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Changchun Montange 2017.png
Clockwise from top: panoramic view from Shengtai Plaza, panoramic view of Ji Tower, Former Manchukuo State Department, Statue on cultural square, Changchun Christian Church, Soviet martyr monument.
北国春城 (Spring City of the Northern Country)
Location of Changchun Prefecture within Jilin (China).png
Location of Changchun City (yellow) in Jilin (light grey) and China
China Jilin location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of the city centre in Jilin
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Changchun (China)
Coordinates(Jilin People's Government): 43°53′49″N125°19′34″E / 43.897°N 125.326°E / 43.897; 125.326 Coordinates: 43°53′49″N125°19′34″E / 43.897°N 125.326°E / 43.897; 125.326
Country China
Province Jilin
County-level divisions 7 districts
2 county-level divisions
1 county
Incorporated (town)1889
Incorporated (city)1932
Municipal seat Nanguan District
  Type Sub-provincial city
  Body Changchun Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary vacant as of March 2021
   Congress ChairmanWang Zhihou
   Mayor Zhang Zhijun
   CPPCC ChairmanQi Yuanfang
   Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city 24,734 km2 (9,550 sq mi)
 (2017) [2]
1,855.00 km2 (716.22 sq mi)
1,855.00 km2 (716.22 sq mi)
222 m (730 ft)
 (2020 census) [3]
   Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city 9,066,906
  Density370/km2 (950/sq mi)
  Urban density3,100/km2 (7,900/sq mi)
  Metro density2,500/km2 (6,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code 0431
ISO 3166 code CN-JL-01
License plate prefixes 吉A
GDP (2017) CNY 653.0 billion
 - per capita CNY 86,931

Japanese chemical warfare agents

In 1936, the Imperial Japanese Army established Unit 100 to develop plague biological weapons, although the declared purpose of Unit 100 was to conduct research about diseases originating from animals. [35] During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II the headquarters of Unit 100 ("Wakamatsu Unit") was located in downtown Hsinking, under command of veterinarian Yujiro Wakamatsu. [36] This facility was involved in research of animal vaccines to protect Japanese resources, and, especially, biological-warfare. Diseases were tested for use against Soviet and Chinese horses and other livestock. In addition to these tests, Unit 100 ran a bacteria factory to produce the pathogens needed by other units. Biological sabotage testing was also handled at this facility: everything from poisons to chemical crop destruction.

Siege of Changchun

Chinese Red Army entering Changchun. PLA at the end of the Siege of Changchun.jpg
Chinese Red Army entering Changchun.

On 20 August 1945 the city was captured by the Soviet Red Army and renamed Changchun. [37] The Russians maintained a presence in the city during the Soviet occupation of Manchuria until 1946.

National Revolutionary Army forces under Zheng Dongguo occupied the city in 1946, but were unable to hold the countryside against Lin Biao's People's Liberation Army forces during the Chinese Civil War. The city fell to the Chinese Communist Party in 1948 after the five-month Siege of Changchun, and the communist victory was a turning point which allowed an offensive to capture the remainder of Mainland China. [38] Between 10 and 30 percent [39] of the civilian population starved to death under the siege; estimates range from 150,000 [40] to 330,000. [41] As of 2015 the PRC government avoids all mention of the siege. [42]

People's Republic

Changchun Liberation Monument Chang Chun Nan Hu *Ji Nian Bei Yan Chang .jpg
Changchun Liberation Monument

Renamed Changchun by the People's Republic of China government, it became the capital of Jilin in 1954. The Changchun Film Studio is also one of the remaining film studios of the era. Changchun Film Festival has become a unique gala for film industries since 1992. [43]

From the 1950s, Changchun was designated to become a center for China's automotive industry. Construction of the First Automobile Works (FAW) began in 1953 [44] and production of the Jiefang CA-10 truck, based on the Soviet ZIS-150 started in 1956. [45] Soviet Union lent assistance during these early years, providing technical support, tooling, and production machinery. [44] In 1958, FAW introduced the famous Hongqi (Red Flag) limousines [45] This series of cars are billed as "the official car for minister-level officials". [46]

Changchun hosted the 2007 Winter Asian Games. [47]


Changchun and vicinities, NASA World Wind screenshot, 2005-05-18 Changchun 125.32286E 43.87998N.jpg
Changchun and vicinities, NASA World Wind screenshot, 2005-05-18

Changchun lies in the middle portion of the Northeast China Plain. Its municipality area is located at latitude 43° 05′−45° 15′ N and longitude 124° 18′−127° 02' E. The total area of Changchun municipality is 20,571 km2 (7,943 sq mi), including metro areas of 2,583 square kilometres (997 sq mi), and a city proper area of 159 km2 (61 sq mi). The city is situated at a moderate elevation, ranging from 250 to 350 metres (820 to 1,150 ft) within its administrative region. [1] In the eastern portion of the city, there lies a small area of low mountains, with the Laodaodong Mountain, which has an altitude of 711 meters, being the highest. The city is also situated at the crisscross point of the third east–westward "Europe-Asia Continental Bridge".[ citation needed ] Changchun prefecture is dotted with 222 rivers and lakes. The Yitong River, a small tributary of the Songhua River, runs through the city proper.


Changchun has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa). Winters are long (lasting from November to March), cold, and windy, but dry, due to the influence of the Siberian anticyclone, with a January mean temperature of −14.7 °C (5.5 °F). Spring and autumn are somewhat short transitional periods, with some precipitation, but are usually dry and windy. Summers are hot and humid, with a prevailing southeasterly wind due to the East Asian monsoon; July averages 23.2 °C (73.8 °F). Snow is usually light during the winter, and annual rainfall is heavily concentrated from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47 percent in July to 66 percent in January and February, a typical year will see around 2,617 hours of sunshine, and a frost-free period of 140 to 150 days. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −33.0 °C (−27 °F) to 35.7 °C (96 °F). [48]

Changchun name in Chinese.svg
"Changchun" in Simplified Chinese characters
Climate data for Changchun (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1951–2018)
Record high °C (°F)4.6
Average high °C (°F)−9.6
Daily mean °C (°F)−14.7
Average low °C (°F)−19.0
Record low °C (°F)−36.5
Average precipitation mm (inches)3.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)66585147506278776759626662
Mean monthly sunshine hours 179.9196.3234.7235.3258.4248.9213.2230.0237.1215.1172.4159.92,581.2
Percent possible sunshine 66666560585447546363606059
Average ultraviolet index 1235678853114
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000), [49] [50] Weather China [48]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [51]

Administrative divisions

Changchun City People's Government Chang Chun Shi Ren Min Zheng Fu Da Lou 2017.jpg
Changchun City People's Government
Map including Changchun (labeled as Chang Chun 
CH'ANG-CH'UN (HSINKING)) (AMS, 1956) Txu-oclc-6614368-nk51-3.jpg
Map including Changchun (labeled as 長春 CH'ANG-CH'UN (HSINKING)) (AMS, 1956)
Map of Changchun (CH'ANG-CHUN (HSINKING)) Txu-oclc-6614368-nk51-3a.jpg
Map of Changchun (CH'ANG-CHUN (HSINKING))

The sub-provincial city of Changchun has direct jurisdiction over 7 districts, 3 county-level cities and 1 County:

NameSimplified ChineseHanyu PinyinPopulation (2017 census)Area (km2)
City proper
Chaoyang District 朝阳区Cháoyáng Qū1,007,870237
Nanguan District 南关区Nánguān Qū1,123,77981
Kuancheng District 宽城区Kuānchéng Qū855,159238
Erdao District 二道区Èrdào Qū809,390452
Luyuan District 绿园区Lùyuán Qū1.002,672216
Shuangyang District 双阳区Shuāngyáng Qū400,9331,677
Jiutai District 九台区Jiǔtái Qū700,6063375
Satellite cities
Dehui 德惠市Déhuì Shì949,7863,435
Yushu 榆树市Yúshù Shì1,266,9694,712
Gongzhuling 公主岭市Gōngzhǔlǐng Shì4,027271
Nong'an County 农安县Nóng'ān Xiàn1,149,6805,400


Historical population
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions. In 1958, 5 counties were put under Changchun's jurisdiction, increasing the total population to over 4 million.

According to the Sixth China Census , the total population of the City of Changchun reached 7.677 million in 2010. [52] The statistics in 2011 estimated the total population to be 7.59 million. The birth rate was 6.08 per thousand and the death rate was 5.51 per thousand. The urban area had a population of 3.53 million people. In 2010 the sex ratio of the city population was 102.10 males to 100 females. [52]

Ethnic groups

As in most of Northeastern China the ethnic makeup of Changchun is predominantly Han nationality (96.57 percent), with several other minority nationalities.[ citation needed ]

Ethnicity Population[ citation needed ]Percentage[ citation needed ]
Han 6,883,31096.47%
Manchu 142,9982.0%
Korean 49,5880.69%
Hui 43,6920.61%
Mongol 11,1060.16%



The most commonly spoken dialect in Changchun is the Northeastern Mandarin, which is originated from the mix of several languages spoken by immigrants from Hebei and Shandong. Then, after the PRC was established, the rapid economic growth in Changchun attracted a huge amount of immigrants from various places, so the northeastern dialect spoken in urban areas of Changchun is closer to the Mandarin Chinese than the in rural areas because the immigrants had a great impact on the northeastern dialect spoken in urban areas. [53]


Changchun has five major religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism, Protestantism (locally called "Christianity"), and Islam. There are 396 government-approved places for religious activities and worship services. [53]

The temples in Changchun include Changchun Wanshou Temple, Baoguo Prajna Temple, Baiguo Xinglong Temple, Pumen Temple, Big Buddha Temple, Changchun Temple, Changchun Catholic Church, Changchun West Wuma Road Christian Church, and Changchun City Mosque. [54]

Shamanism had been circulated in Northeast China during ancient times and was believed by many Manchus. Now the shamanism and the study of it have become an important cultural heritage of the region. [55]

Places of interest

Jilin Provincial Museum, a national first-grade museum, is located in Changchun. The museum was moved to Changchun from Jilin City after the transfer of the provincial government seat. [56] It was originally located in the centre of the old town, but, after nine years of construction, a new building for the museum's collections was completed in 2016 on the city's outskirts in Nanguan District near Jingyuetan Park. [57] Badabu is a group of buildings of the former eight Manchukuo ministries which are Ministry of Public Safety, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Culture and Education, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Civil Affairs [58] that has recently become a sightseeing highlight because of their unique combined Chinese, Japanese and Manchurian architecture.


Changchun achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of RMB332.9 billion in 2010, representing a rise of 15.3 percent year on year. Primary industry output increased by 3.3 percent to RMB25.27 billion. Secondary industry output experienced an increase of 19.0 percent, reaching RMB171.99 billion, while the tertiary industry output increased 12.6 percent to RMB135.64 billion. The GDP per capita of Changchun was ¥58,691 in 2012, which equates to $9338. The GDP of Changchun in 2012 was RMB445.66 billion and increased 12.0 percent compared with 2011. The primary industry grew 4.3 percent to RMB31.71 billion. Secondary industry increased by RMB229.19 billion, which is a rise of 13.1 percent year on year. Tertiary industry of Changchun in 2012 grew 11.8 percent and increased by RMB184.76 billion. [4]

A FAW-built Audi 100 FAW Hongqi Audi 100.jpg
A FAW-built Audi 100

The city's leading industries are production of automobiles, agricultural product processing, biopharmaceuticals, photo electronics, construction materials, and the energy industry. [8] Changchun is the largest automobile manufacturing, research and development centre in China, producing 9 percent of the country's automobiles in 2009. Changchun is home to China's biggest vehicle producer FAW (First Automotive Works) Group, which manufactured the first Chinese truck in 1956 and car in 1958. The automaker's factories and associated housing and services occupy a substantial portion of the city's southwest end. Specific brands produced in Changchun include the Red Flag luxury brand, as well as joint ventures with Audi, Volkswagen, and Toyota. In 2012, FAW sold 2.65 million units of auto. The sales revenue of FAW amounted to RMB 408.46 billion, representing a rise of 10.8% on year. [8] As cradle of the auto industry, one of Changchun's better known nicknames is "China's Detroit". [10]

Manufacturing of transportation facilities and machinery is also among Changchun's main industries. 50 percent of China's passenger trains, and 10 percent of tractors are produced in Changchun. Changchun Railway Vehicles, one of the main branches of China CNR Corporation, has a joint venture established with Bombardier Transportation to build Movia metro cars for the Guangzhou Metro and Shanghai Metro, [59] and the Tianjin Metro.

Foreign direct investment in the city was US$3.68 billion in 2012, up 19.6% year on year. [8] In 2004 Coca-Cola set up a bottling plant in the city's ETDZ with an investment of US$20 million. [60]

Changchun hosts the yearly Changchun International Automobile Fair, Changchun Film Festival, Changchun Agricultural Fair, Education Exhibition and the Sculpture Exhibition.

CRRC manufactures most of its bullet train carriages at its factory in Changchun. In November 2016, CRCC Changchun unveiled the first bullet train carriages in the world with sleeper berths, thus extending their use for overnight passages across China. They would be capable of running in ultra low temperature environments. Nicknamed Panda, the new bullet trains are capable of running at 250 km/h, operate at −40 degrees Celsius, have Wi-Fi hubs and contain sleeper berths that fold into seats during the day. [61]

Other large companies in Changchun include:

Development zones

Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone

A Hongqi H7 manufactured in Changchun's FAW Company on display at the 2012 Hannover-Messe Hannover-Messe 2012 by-RaBoe 032.jpg
A Hongqi H7 manufactured in Changchun's FAW Company on display at the 2012 Hannover-Messe

Founded in 1993, the Changchun Automotive Trade Center was re-established as the Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone in 1996. The development zone is situated in the southwest of the city and is adjacent to the China First Automobile Works Group Corporation and the Changchun Film ThemeCity. It covers a total area of approximately 300,000 square metres (3,229,173 square feet). Within the development zone lies an exhibition center and five specially demarcated industrial centers. The Changchun Automobile Wholesale Center began operations in 1994 and is the largest auto-vehicle and spare parts wholesale center in China. The other centers include a resale center for used auto-vehicles, a specialized center for industrial/commercial vehicles, and a tire wholesale center. [60]

Changchun High Technology Development Zone

The zone is one of the first 27 state-level advanced technology development zones and is situated in the southern part of the city, covering a total area of 49 km2 (19 sq mi). There are 18 full-time universities and colleges, 39 state and provincial-level scientific research institutions, and 11 key national laboratories. The zone is mainly focusing on developing five main industries, namely bio-engineering, automobile engineering, new material fabrication, photo-electricity, and information technology.

Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone

Established in April 1993, the zone enjoys all the preferential policies stipulated for economic and technological development zones of coastal open cities. [60] The total area of CETDZ is 112.72 square kilometres (43.52 square miles), of which 30 square kilometres (12 square miles) has been set aside for development and utilization. [64] It is located 5 kilometres (3 miles) from downtown Changchun, 2 km (1.2 mi) from the freight railway station and 15 km (9 mi) from the Changchun international airport. The zone is devoted to developing five leading industries: namely automotive parts and components, photoelectric information, bio-pharmaceutical, fine processing of foods, and new building materials. In particular, high-tech and high value added projects account for over 80 percent of total output. In 2006 the zone's total fixed assets investment rose to RMB38.4 billion. Among the total of 1656 enterprises registered, 179 are foreign-funded. The zone also witnessed a total industrial output of RMB 277 billion in 2007. [60]


Changchun is a very compact city, planned by the Japanese with a layout of open avenues and public squares. The city is developing its layout in a long-term bid to alleviate pressure on limited land, aid economic development, and absorb a rising population. According to a draft plan up until 2020, the downtown area will expand southwards to form a new city center around Changchun World Sculpture Park, Weixing Square and their outskirts, and the new development zone. [60]


Changchun railway station Changchun Railway STation.jpg
Changchun railway station

Changchun has three passenger rail stations, most trains only stop at the central Changchun railway station (simplified Chinese: 长春站 ; traditional Chinese: 長春站 ), where there are multiple daily departures to other northeast cities such as Jilin City, Harbin, Shenyang, and Dalian, as well as other major cities throughout the country such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou.[ citation needed ] The Harbin–Dalian high-speed railway which runs through three provinces in northeastern China, has a stop in Changchun. [65] The new Changchun West railway station, situated in the western end of urbanized area, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Harbin–Dalian high-speed railway. [66]

Public transport

Changchun Rail Transit is an urban rail transit service of Changchun. Its first line was opened on 30 October 2002, making Changchun the fifth metropolitan city in China to open rail transit.

Till November 2018, there are 5 lines in Changchun, including Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, and Line 8. Changchun railway covers about 100.17 kilometers.

Till September 2019, there are 4 lines of Changchun Rail Transit under construction, including Line 6 and Line 9, as well as Line 2 West Extension and Line 3 East Extension. By 2025, the Changchun rail transit line network will consist of 10 lines with a total length of 341.62 kilometers.

In September 2019, the average daily passenger volume of Changchun Rail Transit reached 680,400 person, and the maximum daily passenger volume of its line network was 830,500 person on 13 November 2019. The total estimated passenger volume in 2019 is about 168 million person.

Road network

Changchun is linked to the national highway network through the Beijing – Harbin Expressway (G1), the Ulanhot – Changchun – Jilin – Hunchun Expressway (G12), the Changchun – Shenzhen Expressway (G25), the Changchun – Changbaishan Expressway (S1) and the busiest section in the province, the Changchun–Jilin North Highway. This section connects the two biggest cities in Jilin and is the trunk line for the social and economic communication of the two cities. [60]

Changchun is served by a comprehensive bus system—most buses (and the tram) charge 1 Yuan () per ride. Private automobiles are becoming very common on the city's congested streets. Bicycles are relatively rare compared to other northeastern Chinese cities, but mopeds, as well as pedal are relatively common.


Changchun Longjia International Airport is located 31.2 kilometres (19.4 miles) north-east of Changchun urban area. The airport's construction began in 1998, and was intended to replace the older Changchun Dafangshen Airport, which was built in 1941. The airport opened for passenger service on 27 August 2005. [67] The operation of the airport is shared by both Changchun and nearby Jilin City. [68] The airport has scheduled flights to major cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Chengdu and 68 other cities. There are also scheduled international flights between Changchun and overseas cities such as Bangkok, [69] Osaka, [70] Khabarovsk, [71] Singapore, Tokyo and Vladivostok.


Changchun is headquarters of the 16th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the four group armies that comprise the Northern Theater Command responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia, Mongolia and North Korea.


Universities and colleges

PRC State key laboratory in Jilin University Jilinuniversity laboratory.jpg
PRC State key laboratory in Jilin University

Changchun has 27 regular institutions of full-time tertiary education with a total enrollment of approximate 160,000 students. Jilin University and Northeast Normal University are two key universities in China. [43] Jilin University is also one of the largest universities in China, with more than 60,000 students.

Middle schools

Primary and secondary schools

International schools include:

Sports and stadiums

Changchun Sports Centre Chang Chun Ti Yu Zhong Xin 2017-2.jpg
Changchun Sports Centre

As a major Chinese city, Changchun is home to many professional sports teams:

There are two major multi-purpose stadiums in Changchun, including Changchun City Stadium and Development Area Stadium.

Jinlin Tseng Tou are a professional ice hockey team based in the city, and compete in the Russian-based Supreme Hockey League. [80] They are one of two Chinese-based teams to enter the league during the 2017–18 season, the other being based in Harbin.[ citation needed ]



Twin towns and sister cities

See also

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Yushu is a county-level city of Jilin Province, Northeast China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Changchun. It is more than 140 kilometres (87 mi) to the northeast of central Changchun, and around 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Harbin. The name of the place means "Elm Tree". The northernmost county-level division of Changchun, it borders Dehui to the southwest as well as the prefecture-level division of Harbin (Heilongjiang) to the northeast.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Changchun Longjia International Airport</span> Airport serving Changchun, Jilin Province, China

Changchun Longjia International Airport is an international airport in Jilin Province, China, for which it is an aviation hub in China's Civil Airport System. The airport is 31.2 kilometres (19.4 mi) north-east of provincial capital Changchun and 76 km (47 mi) north-west of Jilin City: responsibility for the operation of the airport is shared by both cities. Changchun Airport is a regional hub for China Southern Airlines.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Changchun Rail Transit</span>

Changchun Rail Transit, is the rapid transit and light rail system in the city of Changchun, Jilin Province, China. Its first line, Line 3, is the first true light rail line in Mainland China. The system consists of a light rail line, two light metro lines and two rapid transit lines.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kuancheng District</span> District in Jilin, Peoples Republic of China

Kuancheng District is one of seven districts of the prefecture-level city of Changchun, the capital of Jilin Province, Northeast China. It is part of Changchun's main urban area, located north of downtown. It borders Dehui to the northeast, Jiutai to the east, Erdao District to the southeast, Nanguan and Chaoyang Districts to the south, Luyuan District to the southwest, and Nong'an County to the northwest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Changchun railway station</span> Railway station in Changchun, Jilin, China

Changchun station is a railway station of Beijing–Harbin railway, Harbin–Dalian railway, Changchun–Tumen railway, Changchun–Baicheng railway and Changchun–Jilin intercity railway. The station is located in Changchun, in the Jilin province of China. It is served by Changchun Rail Transit Line Line 1, Line 3 and Line 4.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Harbin–Manzhouli railway</span> Railway line in Northeast China

Harbin–Manzhouli railway, abbreviated as the Binzhou Railway, is a double-track electrified trunk railway in Northeast China between Harbin and Manzhouli on the Russian border, where it connects to the Trans-Siberian Railway via Zabaikalsk, Russia.

The Eight Grand Ministries, also called Badabu, refer to the former buildings of the State Council and its ministries of the Manchukuo government. They still exist almost intact on and around Xinmin Avenue of Changchun, Jilin Province, China, are used by Jilin University's Medical School and others, and have recently become one of the highlights of Changchun's sightseeing, because of their impressive, combined Chinese, Japanese and Manchurian architecture.



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