Ordos City

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Ordos

鄂尔多斯市ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Ordos.2 tours et jardin.jpg
Ulan Moron Site Lake in Ordos City
Location of Ordos Prefecture within Inner Mongolia (China).svg
Location of Ordos City jurisdiction in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Coordinates(Genghis Khan Plaza, Kangbashi): 39°36′14″N109°47′06″E / 39.604°N 109.785°E / 39.604; 109.785 Coordinates: 39°36′14″N109°47′06″E / 39.604°N 109.785°E / 39.604; 109.785
Country People's Republic of China
Region Inner Mongolia
Municipal seat Kangbashi District
Area
   Prefecture-level city 86,752 km2 (33,495 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2017) [1]
199.42 km2 (77.00 sq mi)
Elevation
1,305 m (4,281 ft)
Highest elevation
2,149 m (7,051 ft)
Lowest elevation
850 m (2,790 ft)
Population
 (2014 est.)
   Prefecture-level city 2,035,653
  Density23/km2 (61/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2017) [1]
496,100
  Urban density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
017000
ISO 3166 code CN-NM-06
GDP
(2016)
CNY 441.79 billion
(US$ 66.51 billion)
GDP per capita
(2016)
CNY 215,486
(US$ 32,442)
Licence plate prefixes K
Administrative division code 150600
Website www.ordos.gov.cn
Ordos City
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 鄂尔多斯
Traditional Chinese 鄂爾多斯
Hanyu Pinyin È'ěrduōsī Shì
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Ордос хот
Mongolian script ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ

Ordos (Mongolian: Ordus.svg , Ordos; simplified Chinese :鄂尔多斯; traditional Chinese :鄂爾多斯; pinyin :È'ěrduōsī) is one of the twelve major subdivisions of Inner Mongolia, China. It lies within the Ordos Plateau of the Yellow River. Although mainly rural, Ordos is administered as a prefecture-level city.

Contents

Ordos is known for its recently undertaken large scale government projects including most prominently the new Kangbashi District, an urban district planned as a massive civic mall with abundant monuments, cultural institutions and other showpiece architecture. It was the venue for the 2012 Miss World Final. [2]

When it was newly built, the streets of the new Kangbashi district did not have much activity, and the district was frequently described as a "ghost city" by several Western media outlets. However, by 2017, Kangbashi had become more populated with a resident population of 153,000 and around one-third of apartments occupied. In a Forbes article, Wade Shepard noted that "...of the 40,000 apartments that had been built in the new district since 2004, only 500 are still on the market. [3]

Etymology

The area had been administered under the Ih Ju League, also spelled Ikh Juu (Mongolian : ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭYeke Juu ayimaγ; Chinese:伊克昭盟; pinyin:Yīkèzhāo Méng), since the 17th century.

It was redesignated a prefecture-level city and renamed to Ordos on 26 February 2001. "Ordos" means "palaces" in the Mongolian language. [4] "Ordos" originally referred to a tribe belonging to the Yeke Juu (Ike Chao ‘great monastery’) league and later included the tribe's area, hence the Ordos, or Ordus, the area within the big bend of the Yellow River. Mongolian ordu(n), ord ‘court, residence of a ruler; palace; camp’, also for 'camp bodyguards'. According to Ramstedt -s is a plural suffix; further: ordu, orda; Turkic orta ‘a center’; Mongolian > Turkish orda ‘camp’ > Hindi urdū > English "horde." [5] The name is sometimes claimed to be related to the eight white yurts of Genghis Khan. [6] Linguistically, the Ordos dialect of Mongolian is quite different from neighboring Chakhar Mongolian.

Genghis Khan equestrian sculpture in Ordos City GhinggisKhanStatue.jpg
Genghis Khan equestrian sculpture in Ordos City

History

Prehistoric civilization

Genghis Khan Mausoleum in the Ejin Horo Banner Genghis khan mausoleum.jpg
Genghis Khan Mausoleum in the Ejin Horo Banner

At the southern end of the Ordos grassland, there is a river originating from Dingbian County in northwestern Shaanxi, flowing through the Otog Banner and Uxin Banner in Inner Mongolia, and then flowing from the east of Batuwan Village into the territory of northern Shanxi, after converging with Xiangshui River. It flows into the Wuding River, a tributary of the Yellow River, to the southeast. In the loose Mu Us desert, a “U” shaped river valley is washed out. This river is known as the Sarawusu River. Sara Wusu in Mongolian means "thick yellow stream" after the eponymous perennially yellow-colored local river; on both sides of the river is covered with swaying red willows, so people also call this river "Hongliu River". It is in this river. In 1922, the French Catholic priest Sang Zhihua first discovered a fossil of the "Hetao People" here. Since then, Chinese archaeologists have visited the site many times. A large number of cultural relics have been discovered, and as early as 35,000 years ago, "Hetao people" lived here. The material culture created by the “Hetao People” is now called “Salawusu Culture”. After a comprehensive analysis of geology, animal fossils and stone tools, the Sarawusu culture was identified as the late Paleolithic culture.

Hetao civilization is the product of the integration of grassland culture and Yellow River civilization. Its long-term development and complex transmutation process, especially the relationship with Urad and Ordos Mongolian culture, also illustrates the relationship between Hetao civilization and Yellow River civilization. Hetao culture is one of the important components of the mainstream culture of the northern grasslands. In the grassland culture, the Hetao culture is both a source and a stream. As a source, Hetao culture has a historical accumulation of symbiosis with the northern grassland culture. As a stream, it is different from the Mongolian classic culture in the eastern part of Inner Mongolia, such as Hongshan culture and Khorchin Mongols culture. It has its unique development trend. In the origin of grassland culture, it is a source of the late Paleolithic period, which originated from the prosperity of ancient ethnic minorities. It was formed in the Qin, Han, Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it is a cultural system of modern and contemporary civilization. It is an independent unit culture circle of grassland culture and a complete regional cultural system, which plays an important role in the composition of grassland culture.

Ancient history

Before the Zhou Dynasty, it was a nomadic area such as the Guifang and Lin Hu. In the Warring States Period, it was the Yunzhong County of the Zhao State Territory, and later belonged to the Qin State. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, it was the front line of the Xiongnu and Han wars. Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty set up the Shuofang County here. When Emperor Xuan of Han called the Huxie Chanyu to come, he became the residence of the Southern Xiongnu. Later, Hu Han lived in harmony, and the Uprising of the Five Barbarians broke out in the Western Jin Dynasty. Sixteen Kingdoms were the pre-Qin and post-Qin territory. The Northern Dynasties belonged to the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Western Wei Dynasty, and the Northern Zhou Dynasty. In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, they were all territories. In the Tang Dynasty, they were placed in the party, and the famous General Guo Ziyi once held this position. During the Anshi Rebellion, Emperor Suzong of Tang fled to this place.

Qin Zhidao and Qifang County

Qin Zhidao was an important military road for Qin Shihuang to be supervised by Meng Tian from 212 BC to 210 BC. Qinzhidao starts from Yunyang Linguang Palace in the Xianyang military site, and goes to Jiuyuan County in the north. Qinzhidao passes through Ordos City, three Banners and one district, the Qinzhidao site protection unit is established in Ordos City. One of the northern border counties of the Han Dynasty, the Sufang County was set up in the Western Han Dynasty. In 127 BC (Yuanshou two years), Emperor Wu sent Wei Qing and Li Xi to send troops to attack the Xiongnu. Soldiers from Yunzhong County, west of Gaochun, and then westward to Fuli (now northern Gansu), regained the Hetao. The jurisdiction of the original Qin Dynasty (commonly known as "New Qinzhong"), and the Sufang County in the south of the Yin Mountain, has been identified in the northwestern part of the current Otog Banner.

Tongwan City

Tongwan City is located at the junction of Ordos City and Jingbian, Shaanxi Province. It was the capital of the Daxia Kingdom during the Northern Dynasties and Sixteen Kingdoms 1500 years ago, In 407 AD, the Xiongnu leader Helian Bobo called himself “Tianwang, Great Chan Yu, occupied and located in the desert. The first year of Helian Bobo's kingdom called "Fengxiang", the 100,000 people of all ethnic groups, used the "steaming dust to build the city" method to build the capital in the south of the black water in the north of the SuFang (now Hongliu River). The city was built in 7 years. The city is 25 meters thick, with a height of 23.33 meters and a width of 11.16 meters.

Eight white room

The Chinese translation of "Ordos" is "eight white rooms". For the sake of easy understanding, it is generally translated as "a large number of palaces". When Genghis Khan passed through the present Ordos area in a march, the whip landed, and Genghis Khan sighed that the water and grass here was rich, and he said that he would be buried here after his death. In August 1227, Genghis Khan died on the way to Xixia. Genghis Khan's three sons, Wo Kuotai Khan, placed the coffin and relics of Genghis Khan in a white felt for worship, collectively known as the Eight White Room. When the time came to Kublai Khan, Yuanshizu, he stipulated the ceremonies and ritual rules of the Eighth Room, and promulgated the sacred ceremonies. He held sacrifices throughout the year and became a great sacrifice for the Mongol Empire. In the eight white rooms, Genghis Khan and several ladies' coffins formed three white rooms. Genghis Khan used saddles, bows and arrows, milk buckets, historical materials books and reincarnation white horses that had been sealed by Genghis Khan to form the other five white rooms. And ordered the Darwinites to be guarded by the generation and generation, the Eight White Room is the holy place for the Mongolian people to worship. The Chagan Suluk sacrifice is the big ritual of the Eight White Room in a year. Genghis Khan used the 981 horses to send to the heavens. And reincarnation of the white god horse with white satin hanging and offering. The Eight White Room is a movable hall and a symbol of the power of the Genghis Khan gold family.

In the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan entered the Central Plains, and the Eight White Room moved to the capital, Khanbaliq. In the 1750s, Mandulu Khan led the Ordos Department into the area south of the Yellow River. Eight white rooms moved to Ordos. Soon, the son of Mandulu Khan came to dominate the grasslands, betrayed the golden family of Genghis Khan, and controlled the eight white rooms in their hands. Until the beginning of the sixteenth century, Genghis Khan's fifteenth generation of Sun Batu Mengke unified Mongolian ministries, and the eight white rooms were re-owned in the Genghis Khan gold family.

Qing Dynasty

Six Banner's League

In the sixth year of Qing Shunzhi (AD 1649), the Qing dynasty divided the Mongolian Ordos tribe into six Banners: the Ordos left-wing middle Banner (formerly the county king Banner), Ordos Left-wing front Banner (now Jungar Banner), the Ordos left-wing Banner (now the Dalat Banner), Ordos right-wing middle Banner (now Otog Banner), Ordos right-wing front Banner (now Uxin Banner), Ordos right wing Banner (now Hanggin), later, the addition of Ordos right wing before the Banner (formerly Zhasak Banner). Later, the Ordos' Six Banners have allied at Wang Ai Zhao, and named the Ikezhao League(Former name of Ordos city).

The Qing Dynasty was an important period in the history of China's population development. At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, through the restoration and development of Kangxi, YongZheng, and Qianlong, three emperors, the population of the Qianlong Dynasty broke through the 300 million mark. The contradiction between people and land is sharp, and a large number of the poor in the Mainland are forced by life pressure. They migrated to the West(Ordos), the Guandong, and the Nanyang(South sea and island of China). "Zou Xi Kou" means that thousands of people from Shanxi, Shaanxi and other places have migrated to Ordos, Guihua(Hohhot), Tumut, and Chahar since the Qing Dynasty. "Zou Xi Kou" changed Mongolia's social structure, economic structure and way of life. Shanxi people account for a relatively high proportion of immigrants, bringing Shanxi's Jin culture to the central and western regions of Inner Mongolia.

Modern

After the Republic of China, the special zone of Suiyuan was established, and later it was changed to Suiyuan Province, and Ikezhao League was established. After the Lugou Bridge Incident in 1937, Japan occupied most of northern China. In 1938, Inner Mongolia Bailing Temple, Guisui, Baotou and other places were successively lost. After the Japanese invaders occupied Baotou, they went to Ordos to coerce the princes of all ethnic groups and moved the eight white rooms of Genghis Khan to Baotou. At that time, the Iqzhao League leader Shagdur Zab and the flag princes vowed never to move east. Because the Genghis Khan eight white room is the god of all Mongolian beliefs. At that time, the situation was forced, but in desperation, the eight white room had to move west to the Xinglong Mountain in Gansu. On June 9, 1939, the Eight White Room embarked on a long road to the west. On June 21, the Eight White Room passed through Yan'an, and the Chinese Communist Party presented a wreath to the bier. On the couplet of the mourning hall, the two major ethnic groups of Mongolia and Han are more closely united, inheriting the spirit of Genghis Khan and fighting against the war, and the banner is the world giant. On June 25, the Eight White Room arrived in Xi'an, and along the street, the 200,000 people were welcome. The National Government held a grand national festival in accordance with the customs of the Mongolian nation. On July 1, 1939, the Eight White Room was placed in Xinglong Mountain, Gansu Province. In 1949, due to the chaos of the current situation, the government of the Republic of China moved the Eight White Room to the Qinghai Kumbum Monastery.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, it has been transferred to the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In 1954, the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China moved the Eight White Room back to Ejin Hollow. [5]

In 2001, the State Council approved the withdrawal of Ikezhao League and the establishment of the prefecture-level Ordos City.

On June 8, 2016, the State Council approved the “Request for the Establishment of Kangbashi District in Ordos City” of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region: agreed to set up Kangbashi District, and will be the Habagesh Street, Qingshan Street and Binhe Street in Dongsheng District of Ordos City. It is placed under the jurisdiction of the Kangbash district.

Geography and climate

Ordos's prefectural administrative region occupies 86,752 square kilometers (33,495 sq mi) and covers the bigger part of the Ordos Desert, although the urban area itself is relatively small. It borders the prefecture-level divisions of Hohhot to the east, Baotou to the northeast, Bayan Nur to the north, Alxa League to the northwest, Wuhai to the west, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region to its southwest, and the provinces of Shaanxi and Shanxi to the south. The maximal north-south extent is 340 km (210 mi), while from east to west it stretches for 400 km (250 mi). [7]

The most populous municipality is Dongsheng which had a population of 582,544 inhabitants as of the 2010 census. Another urban area is the conglomeration of Kangbashi District and the adjacent township of Altan Xire. [8] Kangbashi is to the north of the Wulan Mulun River, a tributary of the Yellow River, while Altan Xire is to the south of the same river.

The area of Ordos Shi can roughly be divided into a hilly area in the east, high plateaus in the west and center, sandy deserts in the north and south, and plains at the southern bank of the Yellow River. The highest elevation, at 2,149 meters (7,051 ft), is located in the west, the lowest point, at 850 m (2,790 ft), is in the east.

There are two large deserts in the territory of Ordos city: Kubuqi Desert in the north and the Mu Us (Maowusu) Desert in the south. The Kubuqi Desert occupies 19.2% of Ordos, or 16,600 km2 (6,400 sq mi), while the Maowusu Desert takes up 28.8% of the area, or 25,000 km2 (9,700 sq mi).

Ordos features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), marked by long, cold and very dry winters; very warm, somewhat humid summers; and strong winds, especially in spring. The annual precipitation is 300 to 400 millimeters (11.8 to 15.7 in) in the eastern part of the city and 190 to 350 mm (7.5 to 13.8 in) in the western part. Most of the rain falls between July and September, with very little snow in winter; average annual evaporation reaches 2,000 to 3,000 mm (79 to 118 in). In the city proper, the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −10.5 °C (13.1 °F) in January to 21.0 °C (69.8 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 6.16 °C (43.1 °F). Sunshine duration averages 2,700 to 3,200 hours annually. [7]

Climate data for Ordos (1971−2000)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)7.8
(46.0)
13.9
(57.0)
19.4
(66.9)
32.2
(90.0)
32.9
(91.2)
32.2
(90.0)
35.3
(95.5)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
24.4
(75.9)
18.2
(64.8)
10.6
(51.1)
35.3
(95.5)
Average high °C (°F)−4.8
(23.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
5.2
(41.4)
14.1
(57.4)
20.8
(69.4)
25.0
(77.0)
26.7
(80.1)
24.5
(76.1)
19.4
(66.9)
12.6
(54.7)
4.0
(39.2)
−2.9
(26.8)
11.9
(53.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)−10.5
(13.1)
−7.2
(19.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
7.7
(45.9)
14.6
(58.3)
19.1
(66.4)
21.0
(69.8)
19.1
(66.4)
13.8
(56.8)
6.8
(44.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
6.2
(43.1)
Average low °C (°F)−14.7
(5.5)
−11.5
(11.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
1.9
(35.4)
8.4
(47.1)
13.0
(55.4)
15.8
(60.4)
14.3
(57.7)
8.8
(47.8)
2.1
(35.8)
−5.9
(21.4)
−12.3
(9.9)
1.2
(34.2)
Record low °C (°F)−28.4
(−19.1)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−22.8
(−9.0)
−11.6
(11.1)
−4.8
(23.4)
1.7
(35.1)
9.1
(48.4)
4.3
(39.7)
−2.1
(28.2)
−13.6
(7.5)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−28.4
(−19.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)2.1
(0.08)
4.4
(0.17)
10.8
(0.43)
11.4
(0.45)
25.8
(1.02)
44.8
(1.76)
105.7
(4.16)
105.5
(4.15)
44.7
(1.76)
19.4
(0.76)
5.3
(0.21)
1.3
(0.05)
381.2
(15)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)2.12.94.33.45.98.712.211.98.14.42.61.968.4
Source: Weather China [7]

Economy

Ordos is one the most prosperous regions of China when measured by GDP figures. With a nominal per-capita GDP of US$34,352 and ppp per capita GDP of $65,192 in 2016, it ranks first among prefecture-level divisions in the entire Chinese mainland, and second in the PRC (including Hong Kong & Macau), behind Macau (Nominal GDP per capita: US$67,079; GDP (PPP) per capita: $96,148). It is extremely rich in natural resources, having one sixth of the national coal reserves. The pillars of its economy are textiles (wool), coal mining, petrochemicals, electricity generation, production of building materials, and bitcoin mining. An industrial park in Dalad Banner is home to one of the world's largest bitcoin 'mines' - really a massive server farm - owned by Beijing-based Bitmain. [9]

Administrative subdivisions

Ordos Shi is divided into two districts and seven banners:

Map
NameMongolian Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010)Area (km²)Density (/km²)
Dongsheng District ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠱᠧᠩ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Düŋšėŋ toɣoriɣ)
东胜区Dōngshèng Qū582,5442,146271
Kangbashi District
(Hia'bagx District)
ᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Kiy-a baγsi toɣoriɣ)
康巴什区Kāngbāshí Qū153,000372.55404
Dalad Banner ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠳ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Dalad qosiɣu)
达拉特旗Dálātè Qí322,1018,19240
Jungar Banner ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Jegünɣar qosiɣu)
准格尔旗Zhǔngé'ěr Qí356,5017,53536
Otog Front Banner
(Otog Omnod Banner)
ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Otoɣ-un Emünedü qosiɣu)
鄂托克前旗Ètuōkè Qián Qí68,28212,3186
Otog Banner ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Otoɣ qosiɣu)
鄂托克旗Ètuōkè Qí148,84420,0644
Hanggin Banner ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Qaŋɣin qosiɣu)
杭锦旗Hángjǐn Qí111,10218,9037
Uxin Banner ᠦᠦᠰᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Üüsin qosiɣu)
乌审旗Wūshěn Qí124,52711,6459
Ejin Horo Banner ᠡᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Ejin Qoroɣ-a qosiɣu)
伊金霍洛旗Yījīnhuòluò Qí226,7525,95823

Kangbashi New Area

A large, sparsely inhabited urban real estate development has been constructed 25 km (16 mi) from Dongsheng District. Intended to house a million people, it remains mostly uninhabited. [10] [11] Intended to have 300,000 residents by 2010, government figures stated it had 28,000. [12] It has been the subject of several speculative publication, including an illustrated feature series conducted by Al Jazeera in 2010. [13]

Ordos Museum

Ordos Museum Ordos Museum.jpg
Ordos Museum

In 2011, a 49,400-square-meter museum, entitled Ordos Museum (Chinese :鄂尔多斯博物馆), was opened in Kangbashi. The museum, designed by China-based architectural practice MAD Studio, focuses upon the history of the Ordos area, as well as on the culture and traditions of Inner Mongolia. [14]

Transportation

Travel within Ordos City is primarily made by car or bus, using the city's network roads. Two tolled expressways, the G18 Rongcheng–Wuhai Expressway and the G65 Baotou–Maoming Expressway, provide connections with other towns and cities including Dongsheng.

In 2016, the Ordos railway station in the city opened. The station is on the Beijing-Baotou railway, the Hohhot-Ordos high-speed railway line, and the Baotou-West railway. High speed trains to the provincial capital of Hohhot are run on a daily basis. [15] As well as slower speed trains directly to and from Beijing West railway station. [16]

Ordos Ejin Horo Airport is located in Ejin Horo Banner.

Demographics

In the 2000 census, there were 1,369,766 inhabitants:

ethnic grouppopulationshare
Han 1,207,97188.19%
Mongols 155,84511.38%
Manchu 2,9050.21%
Hui 1,8610.14%
Tibetans 1,0230.07%

Many people came from the Shanxi province, 30 km (19 mi) south of this city.[ citation needed ]

See also

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Bayannur or Bayannao'er is a prefecture-level city in western Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. Until December 1, 2003, the area was called Bayannur League.

Mongolia under Qing rule

Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty over the Mongolian steppe, including the Outer Mongolian 4 aimags and Inner Mongolian 6 leagues from the 17th century to the end of the dynasty. "Mongolia" here is understood in the broader historical sense. The last Mongol Khagan Ligden saw much of his power weakened in his quarrels with the Mongol tribes, was defeated by the Manchus, and died soon afterwards. His son Ejei Khan gave Hong Taiji the imperial authority, ending the rule of Northern Yuan dynasty then centered in Inner Mongolia by 1635. However, the Khalkha Mongols in Outer Mongolia continued to rule until they were overrun by the Dzungars in 1690, and they submitted to the Qing dynasty in 1691.

Ejin Horo Banner Banner in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China

The Ejin Horo Banner, also known as Ejin Horo Qi or Yijinhuoluo County, is a banner in Ordos City in southwestern Inner Mongolia, China. It borders Shaanxi Province to the southeast. As of 2009, the Ejin Horo Banner covers an area of almost 5,600 square kilometres (2,200 sq mi), with a population of nearly 160,000, the majority of whom are ethnically Han Chinese.

Various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei state, the Rouran Khaganate (330–555), the First 552–603) and Second Turkic Khaganates (682–744) and others, ruled the area of present-day Mongolia. The Khitan people, who used a para-Mongolic language, founded an empire known as the Liao dynasty (916–1125) and ruled Mongolia and portions of the present-day Russian Far East, northern Korea, and North China.

Tumed

The Tümed are a Mongol subgroup. They live in Tumed Left Banner, district of Hohhot and Tumed Right Banner, district of Baotou in China. Most engage in sedentary agriculture, living in mixed communities in the suburbs of Huhhot. Part of them live along Hulun Buir, Inner Mongolia. There are the Tumeds in the soums of Mandal-Ovoo, Bulgan, Tsogt-Ovoo, Tsogttsetsii, Manlai, Khurmen, Bayandalai and Sevrei of Umnugovi Aimag, Mongolia.

Ordos Mongols

The Ordos are a Mongol subgroup that live in Uxin Banner, Inner Mongolia of China. Ordos literally means plural of Ordo.

Hetao

Hetao is a C-shaped region in northwestern China consisting of a collection of flood plains stretching from the banks of the northern half of the Ordos Loop, a large northerly rectangular bend of the Yellow River that forms the river's entire middle section. The region makes up the northern margin of the Ordos Basin, bounded in the west by the Helan Mountains, the north by the Yin Mountains, the east by the northern portion of Lüliang Mountains, and the south by the Ordos Desert and the Loess Plateau.

Ordos Plateau Highland sedimentary basin in northwest China

The Ordos Plateau, also known as the Ordos Basin or simply the Ordos, is a highland sedimentary basin in northwest China with an elevation of 1,000–1,600 m (3,300–5,200 ft), and consisting mostly of land enclosed by the Ordos Loop, a large northerly rectangular bend of the Yellow River that makes up the river's entire middle section. It is China's second largest sedimentary basin with a total area of 370,000 km2 (140,000 sq mi), and includes territories from five provinces, namely Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and a thin fringe of Shanxi, but is demographically dominated by the former three, hence is also called the Shaan-Gan-Ning Basin. The basin is bounded in the east by the Lüliang Mountains, north by the Yin Mountains, west by the Helan Mountains, and south by the Huanglong Mountains, Meridian Ridge and Liupan Mountains.

Shuofang was an ancient Chinese commandery, situated in the Hetao region in modern-day Inner Mongolia near Baotou. First founded by Emperor Wu of Han in the wake of the successful reconquest of the area from Xiongnu tribes, it was dissolved during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and then reconstituted centuries later during the Northern Wei and Sui periods, before finally being dissolved during the Tang Dynasty.

History of the Great Wall of China Aspect of Chinese military history

The history of the Great Wall of China began when fortifications built by various states during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods were connected by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, to protect his newly founded Qin dynasty against incursions by nomads from Inner Asia. The walls were built of rammed earth, constructed using forced labour, and by 212 BC ran from Gansu to the coast of southern Manchuria.

Mongolian shamanism

Mongolian shamanism, more broadly called the Mongolian folk religion, or occasionally Tengerism, refers to the animistic and shamanic ethnic religion that has been practiced in Mongolia and its surrounding areas at least since the age of recorded history. In the earliest known stages it was intricately tied to all other aspects of social life and to the tribal organization of Mongolian society. Along the way, it has become influenced by and mingled with Buddhism. During the socialist years of the twentieth century it was heavily repressed and has since made a comeback.

Religion in Inner Mongolia

Religion in Inner Mongolia is characterised by the diverse traditions of Mongolian-Tibetan Buddhism, Chinese Buddhism, the Chinese traditional religion including the traditional Chinese ancestral religion, Taoism, Confucianism and folk religious sects, and the Mongolian native religion. The region is inhabited by a majority of Han Chinese and a substantial minority of Southern Mongols, so that some religions follow ethnic lines.

The Wujia River is a river in the Inner Mongolia of the People's Republic of China, located in the northern part of the river-loop plain in western Inner Mongolia. The ancient Yellow River in the Hetao region is the current Wujia River. According to Commentary on the Water Classic records, the Wujia River that flows north from Bayangol Town (巴彦高勒镇) was originally the main stem of the Yellow River. "Wujia River" means "One End of the River" (河的一端) or "Tip River" (尖河) in Mongolian.

References

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