürgler
1986 Flag of Switzerland.svg Joël Gaspoz Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark Flag of Austria.svg Hubert Strolz
1987 Flag of Switzerland.svg Pirmin Zurbriggen
Flag of Switzerland.svg Joël Gaspoz
Flag of Italy.svg Richard Pramotton
1988 Flag of Italy.svg Alberto Tomba Flag of Austria.svg Hubert Strolz Flag of Austria.svg Helmut Mayer
1989 Flag of Norway.svg Ole Kristian Furuseth
Flag of Switzerland.svg Pirmin Zurbriggen
Flag of Austria.svg Rudolf Nierlich
1990 Flag of Austria.svg Günther Mader
Flag of Norway.svg Ole Kristian Furuseth
Flag of Austria.svg Hubert Strolz
1991 Flag of Italy.svg Alberto Tomba Flag of Austria.svg Rudolf Nierlich Flag of Luxembourg.svg Marc Girardelli
1992 Flag of Italy.svg Alberto Tomba Flag of Switzerland.svg Hans Pieren Flag of Switzerland.svg Paul Accola
1993 Flag of Norway.svg Kjetil André Aamodt Flag of Italy.svg Alberto Tomba Flag of Luxembourg.svg Marc Girardelli
1994 Flag of Austria.svg Christian Mayer Flag of Norway.svg Kjetil André Aamodt Flag of France.svg Franck Piccard
1995 Flag of Italy.svg Alberto Tomba Flag of Slovenia.svg Jure Košir Flag of Norway.svg Harald Strand Nilsen
1996 Flag of Switzerland.svg Michael von Grünigen Flag of Switzerland.svg Urs Kälin Flag of Norway.svg Lasse Kjus
1997 Flag of Switzerland.svg Michael von Grünigen Flag of Norway.svg Kjetil André Aamodt Flag of Austria.svg Hans Knauß
1998 Flag of Austria.svg Hermann Maier Flag of Switzerland.svg Michael von Grünigen Flag of Austria.svg Christian Mayer
1999 Flag of Switzerland.svg Michael von Grünigen Flag of Austria.svg Stephan Eberharter Flag of Austria.svg Hermann Maier
2000 Flag of Austria.svg Hermann Maier Flag of Austria.svg Christian Mayer Flag of Switzerland.svg Michael von Grünigen
2001 Flag of Austria.svg Hermann Maier Flag of Switzerland.svg Michael von Grünigen Flag of the United States.svg Erik Schlopy
2002 Flag of France.svg Frederic Covili Flag of Austria.svg Benjamin Raich Flag of Austria.svg Stephan Eberharter
2003 Flag of Switzerland.svg Michael von Grünigen Flag of the United States.svg Bode Miller Flag of Austria.svg Hans Knauß
2004 Flag of the United States.svg Bode Miller Flag of Finland.svg Kalle Palander Flag of Italy.svg Massimiliano Blardone
2005 Flag of Austria.svg Benjamin Raich Flag of the United States.svg Bode Miller Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Thomas Grandi
2006 Flag of Austria.svg Benjamin Raich Flag of Italy.svg Massimiliano Blardone Flag of Sweden.svg Fredrik Nyberg
2007 Flag of Norway.svg Aksel Lund Svindal Flag of Italy.svg Massimiliano Blardone Flag of Austria.svg Benjamin Raich
2008 Flag of the United States.svg Ted Ligety Flag of Austria.svg Benjamin Raich Flag of Italy.svg Manfred Mölgg
2009 Flag of Switzerland.svg Didier Cuche Flag of Austria.svg Benjamin Raich Flag of the United States.svg Ted Ligety
2010 Flag of the United States.svg Ted Ligety Flag of Switzerland.svg Carlo Janka Flag of Austria.svg Benjamin Raich
2011 Flag of the United States.svg Ted Ligety Flag of Norway.svg Aksel Lund Svindal Flag of France.svg Cyprien Richard
2012 Flag of Austria.svg Marcel Hirscher Flag of the United States.svg Ted Ligety Flag of Italy.svg Massimiliano Blardone
2013 Flag of the United States.svg Ted Ligety Flag of Austria.svg Marcel Hirscher Flag of France.svg Alexis Pinturault
2014 Flag of the United States.svg Ted Ligety Flag of Austria.svg Marcel Hirscher Flag of France.svg Alexis Pinturault
2015 Flag of Austria.svg Marcel Hirscher Flag of France.svg Alexis Pinturault Flag of the United States.svg Ted Ligety
2016 Flag of Austria.svg Marcel Hirscher Flag of France.svg Alexis Pinturault Flag of Norway.svg Henrik Kristoffersen
2017 Flag of Austria.svg Marcel Hirscher Flag of France.svg Mathieu Faivre Flag of France.svg Alexis Pinturault
2018 Flag of Austria.svg Marcel Hirscher Flag of Norway.svg Henrik Kristoffersen Flag of France.svg Alexis Pinturault
2019 Flag of Austria.svg Marcel Hirscher Flag of Norway.svg Henrik Kristoffersen Flag of France.svg Alexis Pinturault
2020 Flag of Norway.svg Henrik Kristoffersen Flag of France.svg Alexis Pinturault Flag of Croatia.svg Filip Zubčić

Men's most podiums in World Cup

Skiers having most podium in FIS Alpine Ski World Cup. [10]

  Still active

Updated to 10 March 2021.

#SkierTotalLast
1 Flag of Sweden.svg Ingemar Stenmark 7219-02-1989
2 Flag of Austria.svg Marcel Hirscher 5924-02-2019
3 Flag of Switzerland.svg Michael von Grünigen 4615-03-2003
4 Flag of the United States.svg Ted Ligety 4128-01-2018
5 Flag of France.svg Alexis Pinturault 3628-02-2021
6 Flag of Austria.svg Benjamin Raich 3501-03-2015
7 Flag of Italy.svg Alberto Tomba 3106-01-1998
8 Flag of Austria.svg Hermann Maier 2823-10-2005
9 Flag of the United States.svg Phil Mahre 2605-03-1984
10 Flag of Italy.svg Gustav Thöni 2602-01-1977
11 Flag of Luxembourg.svg Marc Girardelli 2627-03-1993
12 Flag of Italy.svg Massimiliano Blardone 2513-02-2016
13 Flag of the United States.svg Bode Miller 2108-12-2013
14 Flag of Sweden.svg Fredrik Nyberg 2017-03-2006

Women's World Cup podiums

In the following table women's giant slalom World Cup podiums from the World Cup first edition in 1967.

Season1st2nd3rd
1967 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Nancy Greene Flag of Austria.svg Erika Schinegger Flag of France.svg Annie Famose
1968 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Nancy Greene Flag of Switzerland.svg Fernande Bochatay Flag of France.svg Florence Steurer
1969 Flag of the United States.svg Marilyn Cochran Flag of France.svg Michèle Jacot Flag of Austria.svg Gertrud Gabl
1970 Flag of France.svg Michèle Jacot
Flag of France.svg Françoise Macchi
Flag of Austria.svg Annemarie Moser-Pröll
1971 Flag of Austria.svg Annemarie Moser-Pröll Flag of France.svg Michèle Jacot Flag of France.svg Françoise Macchi
1972 Flag of Austria.svg Annemarie Moser-Pröll Flag of Austria.svg Monika Kaserer Flag of France.svg Britt Lafforgue
1973 Flag of Austria.svg Monika Kaserer Flag of Austria.svg Annemarie Moser-Pröll Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Hanni Wenzel
1974 Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Hanni Wenzel Flag of France.svg Fabienne Serrat Flag of Austria.svg Monika Kaserer
1975 Flag of Austria.svg Annemarie Moser-Pröll Flag of France.svg Fabienne Serrat Flag of Austria.svg Monika Kaserer
1976 Flag of Switzerland.svg Lise-Marie Morerod Flag of Austria.svg Monika Kaserer Flag of Germany.svg Rosi Mittermaier
1977 Flag of Switzerland.svg Lise-Marie Morerod Flag of Austria.svg Monika Kaserer Flag of Austria.svg Annemarie Moser-Pröll
1978 Flag of Switzerland.svg Lise-Marie Morerod Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Hanni Wenzel Flag of Germany.svg Maria Epple
1979 Flag of Germany.svg Christa Kinshofer Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Hanni Wenzel Flag of Germany.svg Irene Epple
1980 Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Hanni Wenzel Flag of Switzerland.svg Marie-Thérèse Nadig
Flag of France.svg Perrine Pelen
1981 Flag of the United States.svg Tamara McKinney Flag of Switzerland.svg Marie-Thérèse Nadig Flag of Germany.svg Irene Epple
Flag of Switzerland.svg Erika Hess
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Hanni Wenzel
1982 Flag of Germany.svg Irene Epple Flag of Germany.svg Maria Epple Flag of Switzerland.svg Erika Hess
1983 Flag of the United States.svg Tamara McKinney Flag of the United States.svg Cindy Nelson Flag of Germany.svg Maria Epple
1984 Flag of Switzerland.svg Erika Hess Flag of the United States.svg Christin Cooper Flag of the United States.svg Tamara McKinney
1985 Flag of Switzerland.svg Michela Figini
Flag of Germany.svg Marina Kiehl
Flag of Switzerland.svg Vreni Schneider
1986 Flag of Switzerland.svg Vreni Schneider Flag of Germany.svg Traudl Hächer Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Mateja Svet
1987 Flag of Switzerland.svg Vreni Schneider
Flag of Switzerland.svg Maria Walliser
Flag of Spain.svg Blanca Fernández Ochoa
1988 Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Mateja Svet Flag of France.svg Catherine Quittet Flag of Switzerland.svg Vreni Schneider
1989 Flag of Switzerland.svg Vreni Schneider Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Mateja Svet Flag of Switzerland.svg Maria Walliser
1990 Flag of Austria.svg Anita Wachter Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Mateja Svet Flag of Austria.svg Petra Kronberger
1991 Flag of Switzerland.svg Vreni Schneider Flag of Austria.svg Anita Wachter Flag of Sweden.svg Pernilla Wiberg
1992 Flag of France.svg Carole Merle Flag of Switzerland.svg Vreni Schneider Flag of the United States.svg Diann Roffe
1993 Flag of France.svg Carole Merle Flag of Austria.svg Anita Wachter Flag of Germany.svg Martina Ertl
1994 Flag of Austria.svg Anita Wachter Flag of Switzerland.svg Vreni Schneider Flag of Italy.svg Deborah Compagnoni
1995 Flag of Switzerland.svg Vreni Schneider Flag of Switzerland.svg Heidi Zeller-Bähler Flag of Slovenia.svg Špela Pretnar
1996 Flag of Germany.svg Martina Ertl Flag of Germany.svg Katja Seizinger Flag of Austria.svg Anita Wachter
1997 Flag of Italy.svg Deborah Compagnoni Flag of Germany.svg Katja Seizinger Flag of Austria.svg Anita Wachter
1998 Flag of Germany.svg Martina Ertl Flag of Italy.svg Deborah Compagnoni Flag of Austria.svg Alexandra Meissnitzer
1999 Flag of Austria.svg Alexandra Meissnitzer Flag of Austria.svg Anita Wachter Flag of Norway.svg Andrine Flemmen
2000 Flag of Austria.svg Michaela Dorfmeister Flag of Switzerland.svg Sonja Nef Flag of Austria.svg Anita Wachter
2001 Flag of Switzerland.svg Sonja Nef Flag of Sweden.svg Anja Pärson Flag of Austria.svg Michaela Dorfmeister
2002 Flag of Switzerland.svg Sonja Nef Flag of Austria.svg Michaela Dorfmeister Flag of Sweden.svg Anja Pärson
2003 Flag of Sweden.svg Anja Pärson Flag of Italy.svg Karen Putzer Flag of Croatia.svg Janica Kostelić
2004 Flag of Sweden.svg Anja Pärson Flag of Italy.svg Denise Karbon Flag of Spain.svg María José Rienda
2005 Flag of Finland.svg Tanja Poutiainen Flag of Sweden.svg Anja Pärson Flag of Spain.svg María José Rienda
2006 Flag of Sweden.svg Anja Pärson Flag of Spain.svg María José Rienda Flag of Croatia.svg Janica Kostelić
2007 Flag of Austria.svg Nicole Hosp Flag of Finland.svg Tanja Poutiainen Flag of Austria.svg Michaela Kirchgasser
2008 Flag of Italy.svg Denise Karbon Flag of Austria.svg Elisabeth Görgl Flag of Italy.svg Manuela Mölgg
2009 Flag of Finland.svg Tanja Poutiainen Flag of Austria.svg Kathrin Zettel Flag of Slovenia.svg Tina Maze
2010 Flag of Germany.svg Kathrin Hölzl Flag of Austria.svg Kathrin Zettel Flag of Slovenia.svg Tina Maze
2011 Flag of Germany.svg Viktoria Rebensburg Flag of France.svg Tessa Worley Flag of Finland.svg Tanja Poutiainen
2012 Flag of Germany.svg Viktoria Rebensburg Flag of the United States.svg Lindsey Vonn Flag of France.svg Tessa Worley
2013 Flag of Slovenia.svg Tina Maze Flag of Austria.svg Anna Fenninger Flag of Germany.svg Viktoria Rebensburg
2014 Flag of Austria.svg Anna Fenninger Flag of Sweden.svg Jessica Lindell-Vikarby Flag of Sweden.svg Maria Pietilä Holmner
2015 Flag of Austria.svg Anna Fenninger Flag of Austria.svg Eva-Maria Brem Flag of the United States.svg Mikaela Shiffrin
2016 Flag of Austria.svg Eva-Maria Brem Flag of Germany.svg Viktoria Rebensburg Flag of Switzerland.svg Lara Gut-Behrami
2017 Flag of France.svg Tessa Worley Flag of the United States.svg Mikaela Shiffrin Flag of Italy.svg Sofia Goggia
2018 Flag of Germany.svg Viktoria Rebensburg Flag of France.svg Tessa Worley Flag of the United States.svg Mikaela Shiffrin
2019 Flag of the United States.svg Mikaela Shiffrin Flag of Slovakia.svg Petra Vlhová Flag of France.svg Tessa Worley
2020 Flag of Italy.svg Federica Brignone Flag of Slovakia.svg Petra Vlhová Flag of the United States.svg Mikaela Shiffrin

See also

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