|Alternative Chinese name|
|This article is part of a series on|
|Administrative divisions of China|
Administrative division codes
The term district, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.
In the modern context, district, ward, or sub-city (Chinese :区), formally city-governed district, city-controlled district, or municipal district (Chinese :市辖区), are subdivisions of a municipality or a prefecture-level city. The rank of a district derives from the rank of its city. Districts of a municipality are prefecture-level; districts of a sub-provincial city are sub-prefecture-level; and districts of a prefecture-level city are county-level.
It was also formerly used to refer the obsolete County-controlled districts (also known as district public office).
However, if the word district is encountered in the context of ancient Chinese history, then it is a translation for xian , another type of administrative division in China.
Before the 1980s, cities in China were administrative divisions containing mostly urban, built-up areas, with very little farmland, except for the immediate suburbs in order to ensure a large supply of food or raw materials. As a result, districts were also mostly urban or suburban in nature.
After the 1980s, prefectures began to be replaced with prefecture-level cities. From then on, "cities" in mainland China became just like any other administrative division, containing urban areas, towns, villages, and farmland. These cities are subdivided into districts, counties, autonomous counties, and county-level cities. At the same time, counties and county-level cities began to be replaced with districts, especially after 1990. From then onwards, districts were no longer strictly an urban entities — some districts today are just like counties, with a large towns and townships under them governing rural areas.
A regular district under a municipality or prefecture-level city.
A type of city districts that are specially created for ethnic minorities. Currently there are 5 such "ethnic districts": three in Henan, one in Heilongjiang and one in Inner Mongolia.
A special county-level division located in Guizhou.
A special Sub-prefectural-level forestry district located in Hubei.
|Number of districts||cities||Number of cities|
|16||Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin||3|
|11||Guangzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, Xi'an||4|
|7||Tangshan, Qiqihar, Changchun, Dalian, Nanning, Ürümqi, Kunming, Jinan, Qingdao||9|
|6||Zhangjiakou, Xiamen, Shantou, Guiyang, Jixi, Hegang, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Changsha, Nanchang, Taiyuan, Ningbo, Guilin, Baotou, Handan, Fuzhou (FJ)||16|
|5||Huainan, Lanzhou, Foshan, Baoding, Daqing, Kaifeng, Yichang, Hengyang, Wuxi, Xuzhou, Changzhou, Suzhou (JS), Fuxin, Zibo, Zaozhuang, Liuzhou||16|
|4||Hefei, Wuhu, Bengbu, Putian, Quanzhou, Zhanjiang, Haikou, Sanya, Qinhuangdao, Shuangyashan, Yichun (HL), Jiamusi, Mudanjiang, Pingdingshan, Anyang, Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, Huangshi, Zhuzhou, Huai'an, Jilin, Anshan, Fushun, Benxi, Yingkou, Liaoyang, Xining, Yantai, Weifang, Datong, Zigong, Leshan, Wenzhou, Hohhot, Karamay||35|
|3||Tongling, Ma'anshan, Huaibei, Anqing, Huangshan, Fuyang, Lu'an, Shaoguan, Zhuhai, Jiangmen, Zhaoqing, Chengde, Qitaihe, Hebi, Luohe, Shiyan, Xiangyang, Ezhou, Shaoyang, Yueyang, Nantong, Lianyungang, Yancheng, Yangzhou, Zhenjiang, Taizhou (JS), Jingdezhen, Dongying, Dandong, Jinzhou, Panjin, Tieling, Huludao, Tongchuan, Baoji, Xianyang, Linyi, Yangquan, Panzhihua, Luzhou, Guangyuan, Nanchong, Mianyang, Shaoxing, Taizhou (ZJ), Zunyi, Wuzhou, Beihai, Guigang, Wuhai, Chifeng, Yinchuan, Ganzhou||53|
|2||Chuzhou, Hengshui, Sanming, Zhangzhou, Nanping, Longyan, Baiyin, Tianshui, Longnan, Maoming, Huizhou, Meizhou, Yangjiang, Qingyuan, Chaozhou, Jieyang, Yunfu, Anshun, Tongren, Xingtai, Cangzhou, Langfang, Sanmenxia, Nanyang, Shangqiu, Xinyang, Xuchang, Jingmen, Jingzhou, Xiangtan, Changde, Zhangjiajie, Yiyang, Chenzhou, Yongzhou, Suqian, Pingxiang, Jiujiang, Ji'an, Shangrao, Siping, Liaoyuan, Tonghua, Baishan, Chaoyang, Haidong, Weinan, Jining, Tai'an, Weihai, Rizhao, Laiwu, Dezhou, Binzhou, Heze, Yulin (SN), Changzhi, Shuozhou, Suining, Neijiang, Meishan, Yibin, Guang'an, Dazhou, Ya'an, Bazhong, Ziyang, Yuxi, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Jinhua, Quzhou, Zhoushan, Fuzhou (JX), Fangchenggang, Qinzhou, Yulin (GX), Hezhou, Hechi, Yan'an, Ordos, Hulunbuir, Shizuishan, Wuzhong, Lhasa, Qujing||86|
|1||Suzhou (AH), Bozhou, Chizhou, Xuancheng, Ningde, Jinchang, Wuwei, Zhangye, Pingliang, Jiuquan, Qingyang, Dingxi, Shanwei, Heyuan, Bijie, Liupanshui, Heihe, Suihua, Puyang, Zhoukou, Zhumadian, Xiaogan, Huanggang, Xianning, Suizhou, Huaihua, Loudi, Xinyu, Yingtan, Yichun (JX), Songyuan, Baicheng, Hanzhong, Ankang, Shangluo, Liaocheng, Jincheng, Jinzhong, Yuncheng, Xinzhou, Linfen, Lüliang, Deyang, Baoshan, Zhaotong, Lijiang, Pu'er, Lincang, Lishui, Baise, Laibin, Chongzuo, Tongliao, Bayannur, Ulanqab, Guyuan, Zhongwei, Xigazê, Qamdo, Nyingchi, Shannan, Turpan, Hami||63|
|0||Jiayuguan, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Sansha, Danzhou||5|
A county-controlled district sometimes translated as county-governed district; county district or sub-county; (Chinese :县辖区，区; pinyin :Xiànxiáqǖ, Qǖ) is a sub-county in China. A branch of a county government, a district public office (Chinese:区公所; pinyin:Qū gōngsuǒ) is the administrative office in a district, it is not a local government. A county-controlled district was once an important subdivision of a county all over China from 1950s to 1990s. It was common for there to be about 5 to 10 districts in a county, then about 3 to 5 towns and townships in a district. After the 1990s, county-controlled districts began to be phased out, and their role were taken over by larger towns or townships created by merging smaller ones.
At the end of 2014, there are just 1 county-controlled district left in China:
See Administrative divisions of China for how these two types of districts fit into the general administrative hierarchy of mainland China.
If the word "district" is encountered in the context of ancient Chinese history, then the word is a translation for xian, another type of administrative division in China.[ dubious ][ citation needed ]
Xian has been translated using several English terms. In the context of ancient history, "district" and "prefecture" are commonly used, while "county" is used for more contemporary contexts.
See Counties of China for more information on the xian of China.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French conté or cunté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount. Literal equivalents in other languages, derived from the equivalent of "count", are now seldom used officially, including comté, contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, and zhupa in Slavic languages; terms equivalent to English language administrative terms such as municipality, district, circuit and commune/community are now often instead used.
A prefecture is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international church structures, as well as in antiquity a Roman district
Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, forming the country's first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. They include 43 prefectures proper, two urban prefectures, one "circuit" or "territory" and one "metropolis". In 1868, the Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures to replace the urban and rural administrators in the parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate and a few territories of rebels/shogunate loyalists who had not submitted to the new government such as Aizu/Wakamatsu. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsuryō provinces of Japan.
Due to China's large population and geographical area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient era. The constitution of China provides for three de jure levels of government. Currently, however, there are five practical levels of local government: the provincial, prefecture, county, township, and village.
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district.
Shaoshan is a county-level city in Hunan Province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Xiangtan. Qingxi Town is its seat.
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of China, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. The political status of Taiwan Province along with a small fraction of Fujian Province remain in dispute, those are under separate rule by the Republic of China.
A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city; formerly known as province-administrated city from 1949 to 1983, is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC), ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs (mayors) of prefectural level cities generally have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities.
Prefectures, formally a kind of prefecture-level divisions as a term in the context of China, are used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. There are 333 prefecture-level divisions in China. They include 7 prefectures, 293 prefecture-level cities, 30 autonomous prefectures and 3 leagues. Other than provincial level divisions, prefectural level divisions are not mentioned in the Chinese constitution.
Wanzhou District is Chongqing's second most populated urban core area on the upper reaches of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in China. It is currently governed as a district of Chongqing Municipality, bordering Sichuan to the northwest and Hubei to the southeast. It was formerly known as Wanxian or Wan County. Prior to Chongqing's formation as a direct-controlled municipality, Wanzhou was part of Sichuan province. The urban core of Wanzhou is 228 km (142 mi) away from Chongqing's city proper.
A county-level municipality, county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city, is a county-level administrative division of the People's Republic of China. County-level cities have judicial but no legislative rights over their own local law and are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions. Three of the claim county-level cities are part of the disputed Taiwan Province, but all of them are controlled by the Republic of China as its provincial cities.
Yichang, alternatively romanized as Ichang, is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the second largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District. As of the 2010 census, its population was 4,059,686 inhabitants of whom 1,350,150 lived in the built-up area consisting of Yiling, Xiling, Wujiagang and Dianjun urban districts. The Xiaoting District has not yet been urbanized.
Suizhou, formerly Sui County, is a prefecture-level city in northern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, bordering Henan province to the north and east.
Aihui District is an administrative district and the seat of the prefecture-level city of Heihe, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China. It is located on the right (south-western) bank of the Amur River, across which is Blagoveshchensk, Amur Oblast, Russia. According to the prefectural government, the land area of Aihui District is 1,443 km2 (557 sq mi), the population is 197,240 people.
Kaifu District is one of six urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Changsha, the capital of Hunan Province, China. The district is bordered by Furong and Tianxin Districts to the south, Changsha County to the east and northeast, Wangcheng District to the north, Yuelu and Wangcheng Districts across the Xiang river to the west. Located in the central Changsha, Kaifu covers 188.73 km2 (72.87 sq mi) with population of 595,000, registered population of 452,168. The district has 16 subdistricts under its jurisdiction, the government seat is at Furongbeilu subdistrict.
Districts are administrative subdivisions of special municipalities and provincial cities of Taiwan. There are two types of district in the administrative scheme.
Qianjiang District is a district in the southeastern part of Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China, bordering Hubei province to the east and northeast. While it is governed as a district, in practice Qianjiang is its own city proper far removed from the urban centre of Chongqing. The Miao and Tujia ethnic groups constitute 50.03% of the Qianjiang population, the other half being mostly Han (49.94%). Qianjiang is nicknamed "The Throat of Sichuan and Hubei" (川鄂咽喉) because it sits on the intersection of Sichuan-Hubei and Sichuan-Hunan Roads.
A municipality, formally a municipality under the direct administration of central government, is the highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China. These cities have the same rank as provinces, and form part of the first tier of administrative divisions of China.
A provincial-controlled division, is an unofficial designation for a type of administrative division of China. Every provincial-controlled divisions is officially considered to be a county-level city or county, but it has more power de facto because it is directly under the province similar to prefectural-level divisions.