Qinghai

Last updated
Qinghai Province
青海省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese青海省 (Qīnghǎi Shěng)
  AbbreviationQH / (pinyin :Qīng)
Hoh Xil.jpg
The region of Hoh Xil, a World Heritage Site
Qinghai in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Qinghai Province
Coordinates: 35°N96°E / 35°N 96°E / 35; 96 Coordinates: 35°N96°E / 35°N 96°E / 35; 96
CountryFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Named for Derived from the name of Qinghai Lake ("blue/green lake").
Capital
(and largest city)
Xining
Divisions8 prefectures, 43 counties, 429 townships
Government
  Type Province
  BodyQinghai Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Wang Jianjun
  Congress chairmanWang Jianjun
   Governor Xin Changxing
   CPPCC chairmanDorje Rabten
Area
[1]
  Total720,000 km2 (280,000 sq mi)
Area rank 4th
Highest elevation6,860 m (22,510 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total5,923,957
  Rank 30th
  Density8.2/km2 (21/sq mi)
  Density rank 30th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han – 54%
Tibetan – 21%
Hui – 16%
Tu – 4%
Mongol – 1.8%
Salar – 1.8%
  Languages and dialects Zhongyuan Mandarin Chinese, Amdo Tibetan, Monguor, Oirat Mongolian, Salar and Western Yugur
ISO 3166 code CN-QH
GDP (2020) CNY 300 billion
USD 43.58 billion (30th) [3]
 - per capita CNY 50,741
USD 7,354 (24th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 1.5%
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.689 [4]
medium · 25th
Website http://www.qh.gov.cn/
(Simplified Chinese)
མཚོ་སྔོན་ᠬᠥᠬᠡ
ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ
  1. Haidong Prefecture is currently known as Haidong PLC after census; Ledu County & Ping'an County is currently known as Ledu & Ping'an (core districts of Haidong) after census.
  2. Yushu County is currently known as Yushu CLC after census.
  3. Mangnai Administrative Zone & Lenghu Administrative Zone County is currently known as Mangnai CLC after census.

Population

Demographics

Qinghai
Qinghai (Chinese characters).svg
"Qinghai" in Chinese characters
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [37] 368,000    
1928 [38] 619,000+68.2%
1936–37 [39] 1,196,000+93.2%
1947 [40] 1,308,000+9.4%
1954 [41] 1,676,534+28.2%
1964 [42] 2,145,604+28.0%
1982 [43] 3,895,706+81.6%
1990 [44] 4,456,946+14.4%
2000 [45] 4,822,963+8.2%
2010 [46] 5,626,722+16.7%

Ethnicity

There are over 37 recognized ethnic groups among Qinghai's population of 5.2 million, with national minorities making up 45.5% of the population. The demographic mix is similar to Gansu province, with Han (54.5%), Tibetan (20.7%), Hui (16%), Tu (Monguor) (4%), Mongol, and Salar being the most populous groups. Han Chinese predominate in the cities of Xining, Haidong, Delingha and Golmud, and elsewhere in the northeast. The Hui are concentrated in Xining, Haidong, Minhe County, Hualong County, and Datong County. The Tu people predominate in Huzhu County and the Salars in Xunhua County; Tibetans and Mongols are sparsely distributed across the rural western part of the province. [27]

Of the Muslim ethnic groups in China, Qinghai has communities of Hui, Salar, Dongxiang, and Bao'an. [16] The Hui dominate the wholesale business in Qinghai. [47]

Religion

Religion in Qinghai (2000s)

   Buddhism, Chinese folk religions (including Taoism), Bön and non-religious population (81.73%)
   Islam [48] (17.51%)
   Christianity [49] (0.76%)
The Dongguan Mosque in Qinghai Dongguan mosque.jpg
The Dongguan Mosque in Qinghai

The predominant religions in Qinghai are Chinese folk religions (including Taoist traditions and Confucianism) and Chinese Buddhism among the Han Chinese. The large Tibetan population practices Tibetan schools of Buddhism or traditional Tibetan Bön religion, while the Hui Chinese practice Islam. Christianity is the religion of 0.76% of the province's population according to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2004. [49] According to a survey of 2010, 17.51% of the population of Qinghai follow Islam. [48]

From September 1848, the city was the seat of a short-lived Latin Catholic Apostolic Vicariate (pre-diocesan missionary jurisdiction) of Kokonur (alias Khouhkou-noor, Kokonoor), but it was suppressed in 1861. No incumbent(s) recorded. [50]

Culture

Qinghai has been influenced by the interactions "between Mongol and Tibetan culture, north to south, and Han Chinese and Inner Asia Muslim culture, east to west". [27] The languages of Qinghai have for centuries formed a Sprachbund, with Zhongyuan Mandarin, Amdo Tibetan, Salar, Yugur, and Monguor borrowing from and influencing one another. [51] In mainstream Chinese culture, Qinghai is most associated with the Tale of King Mu, Son of Heaven .[ citation needed ] According to this legend, King Mu of Zhou (r. 976–922 BCE) pursued hostile Quanrong nomads to eastern Qinghai, where the goddess Xi Wangmu threw the king a banquet in the Kunlun Mountains. [52]

The main religions in Qinghai are Tibetan Buddhism, Islam and Chinese Folk Religions. The Dongguan Mosque has been continuously operating since 1380. [23] :402 Measures of education in Qinghai are low, particularly among the Muslim ethnic groups such as the Hui and Salar, who sometimes prefer to send their children to madrasahs rather than secular schools. [27] The yak, which is native to Qinghai, is widely used in the province for transportation and its meat. [30] The Mongols of Qinghai celebrate the Naadam festival on the Qaidam Basin every year. [53]

Economy

Oil well in Tsaidam (Qaidam), Qinghai Oil well in Tsaidam.jpg
Oil well in Tsaidam (Qaidam), Qinghai

Qinghai's economy is amongst the smallest in all of China. Its nominal GDP for 2011 was just 163.4 billion RMB (US$25.9 billion) and contributes to about 0.35% of the entire country's economy. Per capita GDP was 19,407 RMB (US$2,841), the second lowest in China. [54]

Its heavy industry includes iron and steel production, located near its capital city of Xining. Oil and natural gas from the Qaidam Basin have also been an important contributor to the economy. [54] Salt works operate at many of the province's numerous salt lakes.

Outside of the provincial capital, Xining, most of Qinghai remains underdeveloped. Qinghai ranks second lowest in China in terms of highway length, and will require a significant expansion of its infrastructure to capitalize on the economic potential of its rich natural resources. [54]

Economic and technological development zone

Xining Economic & Technological Development Zone (XETDZ) was approved as state-level development zone in July 2000. It has a planned area of 4.4 square kilometres (1.7 sq mi). XETDZ lies in the east of Xining, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from downtown. In the east of the province, Xining stands at the upper reaches of the Huangshui River—one of the Yellow River's branches. The city is surrounded by the mountains with an average elevation of 2261 meters and the highest at 4393 meters. XETDZ is the first of its kind at the national level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is established to fulfill the nation's strategy of developing the west.

XETDZ enjoys a convenient transportation system, connected by the Xining-Lanzhou expressway and running through by two main roads, the broadest in the city. It is 4 kilometers from the railway station, 15 kilometers from Xi'ning Airport — a grade 4D airport with 14 airlines to cities such as Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Chengdu and Xi'an. Xining is Qinghai province's passage to the outside world, a transportation center with more than ten highways, over 100 roads and two railways, Lanzhou-Qinghai and Qinghai-Tibet Railways in and out of the city.

It focuses on the development of following industries: chemicals based on salt lake resources, nonferrous metals, and petroleum and natural gas processing; special medicine, foods and bio-chemicals using local plateau animals and plants; new products involving ecological and environmental protection, high technology, new materials as well as information technology; and services such as logistics, banking, real estate, tourism, hotel, catering, agency and international trade. [55]

Tourism

View of the Qinghai Lake. Qinghailakeerlangjian.png
View of the Qinghai Lake.

Many tourist attractions center on Xining, the provincial seat of Qinghai.

During the hot summer months, many tourists from the hot Southern and Eastern parts of China travel to Xining, as the climate of Xining in July and August is quite mild and comfortable, making the city an ideal summer retreat.

Qinghai Lake (青海湖; qīnghǎi hú) is another tourist attraction, albeit further from Xining than Kumbum Monastery (Ta'er Si). The lake is the largest saltwater lake in China, and is also located on the "Roof of the World", the Tibetan Plateau. The lake itself lies at 3,600m elevation. The surrounding area is made up of rolling grasslands and populated by ethnic Tibetans. Most pre-arranged tours stop at Bird Island (鸟岛; niǎo dǎo). An international bicycle race takes place annually from Xining to Qinghai Lake.

Transportation

China National Highway 109 in Qinghai Qingzangxian,China National Highway 109,qinghai,china.JPG
China National Highway 109 in Qinghai

The Lanqing Railway, running between Lanzhou, Gansu and Xining, the province's capital, was completed in 1959 and is the major transportation route in and out of the province. A continuation of the line, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway via Golmud and western Qinghai, has become one of the most ambitious projects in PRC history. It was completed in October 2005 and now links Tibet with the rest of China through Qinghai.

Construction on the Golmud–Dunhuang Railway, in the province's northwestern part, started in 2012.

Six National Highways run through the province.

Xining Caojiabao International Airport provides service to Beijing, Lanzhou, Golmud and Delingha. Smaller regional airports, Delingha Airport, Golog Maqin Airport, Huatugou Airport, Qilian Airport and Yushu Batang Airport, serve some of the local centers of the far-flung province; plans exist for the construction of three more by 2020. [56]

Telecommunications

Since the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology began its "Access to Telephones Project", Qinghai has invested 640 million yuan to provide telephone access to 3860 out its 4133 administrative villages. At the end of 2006, 299 towns had received Internet access. However, 6.6 percent of villages in the region still have no access to the telephone. These villages are mainly scattered in Qingnan Area, with 90 percent of them located in Yushu and Guoluo. The average altitude of these areas exceeds 3600 meters, and the poor natural conditions hamper the establishment of telecommunication facilities in the region.

Satellite phones have been provided to 186 remote villages in Qinghai Province as of September 14, 2007.[ citation needed ] The areas benefited were Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Qinghai has recently been provided with satellite telephone access. In June 2007, China Satcom carried out an in-depth survey in Yushu and Guoluo, and made a special satellite phones for these areas. Two phones were provided to each village for free, and calls were charged at the rate of 0.2 yuan (about a quarter of a US cent at that time) per minute for both local and national calls, with the extra charges assumed by China Satcom. No monthly rent was charged on the satellite phone. International calls were also available.

Colleges and universities

See also

Related Research Articles

Tibet Autonomous Region Autonomous region of China

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, often shortened to Tibet or Xizang, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China in Southwest China. It was overlayed on the traditional Tibetan regions of Ü-Tsang and Kham.

Gansu Province of China

Gansu is a landlocked province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province.

Salar people Oghuz Turkic ethnic group of Northwest China

The Salar people are a Turkic-speaking ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz language.

The Bonan people are a distinct ethno-linguistic group from all other Mongolic peoples, living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in Northwestern China. They are one of the "titular nationalities" of Gansu's Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County, which is located south of the Yellow River, near Gansu's border with Qinghai.

Xining Prefecture-level city in Qinghai, China

Xining, alternatively known as Sining, is the capital of Qinghai province in western China and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. As of the 2020 census, it had 2,467,965 inhabitants, of whom 1,954,795 lived in the built-up area made of 5 urban districts.

Amdo Traditional region of Tibet

Amdo is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the others being U-Tsang in the west and Kham in the east. Ngari in the north-west was incorporated into Ü-Tsang. Amdo is also the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama. Amdo encompasses a large area from the Machu to the Drichu (Yangtze). Amdo is mostly coterminous with China's present-day Qinghai province, but also includes small portions of Sichuan and Gansu provinces.

Tibetan Muslims

Tibetan Muslims, also known as the Kachee, form a small minority in Tibet. Despite being Muslim, they are officially recognized as Tibetans by the government of the People's Republic of China, unlike the Hui Muslims, who are separately recognized. The Tibetan word Kachee literally means Kashmiri and Kashmir was known as Kachee Yul. The Muslim community in Tibet is very diverse, with Muslims being of Kashmiri, Chinese, Nepalese, Ladakhi, and Indian origin.

Golmud County-level & Sub-prefectural city in Qinghai, Peoples Republic of China

Golmud, also known by various other romanizations, is a county-level city in the Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China. It is now the second-largest city in Qinghai and the third largest in the Tibetan Plateau. The population in 2020 is 221,863.

Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Autonomous prefecture in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Bayingolin is an autonomous prefecture for Mongol people in the southeast of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Western China. It borders Gansu to the east, Qinghai to the southeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south. It is the largest prefecture-level division nationally, with an area of 462,700 km2 (178,600 sq mi), which is even larger than its neighboring province of Gansu. The prefectural capital is Korla.

Xunhua Salar Autonomous County Autonomous county in Qinghai, Peoples Republic of China

Xunhua Salar Autonomous County is an autonomous Salar county in the southeast of Haidong Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China, and the only autonomous Salar county in China. The county has an area of around 2,100 square kilometres (810 sq mi) and approximately 104,452 inhabitants (2000). In the east it borders on the province of Gansu, in the south and the west to the Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, its postal code is 811100 and its capital is the town of Jishi.

Haidong Prefecture-level city in Qinghai, Peoples Republic of China

Haidong is a prefecture-level city of Qinghai province in Western China. Its name literally means "east of the (Qinghai) Lake." On 8 February 2013 Haidong was upgraded from a prefecture (海东地区) into a prefecture-level city. Haidong is the third most populous administrative division in Qinghai after Xining and Golmud.

Ma Bufang

Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (traditional Chinese: 馬步芳; simplified Chinese: 马步芳; pinyin: Mǎ Bùfāng; Wade–Giles: Ma3 Pu4-fang1, Xiao'erjing: مَا بُ‌فَانْ) was a Chinese Islamist who was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai. His rank was Lieutenant-general.

Ma Qi

Ma Qi was a Chinese Muslim General in early 20th-century China.

Tibet (1912–1951) Former de facto independent state in East Asia

The polity of Tibet was a de facto independent state between the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912 and the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China in 1951.

Kuomintang Islamic insurgency Continuation of Chinese Civil War by Chinese Muslims

The Kuomintang Islamic insurgency refers to a continuation of the Chinese Civil War by Chinese Muslim nationalist Kuomintang Republic of China Army forces in Northwest China, in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, and Xinjiang, and another insurgency in Yunnan.

Golok conflicts (1917–1949)

The Amdo- Ma clique conflicts (1917–1949) were a series of military campaigns against unconquered Amchok and Ngolok (Golok) tribal Tibetan areas of Qinghai (Amdo), undertaken by two Hui commanders, Gen. Ma Qi and Gen. Ma Bufang, on behalf of the Beiyang and Kuomintang governments of the Republic of China. The campaigns lasted between 1917 and 1949.

Ma Biao (general)

Ma Biao (1885–1948) was a Chinese Muslim Ma Clique General in the National Revolutionary Army, and served under Ma Bufang, the Governor of Qinghai. He was a member of Ma Bufang's family, Ma Biao was the eldest son of Ma Haiqing 馬海清, who was the sixth younger brother of Ma Haiyan, the grandfather of Ma Bufang.

Han Youwen

Han Youwen was an ethnic Salar Muslim General in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, born in Hualong Hui Autonomous County, Qinghai. His Muslim name was Muhammad Habibullah 穆罕默德海比不拉海.

Chinese Muslims in the Second Sino-Japanese War

Chinese Muslims in the Second Sino-Japanese War were courted by both Chinese and Japanese generals, but tended to fight against the Japanese, with or without the support of higher echelons of other Chinese factions. Japan attempted to reach out to ethnic minorities to rally to their side during the Second Sino-Japanese War, but only succeeded with Manchukuo and Mengjiang.

References

Citations

  1. "Qinghai Province". Qinghai Province Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  3. GDP-2020 is a preliminary data "Home - Regional - Quarterly by Province" (Press release). China NBS. March 1, 2021. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  4. "Sub-national HDI – Subnational HDI – Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  5. "Qinghai". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. n.d.
  6. 中国地名录 (2nd ed.). Beijing: China Maps Press. 1995. p. 309. ISBN   7-5031-1718-4.
  7. Gangchen Khishong, 2001. Tibet and Manchu: An Assesment of Tibet-Manchu Relations in Five Phases of Development. Dharmasala: Narthang Press, p.1-70.
  8. "中華民國政府令". 國民政府公報. 93. Republic of China: 國民政府秘書處. Sep 1928. p. 5.
  9. "中華民國十七年十月十九日 中華民國政府令". 國民政府公報 (2). Republic of China: 國民政府文官處印鑄局. 27 Oct 1928. p. 9.
  10. "中華民國十八年一月二十九日 國民政府指令一八九號". 國民政府公報 (80). Republic of China: 國民政府文官處印鑄局. 31 Jan 1929. p. 8-9.
  11. Purdue – Tibetan history Archived 2007-08-21 at the Wayback Machine .
  12. Laurent Deshayes, 1997. Histoire du Tibet. Paris: Fayard.
  13. Gertraud Taenzer, 2012. The Dunhuang Region during Tibetan Rule (787-848). (Berlin): Harrassowitz Verlag.
  14. Leung 2007, p. 57.
  15. Smith, Warren W (2009). China's Tibet?: Autonomy or Assimilation. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 24, 252.
  16. 1 2 Betta, Chiara (2004). The Other Middle Kingdom: A Brief History of Muslims in China. Indianapolis University Press. p. 21.
  17. William Ewart Gladstone, Baron Arthur Hamilton-Gordon Stanmore (1961). Gladstone-Gordon correspondence, 1851–1896: selections from the private correspondence of a British Prime Minister and a colonial Governor, Volume 51. American Philosophical Society. p. 27. ISBN   9780871695147 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  18. William Ewart Gladstone, Baron Arthur Hamilton-Gordon Stanmore (1961). Gladstone-Gordon correspondence, 1851–1896: selections from the private correspondence of a British Prime Minister and a colonial Governor, Volume 51. American Philosophical Society. p. 27. ISBN   9780871695147 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  19. The Times Atlas of World History. (Maplewood, New Jersey: Hammond, 1989) p. 175
  20. Louis M. J. Schram (2006). The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier: Their Origin, History, and Social Organization. Kessinger Publishing. p. 17. ISBN   1-4286-5932-3 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  21. Graham Hutchings (2003). Modern China: a guide to a century of change (illustrated, reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 351. ISBN   0-674-01240-2 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  22. M.C. Goldstein (1994). Barnett and Akiner (ed.). Change, Conflict and Continuity among a community of nomadic pastoralists—A Case Study from western Tibet, 1950–1990., Resistance and Reform in Tibet. London: Hurst & Co.
  23. 1 2 3 4 Cooke, Susette. "Surviving State and Society in Northwest China: The Hui Experience in Qinghai Province under the PRC." Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 28.3 (2008): 401–420.
  24. Henry George Wandesforde Woodhead, Henry Thurburn Montague Bell (1969). The China year book, Part 2. North China Daily News & Herald. p. 841. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
  25. John Roderick (1993). Covering China: the story of an American reporter from revolutionary days to the Deng era. Imprint Publications. p. 104. ISBN   1-879176-17-3 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  26. Felix Smith (1995). China pilot: flying for Chiang and Chennault. Brassey's. p. 140. ISBN   1-57488-051-9 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 Goodman, David (2004). China's Campaign to "Open Up the West": National, Provincial, and Local Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–83.
  28. Werner Draguhn; David S. G. Goodman (2002). China's communist revolutions: fifty years of the People's Republic of China. Psychology Press. p. 38. ISBN   0-7007-1630-0 . Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  29. Blondeau, Anne-Marie; Buffetrille, Katia (2008). Authenticating Tibet: Answers to China's 100 Questions. University of California Press. pp. 203–205. It is often assumed that this current policy [of not politically uniting all ethnically Tibetan areas] reflects the PRC leadership's intention to divide and rule Tibet, but this assumption is not wholly accurate.... The PRC cemented the [historical] status quo by keeping Amdo/Qinghai as a separate, multinational province... China does not reverse perceived territorial acquisitions. Hence, all territories that escaped the domination of Lhasa in recent history remained attached to the neighboring Chinese constituencies they tended to be under the influence of.
  30. 1 2 3 Lahtinen, Anja (2009). "Maximising Opportunities for the Tibetans of Qinghai Province, China". In Cao, Huahua (ed.). Ethnic Minorities and Regional Development in Asia: Reality and Challenges. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 20–22.
  31. Bukadaban Feng, Peakbagger.com
  32. 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs.
  33. Shenzhen Statistical Bureau. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  34. Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6660-2.
  35. Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-7130-9.
  36. 1 2 3 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6659-6.
  37. 1912年中国人口 . Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  38. 1928年中国人口 . Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  39. 1936–37年中国人口 . Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  40. 1947年全国人口 . Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  41. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009.
  42. 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012.
  43. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012.
  44. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on June 19, 2012.
  45. 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012.
  46. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013.
  47. "Demand for an aphrodisiac has brought unprecedented wealth to rural Tibet—and trouble in its wake". The Economist . 19 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  48. 1 2 Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam by province, page 29. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
  49. 1 2 China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  50. http://www.gcatholic.org/dioceses/former/koko0.htm
  51. Janhunen, Juha (2006). "From Manchuria to Amdo Qinghai: On the Ethnic Implications of the Tuyuhun Migration". Tumen Jalafun Jecen Aku. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 111–112.
  52. Asiapac Editorial (2006). Chinese History: Ancient China to 1911. Asiapac Books. p. 28.
  53. "Qaidam culture shines in Qinghai, NW China". Global Times . 2009-07-21. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2013-06-05.
  54. 1 2 3 "Qinghai Province: Economic News and Statistics for Qinghai's Economy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
  55. RightSite.asia|Xining Economic & Technological Development Zone
  56. Qinghai to build 3 new airports before 2020

General sources