Demino Ski Marathon, 2015
|Highest governing body||FIS|
|Nicknames||Cross-country, XC skiing|
|Mixed gender||Separate events for men and women|
|Type||Outdoor winter sport|
|Equipment||Skis, poles, boots, bindings|
|Olympic||1924 (men), 1952 (women)|
The sport of cross-country skiing encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths according to rules sanctioned by the International Ski Federation and by various national organizations, such as the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA)and Cross Country Ski Canada. International competitions include the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, the FIS Cross-Country World Cup, and at the Winter Olympic Games. Such races occur over homologated, groomed courses designed to support classic (in-track) and freestyle events, where the skiers may employ skate skiing. It also encompasses cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation, and cross-country ski orienteering events, sanctioned by the International Orienteering Federation. Related forms of competition are biathlon, where competitors race on cross-country skis and stop to shoot at targets with rifles, and paralympic cross-country skiing that allows athletes with disabilities to compete at cross-country skiing with adaptive equipment.
Norwegian army units were skiing for sport (and prizes) in the 18th century. Starting in the latter part of the 20th century, technique evolved from the striding in-track classic technique to include skate-skiing, which occurs on courses that have been groomed with wide lanes for those using the technique. At the same time, equipment evolved from skis and poles that were made of wood and other natural materials to comprising such man-made materials as fiberglass, carbon fiber, and polyethylene plastics.
Athletes train to achieve endurance, strength, speed, skill and flexibility at different levels of intensity. Offseason training often occurs on dry land, sometimes on roller skis. The organization of cross-country ski competitions aims to make those events accessible both to spectators and television audiences. As with other sports that require endurance, strength and speed, some athletes have chosen to use banned performance-enhancing drugs.
In 1767 Danish-Norwegian general, Carl Schack Rantzau, codified four classes of military skiing contests and established prizes for each:
An early record of a public ski competition was for an 1843 event in Tromsø. The announcement called the event a "wagering race on skis". : turrenn) are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is usually within age categories.A distinct alpine technique emerged around 1900 from how skiing was practiced up until then when Mathias Zdarsky advocated the "Lilienfelder Ski Method" as an alternative to the Norwegian technique. In Norwegian, langrenn refers to "competitive skiing where the goal is to complete a specific distance in pre-set tracks in the shortest possible time". Alpine skiing competitions (known as hill races) existed in Norway during the 18th and 19th centuries, but were discontinued when the main ski festival in Oslo focused on long races (competitive cross-country skiing) and ski jumping (now known as the Nordic disciplines). The alpine disciplines reemerged in Central Europe around 1920. Ski touring competitions (Norwegian
In the 1800s racers used a single, wooden pole, which was longer and stronger than modern poles, and could be used for braking downhill, as well. In Norway, racing with two poles ("Finland style") met with resistance, starting in the 1880s, when some race rules forbade them; objections included issues of aesthetics—how they made skiers "[waddle] like geese". As the use of pairs of pole became the norm, materials favored lightness and strength, starting with bamboo, which gave way to fiberglass, used at the 1968 Winter Olympics, aluminum, used at the 1972 Winter Olympics, and ultimately carbon fiber, introduced in 1975.
Skate skiing was introduced to competition in the 20th Century. At the first German ski championship, held at the Feldberg in the Black Forest in 1900, the Norwegian Bjarne Nilssen won the 23 km cross-country race and was observed using a skating motion while skiing—a technique unknown to the spectators. Johan Grøttumsbråten used the skating technique at the 1931 World Championship in Oberhof, one of the earliest recorded use of skating in competitive cross-country skiing. This technique was later used in ski orienteering in the 1960s on roads and other firm surfaces. Finnish skier Pauli Siitonen developed a variant of the style for marathon or other endurance events in the 1970s by leaving one ski in the track while skating outwards to the side with the other ski (one-sided skating); this became known as the "marathon skate". American skier Bill Koch further developed the marathon skate technique in the late 1970s. Skate skiing became widespread during the 1980s after Koch's success with it in the 1982 Cross-country Skiing Championships drew more attention to the technique. Norwegian skier, Ove Aunli, started using the technique in 1984, when he found it to be much faster than classic style. Skating is most effective on wide, smooth, groomed trails, using fiberglass skis that glide well; it also benefits a stronger athlete—which, according to Olav Bø, are the reasons that the technique made a breakthrough in the early 1980s. Athletes widely adopted skating to both sides by the time of the 1985 world championship and it was formally adopted by the FIS in 1986 —despite initial opposition from Norway, the Soviet Union and Finland—while preserving events using only classic technique.
The Winter Olympic Games are a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. The first Winter Olympics, the 1924 Winter Olympics, was held in Chamonix, France and included Nordic skiing (which includes cross-country skiing) among the five principal disciplines. Cross-country events have evolved in the Winter Olympics since 1924, as seen in the following timeline:
The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been held in various numbers and types of events since 1925 for men and since 1954 for women. From 1924 to 1939, the World Championships were held annually, including years with Winter Olympic Games. After World War II, the World Championships were held every four years from 1950 to 1982. Since 1985, the World Championships have been held in odd-numbered years.
FIS events include:
|Event||Dates for Men||Dates for Women|
|4 × 10 km relay||1933–Present||N/A|
|3 × 5 km relay||N/A||1954–1970|
|4 × 5 km relay||N/A||1974–Present|
A ski marathon is a long-distance, usually point-to-point race, of more than 40 kilometers; some are held concurrent with shorter races and participation is usually open to the public. In Norwegian, such a race is called turrenn ("ski touring race").Major events have more than 10,000 participants where mass starts often have a modified starting order by groupings of participants—who have been judged to be of similar ability, beginning with the elite skiers group and ending with a group of the least experienced skiers. Skiers can use either classic or skate-skiing techniques, depending on the rules of the race. Awards are usually based on overall placement, placement by sex of athlete, and by age category. There are two major series in this category, the Ski Classics and the Worldloppet.
Ski Classics is a commercially sponsored international long-distance cross-country skiing cup competition, held in Europe. It originated in January 2011. km and La Sgambeda of 24 km:As of the winter of 2015–6, the tour consisted of eight long-distance events, preceded by a prologue of 15
|50 / 25 km||30 km||Bedřichov, Czech Republic|
|70 / 45 km||Moena – Cavalese, Italy|
|50 / 23 km||50 / 23 km||Oberammergau, Germany|
|90 / 45 / 30 km||Sälen – Mora, Sweden|
|42 / 21 / 17 km||Maloja – S-chanf, Switzerland|
|65 km||65 km||Engadin – St. Moritz, Switzerland|
|54 km||Rena – Lillehammer, Norway|
|65 km||Vålådalen – Åre, Sweden|
The Worldloppet Ski Federation recognizes twenty ski marathons including those in the Ski Classics series (except La Diagonala and Årefjällslopet). They recognize those athletes who complete Worldloppet races in 10 different countries, at least one of which has to be on another continent, to qualify as a "Worldloppet Master". The organization, sanctioned by FIS, seeks to attract elite racers to its events with the FIS Worldloppet Cup and aims thereby to "increase media and spectator interest in long distance racing".Notable races, other than the Ski Classics series include:
|42 / 21 km||Falls Creek, Victoria, Australia|
|42 / 21 km||60 km||Obertilliach / Lienz, Austria|
|50 / 25 km||76 / 54 km||Les Rousses / Lamoura – Mouthe, France|
|50 / 25 km||Sapporo, Japan|
|63 / 31 km||63 / 31 km||Otepää – Elva, Estonia|
|53 / 29 km||53 / 29 km||Gatineau, Quebec, Canada|
|54 / 23 km||50 / 23 km||Cable – Hayward, Wisconsin, United States|
|62 / 32 km||50 km||Lahti, Finland|
|25 km||50 km||Rybinsk, Russia|
|50 /26 km||30 km||Szklarska Poręba, Poland|
|50 km||Ísafjörður, Iceland|
|50 km||Changchun, China|
|42 / 21 km||Wanaka, New Zealand|
|42 km||Ushuaia, Argentina|
Ski orienteering is an orienteering discipline recognized by the International Orienteering Federation.The World Ski Orienteering Championships is organized every odd year and includes sprint, middle and long distance competitions, and a Relay for both men and women. The World Cup is organized every even year. Junior World Ski Orienteering Championships and World Masters Ski Orienteering Championships are organized annually.
Biathlon combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestant's total running distance/time. For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets; the skier receives a penalty for each missed target, which varies according to the competition rules; in any given competition one of the following penalties would apply:
Paralympic cross-country skiing is an adaptation of cross-country skiing for athletes with disabilities. Paralympic cross-country skiing is one of two Nordic skiing disciplines in the Winter Paralympic Games; the other is biathlon. Competition is governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Paralympic cross-country skiing includes standing events, sitting events (for wheelchair users), and events for visually impaired athletes under the rules of the International Paralympic Committee. These are divided into several categories for people who are missing limbs, have amputations, are blind, or have any other physical disability, to continue their sport. The classifications are for:
Cross-country ski competitors employ one of two techniques, according to the event: classic and skating (in freestyle races, where all techniques are allowed).Skiathlon combines the two techniques in one race.
Skis are lighter, narrower and designed to be faster than those used in recreational cross-country skiing and made of composite materials. cm. Skis for skating are also more rigid than skis for classical. Skis are waxed for speed and, in the case of classic skis, traction when striding forward. Racing ski boots are also lighter than recreational ones and are attached at the toe only to bindings that are specialized for classic or skate skiing.For classic events, typical ski lengths are between 195 and 210 centimetres, while ski lengths for skating are 170 to 200
Racing ski poles are usually made from carbon fiber and feature smaller, lighter baskets than recreational poles. Poles designed for skating are longer than those designed for classic skiing.
In classic cross-country skiing the skis remain parallel, as the skier strides straight ahead. The undersides of the skis have a grip section in the middle treated with a special ski wax that provides friction when the foot is still, yet glides when the foot is in motion, while the rest of the ski bottom has a glide wax. Classic events occur on courses with tracks set by a grooming machine at precise intervals and with carefully planned curvature. Both poles may be used simultaneously ("double-poling") or with alternating foot and arm extended (as with running or walking) with the pole pushing on the side opposite of the extended, sliding ski. In classic skiing the alternating technique is used for the "diagonal stride"—the predominant classic sub-technique.In diagonal-stride legs move like in ordinary walking, but with longer and more powerful steps. Diagonal is useful on level ground and on gentle uphill slopes. Uphill steps are shorter and more frequent. With double-poling both poles are used simultaneously for thrust, which may be augmented with striding. Double-poling is useful on level ground and on gentle downhill slopes. On steep uphills fishbone technique can be used.
While skate skiing, the skier provides propulsion on a firm snow surface by pushing alternating skis away from one another at an angle, in a manner similar to ice skating. Skis are waxed with a glide wax over their entire length, making them faster than classic skis. Freestyle events take place on smooth, wide specially groomed courses. With the skating technique double-poling is usually employed with alternating skating strides or with every skate stride. The following table puts these poling sequences into order according to the speed achieved as a progression of "gears". In the lowest gear (rarely used in racing), one is poling on the side of the sliding ski, similar to diagonal stride. In the highest gear, the athlete skates without poles.There are equivalent terms in other languages; for example in Norwegian, skating is likened to paddling or dancing, depending on the tempo.
|"Gear"||Term used in the US||Term used in Canada|
|1st||Diagonal V: single pole on stationary side||Diagonal skate|
|2nd||V1: Double pole on same side||Offset skate|
|3rd||V2: Double pole on alternate sides||1-skate|
|4th||V2 alternate (open field skate)||2-skate|
|5th||Skate without poles||Free-skate|
The primary turns used for racing, are the parallel turn, which is used while descending and can provide braking, and the step turn, which is used for maintaining speed during descents or out of track on flats.The wedge turn (or "snowplow turn"), is sometimes used for braking and turning.
Countries with cross-country ski teams usually have a strategy for developing promising athletes and programs to encourage participation in the sport, starting at a young age. One example is Cross-Country Ski Canada's "Long-Term Athlete Development" program.The program encompasses youth development, training, introduction to competition and improvement of promising athletes with an emphasis on "stamina (endurance), strength, speed, skill and suppleness (flexibility)". It covers age groups from toddlers to mature adults, who are able to enjoy and participate in the sport. Similarly, the USSA has an outline of "Cross Country Athlete Competencies" that has four phases beginning at 12 years old and under and addressing the 21 and older phase at the top. The program encompasses six "domains:"
Ski training for the athlete depends on whether the desired specialty emphasizes endurance (marathon) or intensity (mid-distance events). The "intensity" theory of ski training uses stress to break down muscles and recovery to build them up stronger than before. In this theory, there are five levels of intensity for training:
Athletes train for each level on a seasonal schedule designed for the targeted events: marathon or mid-distance.Additional aspects of training address aerobic (low-intensity) exercise—especially for endurance—and strength to improve joint flexibility and to minimize the risk of injury. Cross-country ski training occurs throughout the year, including on dry land where athletes engage in roller skiing and ski striding to maintain ski-specific muscle fitness.
In its "Organizing committee handbook", the FIS covers aspects of race management, including the layout of the competition venue, organization of the events (including scheduling, officiating, and awards), and addressing ancillary factors, such as the role of the media.National handbooks, such as the "USSA Cross-Country Technical Handbook" and the "Cross Country Canada officials manual", provide further guidance, sometimes specific to their venues.
An important aspect of race preparation is grooming the course to provide a surface for skate-skiing and setting tracks for classic events. This takes into account snow physics, methods for packing snow and surface shaping, and the equipment used for these functions. Also key is the layout of grooming and track setting in the stadium with various formats for starts, finishes and intermediate functions for relays and pursuits.
In its "Cross-country homologation manual", the FIS recognizes that fans of the sport wish to follow it on television. With this in mind, the manual addresses how to design the race course and the stadium in a manner that not only enhances the experience of spectators, but of viewers, as well—not just to show the athletes in action, but to show the ways in which fans enjoy the action. The manual includes considerations of:
A course is expected to test the skier's technical and physical abilities, to be laid out in a manner that takes advantage of the natural terrain, and to provide smooth transitions among uphills, downhills and "undulating" terrain—distributed approximately evenly among the three. The manual advocates that courses present a variety of uphills, varying in lengths and gradients between 6% and 12%, which are arrayed efficiently within the venue. It cites two types of stadium, the horseshoe (preferred for television) and the "ski in, ski out" layout. It emphasizes the importance of accommodating television coverage at the start, finish, and exchange zones for equipment or relays. In addition, television coverage requires a variety of facilities to support the activities of the press.
As with other sports, some competitors in cross-country skiing have chosen to enhance their performance through doping.Anti-doping tests at the 2001 World Nordic skiing championships in Lahti, Finland revealed that Jari Isometsä, Janne Immonen and two other skiers from Finland's gold-medal relay team, Mika Myllylä and Harri Kirvesniemi, and two female skiers tested positive for hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a blood plasma expander usually used to cover up the use of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO boosts the oxygen-carrying capability of hemoglobin. In addition, the team head coach left needles and drip bags at a public location near the Helsinki airport. At the Sochi Winter Olympic Games, Austrian cross-country skier Johannes Dürr was ejected from competition after testing positive for the blood booster EPO. In 2007, The International Olympic Committee banned biathletes, Wolfgang Perner and Wolfgang Rottmann, and the cross-country skiers, Martin Tauber, Jürgen Pinter, Johannes Eder, Roland Diethart and Christian Hoffmann, from all future Olympic competition. An Italian court found Tauber and Pinter not guilty in 2012.
Skiers, who have tested positive for EPO or other performance-enhancing drugs, include (date of sanction):
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is widely practiced as a sport and recreational activity; however, some still use it as a means of transportation. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, sometimes mountainous terrain to groomed courses that are specifically designed for the sport.
Skiing is a means of transport using skis to glide on snow. Variations of purpose include basic transport, a recreational activity, or a competitive winter sport. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the International Ski Federation (FIS).
Winter sports or winter activities are competitive sports or non-competitive recreational activities which are played on snow or ice. Most are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditionally, such games were only played in cold areas during winter, but artificial snow and artificial ice allow more flexibility. Artificial ice can be used to provide ice rinks for ice skating, ice hockey, and bandy in a milder climate.
Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in cross-country skiing and ski jumping. Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup are ongoing.
William Conrad "Bill" Koch is an American skier who competed at international level.
Roller skiing is an off-snow equivalent to cross-country skiing. Roller skis have wheels on their ends and are used on a hard surface, to emulate cross-country skiing. The skiing techniques used are very similar to techniques used in cross-country skiing on snow.
The U.S. Ski Team, operated under the auspices of the United States Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA), develops and supports men's and women's athletes in the sports of alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, cross-country, ski jumping, and Nordic combined. Since 1974 the team and association have been headquartered in Park City, Utah.
Paralympic cross-country skiing is an adaptation of cross-country skiing for athletes with disabilities. Paralympic cross-country skiing is one of two Nordic skiing disciplines in the Winter Paralympic Games; the other is biathlon. Competition is governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).
The Gundersen method is a method in the Nordic combined developed by Gunder Gundersen, a Nordic combined athlete from Norway, that was first used in the 1980s. This technique turned the cross country skiing part of the Nordic combined from a point-based system where all athletes ski in an interval start manner and whoever earned the most points with the ski jumping part of the Nordic combined won the event to a pursuit race for the cross country skiing part where whoever crossed the finish line first in the cross country skiing part of the Nordic combined event won the competition. The system is now also used in the modern pentathlon in which the start times of the final event are also staggered so that the first to cross the finish line is the winner of the entire event. The PGA Tour Tour Championship for 2019 adopted a Gundersen method for the tournament. World Athletics announced on 7 December 2018 that the 2020 World Under-20 Athletics Championship will adopt the Gundersen method for the decathlon and heptathlon for the final event.
Ivar Formo was a Norwegian cross-country skier and orienteer who competed during the 1970s.
U.S. Ski & Snowboard, formerly known as the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association, is the national governing body for Olympic skiing and snowboarding. Founded in 1905, the organization provides leadership and direction for skiers and snowboarders from over 400 member clubs. The association is headquartered in Park City, Utah.
Peter Graves is an American television sportscaster and public address announcer specializing in Olympic, lifestyle and action sports. He was also the former cross-country ski coach for Harvard University.
The women's 4 x 5 kilometre relay cross-country skiing competition at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada was held on 25 February at Whistler Olympic Park at 11:15 PST.
LW12 is a para-Alpine and para-Nordic sit skiing sport class defined by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). An LW12 skier needs to meet a minimum of one of several conditions including a single below knee but above ankle amputation, monoplegia that exhibits similar to below knee amputation, legs of different length where there is at least a 7 centimetres difference, combined muscle strength in the lower extremities less than 71. For international competitions, classification is done through IPC Alpine Skiing or IPC Nordic Skiing. For sub-international competitions, classification is done by a national federation such as Alpine Canada. For para-Alpine, this class is subdivided into two subclasses.: LW12.1 and LW12.2. A new sit-skier competitor with only national classification will compete as LW12.2 in international competitions until they have been internationally classified.
LW2 is a para-Alpine and para-Nordic standing ski sport class defined by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Competitors in this class have severe disability in a lower limb, which may be a result of an amputation, or arthrodesis in the leg and hip. Depending on the type of skiing, the international classification process for LW2 skiers is handled by the IPC Alpine Skiing Technical Committee and IPC Nordic Skiing Technical Committee. National sport federations handle classification on the lower levels.
LW3 is a para-Alpine and para-Nordic standing skiing sport class defined by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) for skiers with a disability affecting both legs, with double below knee amputation or a combined strength total for both legs of 60, with 80 as the baseline for people without disabilities. For international skiing competitions, classification is done through IPC Alpine Skiing or IPC Nordic Skiing. The classification has two subclasses for para-Alpine skiing: LW3.1 which is for people with double below the knee amputations or similar disabilities, and LW3.2 which is for people with cerebral palsy that involves moderate athetoid, moderate ataxic impairment or slight diplegic involvement.
LW4 is a para-Alpine and para-Nordic standing skiing sport class defined by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) for skiers who may have a disability in one lower extremity, which may be a result of a leg amputation below the knee, knee arthrodesis or a hip arthrodesis. For international skiing competitions, classification is done through IPC Alpine Skiing or IPC Nordic Skiing. A national federation such as Alpine Canada handles classification for domestic competitions.
LW5/7 is a standing para-Alpine and para-Nordic skiing classification for skiers with upper extremity issues in both limbs that may include double amputation of both arms and hands or dysmelia of the upper limbs. The class has three subclasses defined by the location of the disability on the upper extremities. International classification is done by IPC Alpine Skiing and IPC Nordic Skiing. On the national level, classification is handled by national sports federation such as Cross-Country Canada.
LW6/8 is a para-Alpine and para-Nordic standing skiing sport class, a classification defined by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) for people with an upper extremity issue who have paralysis, motor paresis affecting one arm, a single upper arm amputation or CP8 classified cerebral palsy. LW6/8 skiers use two skis and one pole in both para-Alpine and para-Nordic skiing.
LW9 is a para-Alpine and para-Nordic standing skiing sport class, a classification defined by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) for people with upper and lower limb function problems, and includes cerebral palsy skiers classified CP5, CP6 and CP7, along with people with hemiplegia or amputations. For international skiing competitions, classification is done through IPC Alpine Skiing or IPC Nordic Skiing. A national federation such as Alpine Canada handles classification for domestic competitions. This classification is separated into two subclasses including LW9.1 and LW9.2.
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