Guizhou

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Guizhou Province

贵州省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese贵州省 (Guìzhōu Shěng)
  AbbreviationGZ / or (pinyin :Qián or Guì)
Guizhou in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Guizhou Province
Coordinates: 26°50′N106°50′E / 26.833°N 106.833°E / 26.833; 106.833 Coordinates: 26°50′N106°50′E / 26.833°N 106.833°E / 26.833; 106.833
Named for Gui - Gui Mountains
zhou (prefecture)
Capital
(and largest city)
Guiyang
Divisions9 prefectures, 88 counties, 1539 townships
Government
   Secretary Sun Zhigang
  Governor Shen Yiqin
Area
[1]
  Total176,167 km2 (68,018 sq mi)
Area rank 16th
Highest elevation
2,900 m (9,500 ft)
Population
 (2010) [2]
  Total34,746,468
  Rank 19th
  Density200/km2 (510/sq mi)
  Density rank 18th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han - 62%
Miao - 12%
Buyei - 8%
Dong - 5%
Tujia - 4%
Yi - 2%
Undistinguished - 2%
Gelao - 2%
Sui - 1%
  Languages and dialects Southwestern Mandarin
ISO 3166 code CN-GZ
GDP (2017 [3] ) CNY 1.35 trillion
USD 200.55 billion (25th)
 • per capita CNY 37,956
USD 5,622 (29st)
HDI (2018)Increase2.svg 0.680 [4]
medium · 29th
Website http://www.gzgov.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
Guizhou
Guizhou (Chinese characters).svg
"Guizhou" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 贵州
Traditional Chinese 貴州
Hanyu Pinyin Guìzhōu
Postal Kweichow
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཀུའེ་ཀྲོའུ་
Zhuang name
ZhuangGveicouh
贵州
Yi name
Yi ꇭꍏ

Guizhou (贵州; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province in the southwest of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Guiyang, in the central part of the province. Guizhou borders the autonomous region of Guangxi to the south, Yunnan to the west, Sichuan to the northwest, the municipality of Chongqing to the north, and Hunan to the east. The population of Guizhou stands at 34 million, ranking 19th among the provinces in China.

Contents

The Dian Kingdom, which inhabited the present-day area of Guizhou, was annexed by the Han dynasty in 106 BC. [5] Guizhou was formally made a province in 1413 during the Ming dynasty. After the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March between 1934 and 1935. [6] After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Mao Zedong promoted the relocation of heavy industry into inland provinces such as Guizhou, to better protect them from potential Soviet and American attacks.

Compared to other provinces of China, Guizhou has not benefited substantially from the Chinese economic reform. Guizhou is rich in natural cultural and environmental resources. Its natural industry includes timber and forestry, and the energy and mining industries constitute an important part of its economy. Notwithstanding, Guizhou is considered a relatively poor and economically undeveloped province, with the seventh-lowest GDP per capita in China as of 2019. However, it is also one of China's fastest-growing economies. [7] The Chinese government is looking to develop Guizhou as a data hub. [8] [9]

Guizhou is a mountainous province, with its higher altitudes in the west and centre. It lies at the eastern end of the Yungui Plateau. Demographically, it is one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups account for more than 37% of the population, including sizable populations of the Miao, Bouyei, Dong, Tujia and Yi peoples, who speak languages distinct from Chinese. The main language spoken in Guizhou is Southwestern Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin.

Name

The area was first organized as an administrative region of a Chinese empire under the Tang, when it was named Juzhou ( 矩州 ), pronounced Kjú-jyuw in the Middle Chinese of the period. [10] During the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty, the character (ju, "carpenter's square") was changed to the more refined (gui, "precious or expensive"). [10] The region formally became a province in 1413, with an eponymous capital then also called "Guizhou" but now known as Guiyang. [10] Another single-character abbreviation is " " (pinyin :Qián).

History

Guizhou in 1655. Atlas Van der Hagen-KW1049B13 050-QVEICHEV, IMPERII SINARVM PROVINCIA DECIMAQUATRA.jpeg
Guizhou in 1655.

Evidence of settlement by humans during the Middle Palaeolithic is indicated by stone artefacts, including Levallois pieces, found during archaeological excavations at Guanyindong Cave. These artefacts have been dated to approximately 170,000–80,000 years ago using optically stimulated luminescence methods. [11]

From around 1046 BCE to the emergence of the State of Qin, northwest Guizhou was part of the State of Shu. [6] During the Warring States period, the Chinese state of Chu conquered the area, and control later passed to the Dian Kingdom. During the Chinese Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), to which the Dian was tributary, Guizhou was home to the Yelang collection of tribes, which largely governed themselves before the Han consolidated control in the southwest and established the Lingnan province. [6] During the Three Kingdoms period, parts of Guizhou were governed by the Shu Han state based in Sichuan, followed by Cao Wei (220–265) and the Jin Dynasty (265–420). [6]

During the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang dynasty, Chinese soldiers moved into Guizhou (Kweichow) and married native women. Their descendants are known as Lǎohànrén (老汉人), in contrast to new Chinese who populated Guizhou at later times. They still speak an archaic dialect. [12] Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from these soldiers in garrisons who married these pre-Chinese women. [13]

Kublai Khan and Möngke Khan conquered the Chinese southwest in the process of defeating the Song during the Mongol invasion of China, and the newly established Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) saw the importation of Chinese Muslim administrators and settlers from Bukhara in Central Asia. [6]

It was during the following Ming dynasty, which was once again led by Han Chinese, that Guizhou was formally made a province in 1413. The Ming established many garrisons in Guizhou from which to pacify the Yao and Miao minorities during the Miao Rebellions. [6] Chinese-style agriculture flourished with the expertise of farmers from Sichuan, Hunan and its surrounding provinces into Guizhou. Wu Sangui was responsible for the ousting the Ming in Guizhou and Yunnan during the Manchu conquest of China. During the governorship-general of the Qing Dynasty's nobleman Ortai, the tusi system of indirect governance of the southwest was abolished, prompting rebellions from disenfranchised chieftains and the further centralization of government. After the Second Opium War, criminal triads set up shop in Guangxi and Guizhou to sell British opium. For a time, Taiping Rebels took control of Guizhou, but they were ultimately suppressed by the Qing. [6] Concurrently, Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and their children were brought up as Miao. [14] [15]

More unsuccessful Miao rebellions occurred during the Qing, in 1735, from 1795–1806 [16] and from 1854–1873. [17] After the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following Chinese Civil War, the Communists took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March (1934–1935). [6] While the province was formally ruled by the warlord Wang Jialie, the Zunyi Conference in Guizhou established Mao Zedong as the leader of the Communist Party. As the Second Sino-Japanese War pushed China's Nationalist Government to its southwest base of Chongqing, transportation infrastructure improved as Guizhou was linked with the Burma Road. [18] After the end of the War, a 1949 Revolution swept Mao into power, who promoted the relocation of heavy industry into inland provinces such as Guizhou, to better protect them from Soviet and American attacks. The 1957 influenza pandemic started in Guizhou and killed a million people around the world. After the Chinese economic reform began in 1978, geographical factors led Guizhou to become the poorest province in China, with a GDP growth average of 9 percent from 1978–1993. [18]

Geography

Bouyei minority Shitou village, west Guizhou (near Longgong caves), China. Shitoucun,Longtanzhen,Guizhou,China.jpg
Bouyei minority Shitou village, west Guizhou (near Longgong caves), China.

Guizhou is a mountainous province, although its higher altitudes are in the west and centre. It lies at the eastern end of the Yungui Plateau. [19] At 2,900 m (9,514 ft) above sea level, Jiucaiping is Guizhou's highest point. [20]

Guizhou has a humid subtropical climate. There are few seasonal changes. Its annual average temperature is roughly 10 to 20 °C, with January temperatures ranging from 1 to 10 °C and July temperatures ranging from 17 to 28 °C. [ citation needed ]

Like in China's other southwest provinces, rural areas of Guizhou suffered severe drought during spring 2010. One of China's poorest provinces, Guizhou is experiencing serious environmental problems, such as desertification and persistent water shortages. On 3–5 April 2010, China's Premier Wen Jiabao went on a three-day inspection tour in the southwest drought-affected province of Guizhou, where he met villagers and called on agricultural scientists to develop drought-resistant technologies for the area. [21]

Biodiversity

Grey-backed shrike at Caohai. Hui Bei Bo Lao Gui Zhou Wei Zhu 20080615Cao Hai 46.jpg
Grey-backed shrike at Caohai.

The border mountains of Guizhou, Guangxi, and Hunan have been identified as one of the eight plant diversity hotspots in China. The main ecosystem types include evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and montane elfin forest. Plant species endemic to this region include Abies ziyuanensis , Cathaya argyrophylla , and Keteleeria pubescens . [22] In broad terms, the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau is one of the vertebrate diversity hotspots of China. At the level of counties, Xingyi is one of nine Chinese vertebrate diversity (excluding birds) hotspots. [23] Animals only known from Guizhou include Leishan moustache toad, Kuankuoshui salamander, Shuicheng salamander, Guizhou salamander, and Zhijin warty newt. [ citation needed ]

Caohai Lake with its surroundings is a wetland that is an important overwintering site for many birds. It is a National Nature Reserve and an Important Bird Area identified by BirdLife International. [24]

Politics

Administrative divisions

townships map of Guizhou Townsips map guizhou.PNG
townships map of Guizhou

Guizhou is divided into nine prefecture-level divisions: six prefecture-level cities and three autonomous prefectures:

Administrative divisions of Guizhou
Division code [25] DivisionArea in km2 [26] Population 2010 [27] SeatDivisions [28]
Districts* Counties Aut. counties CL cities
520000Guizhou Province176167.0034,746,468 Guiyang city1751119
520100 Guiyang city8,046.674,324,561 Guanshanhu District 631
520200 Liupanshui city9,965.372,851,180 Zhongshan District 31
520300 Zunyi city30,780.736,127,009 Huichuan District 3722
520400 Anshun city9,253.062,297,339 Xixiu District 213
520500 Bijie city26,844.456,536,370 Qixingguan District 161
520600 Tongren city18,006.413,092,365 Bijiang District 244
522300 Qianxinan Aut. Prefecture 16,785.932,805,857 Xingyi city62
522600 Qiandongnan Aut. Prefecture 30,278.063,480,626 Kaili city151
522700 Qiannan Aut. Prefecture 26,191.783,231,161 Duyun city912
* - including Special district

These nine prefecture-level divisions are in turn subdivided into 88 county-level divisions (14 districts, 7 county-level cities, 55 counties, and 11 autonomous counties and one special district).

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [29] District area [29] City proper [29] Census date
1 Guiyang 2,520,0613,034,7504,322,6112010-11-01
2 Zunyi [lower-alpha 1] 715,1481,094,8716,127,0822010-11-01
(2)Zunyi (new district) [lower-alpha 1] 280,163942,904see Zunyi2010-11-01
3 Liupanshui 491,438616,2102,851,3322010-11-01
4 Bijie [lower-alpha 2] 421,3421,137,3836,537,4982010-11-01
5 Anshun [lower-alpha 3] 358,920765,3992,297,6122010-11-01
(5)Anshun (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 95,601297,990see Anshun2010-11-01
6 Xingyi 335,243783,120part of Qianxinan Prefecture 2010-11-01
7 Kaili 274,922479,011part of Qiandongnan Prefecture 2010-11-01
8 Tongren [lower-alpha 4] 218,542409,4883,093,2042010-11-01
9 Duyun 217,091443,721part of Qiannan Prefecture 2010-11-01
(10) Panzhou [lower-alpha 5] 176,237103,5345see Liupanshui2010-11-01
11 Renhuai 171,005546,477see Zunyi2010-11-01
12 Qingzhen 166916467790see Guiyang2010-11-01
13 Fuquan 158,515283,904part of Qiannan Prefecture 2010-11-01
(14) Xingren [lower-alpha 6] 113043417,919part of Qianxinan Prefecture 2010-11-01
15 Chishui 80,884237,052see Zunyi2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New district established after census: Bozhou (Zunyi County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. Bijie Prefecture is currently known as Bijie PLC after census; Bijie CLC is currently known as Qixingguan after census.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Pingba (Pingba County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. Tongren Prefecture is currently known as Tongren PLC after census; Tongren CLC & Wanshan SD is currently known as Bijiang & Wanshan after census.
  5. Panxian County is currently known as Panzhou CLC after census.
  6. Xingren County is currently known as Xingren CLC after census.

Economy

Xijiang, a Miao settlement in Eastern Guizhou 1 xijiang panorama.jpg
Xijiang, a Miao settlement in Eastern Guizhou
Bapa Dong, a Dong village in Eastern Guizhou 1 bapa dong village 2015.jpg
Bapa Dong, a Dong village in Eastern Guizhou
Zhenyuan, a county in Eastern Guizhou 1 zhenyuan panorama 2015.jpg
Zhenyuan, a county in Eastern Guizhou

As of the mid-19th century, Guizhou exported mercury, gold, iron, lead, tobacco, incense and drugs. [30]

Guizhou is a relatively poor and economically undeveloped province, but rich in natural, cultural and environmental resources. Its nominal GDP for 2012 was 680.22 billion yuan (US$107.758 billion). Its per capita GDP of RMB 19,566 (US$3,100) is the third lowest in China. [ citation needed ]

Its natural industry includes timber and forestry. [31] Guizhou is also the third largest producer of tobacco in China, and home to the well-known brand Guizhou Tobacco. [32] Other important industries in the province include energy (electricity generation) - a large portion of which is exported to Guangdong and other provinces [32] - and mining, especially in coal, limestone, arsenic, gypsum, and oil shale. [31] Guizhou's total output of coal was 118 million tons in 2008, a 7% growth from the previous year. [33] Guizhou's export of power to Guangdong equaled 12% of Guangdong's total power consumption. Over the next 5 years Guizhou hopes to increase this by as much as 50%. [34]

Economic and Technological Development Zones

Transportation

The Beipan River Bridge on the Liupanshui-Baiguo Railway in western Guizhou is the highest railway bridge in the world. Beipanjiang Railway Bridge-4.jpg
The Beipan River Bridge on the Liupanshui–Baiguo Railway in western Guizhou is the highest railway bridge in the world.

In 2017, Sun Zhigang, the governor of Guizhou, has announced the plans to build 10,000 kilometers of highways, 17 airports, 600 km (370 mi) of inland waterways, and 4,000 km (2,500 mi) of high-speed rail lines in three years, in an effort to boost the tourism in the province. [36]

Rail

Guizhou's rail network consists primarily of a cross formed by the Sichuan–Guizhou, Guangxi–Guizhou and Shanghai–Kunming Railways, which intersect at the provincial capital, Guiyang, near the center of the province. The Liupanshui–Baiguo, Pan County West and Weishe–Hongguo Railways form a rail corridor along Guizhou's western border with Yunnan. This corridor connects the Neijiang–Kunming Railway, which dips into northwestern Guizhou at Weining, with the Nanning–Kunming Railway, which skirts the southwestern corner of Guizhou at Xingyi.[ citation needed ]

As of 2018, Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway and Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railway is under operational.Chengdu–Guiyang high-speed railway is under construction.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1912 [37] 9,665,000    
1928 [38] 14,746,000+2.68%
1936-37 [39] 9,919,000−4.84%
1947 [40] 10,174,000+0.23%
1954 [41] 15,037,310+5.74%
1964 [42] 17,140,521+1.32%
1982 [43] 28,552,997+2.88%
1990 [44] 32,391,066+1.59%
2000 [45] 35,247,695+0.85%
2010 [46] 34,746,468−0.14%

In 1832, the population was estimated at five million. [30]

Guizhou is demographically one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups account for more than 37% of the population and they include Miao (including Gha-Mu and A-Hmao), Yao, Yi, Qiang, Dong, Zhuang, Bouyei, Bai, Tujia, Gelao and Sui. 55.5% of the province area is designated as autonomous regions for ethnic minorities. Guizhou is the province with the highest fertility rate in China, standing at 2.19 (Urban-1.31, Rural-2.42). [47]

Ethnic minorities areas in Guizhou.png
Major Autonomous areas within Guizhou, excluding Hui.
Longhorn Miao China.jpg
The long-horn tribe, one of the small branches of Miao living in the twelve villages near Zhijin County, Guizhou. The wooden horns remain daily attire for most women.
1 zhaoxing 2015.jpg
The Dong village of Zhaoxing

Religion

Religion in Guizhou [48] [note 1]

   Christianity (0.99%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 2] (67.83%)

The predominant religions in Guizhou are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.18% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.99% of the population identifies as Christian, decreasing from 1.13% in 2004. [48]

Wumiao (Temple of the God of War) dedicated to Guandi in Anshun. Anshun Wumiao 2014.04.28 16-57-08.jpg
Wumiao (Temple of the God of War) dedicated to Guandi in Anshun.

The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 67.83% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims. There are significant ethnic minority populations (the Miao and the Buyei) who traditionally follow their autochthonous religions.

Cuisine

Guizhou is the home of the well-known Chinese liquor Moutai. [49]

Tourism

The province has many covered bridges, called Wind and Rain Bridges. These were built by the Dong people.[ citation needed ]

The southeastern corner of the province is known for its unique Dong minority culture. Towns such as Rongjiang, Liping, Diping and Zhaoxing are scattered amongst the hills along the border with Guangxi.[ citation needed ]

Heritage-based tourism

The World Bank "Strategic Environmental Assessment Study: Tourism Development in the Province of Guizhou, China" (May 25, 2007) [50] points to three different forms of tourism that should be fostered and developed in Guizhou, China: Nature-based, Heritage-based and Rural Tourism. Heritage-based tourism provides ethnic minority groups with an opportunity to preserve their unique heritage while still making a living.

Colleges and universities

Media

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [48] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (Buddhism, Confucianism, deity worships, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, religions practiced by ethnic minorities, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. This may include:

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Works cited

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