Anhui

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Anhui Province
安徽省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese安徽省 (Ānhuī Shěng)
  AbbreviationAH / (pinyin:Wǎn)
   Jiang–Huai Ang1 huei1 Sen3
Ella me pregunto- ?te gusta%3F; le conteste- De aqui soy. (15734147422).jpg
Yixian Hongcun 2016.09.09 18-17-26.jpg
South Erhuan Rd.jpg
(clockwise from top)
  • Panoramic view of the Huangshan landscape
  • Hongcun
  • Hefei skyline
Anhui in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Anhui Province
Coordinates: 31°50′N117°0′E / 31.833°N 117.000°E / 31.833; 117.000 Coordinates: 31°50′N117°0′E / 31.833°N 117.000°E / 31.833; 117.000
Country China
Named for Ān: Anqing
Huī: Huizhou
Capital
(and largest city)
Hefei
Divisions16 prefectures, 105 counties, 1845 townships
Government
  Type Province
  Body Anhui Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Zheng Shanjie
   Congress chairman Li Jinbin
   Governor Wang Qingxian
   CPPCC chairman Zhang Chang'er
Area
[1]
  Total140,200 km2 (54,100 sq mi)
Area rank 22nd
Highest elevation1,873 m (6,145 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total61,027,171
  Rank 8th
  Density440/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
  Density rank 9th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han – 99%
Hui – 0.6%
  Languages and dialects Jianghuai Mandarin, Zhongyuan Mandarin, Gan, Wu, Huizhou
ISO 3166 code CN-AH
GDP (2020) CNY 3.868 trillion
USD 560 billion (11th) [3]
 - per capita CNY 63,382
USD 9,186 (15th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 3.9%
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.738 [4]
high · 20th
Website www.ah.gov.cn (in Chinese)

Ecology

The Anhui elm, UlmusgausseniiW. C. Cheng, is a medium size deciduous tree whose natural range is restricted to the valleys of the Langya limestone mountains of Chu Xian. [9] The tree was most commonly found on the flood plains, indicating a tolerance of periodic inundation. U. gaussenii is now the world's rarest and most endangered elm species, with only approximately 30 trees known to survive in the wild in 2009. [10]

The province is also home to the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis, simplified Chinese :扬子鳄; traditional Chinese : 揚子 ; pinyin :yángzǐ'è), also known as the Yangtze alligator, [11] China alligator, [12] or historically the muddy dragon, [13] a critically endangered crocodilian.

Administrative divisions

Anhui is divided into sixteen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Anhui
Anhui (Chinese characters).svg
"Anhui" in Chinese characters
Administrative divisions of Anhui
Division code [14] DivisionArea in km2 [15] Population 2010 [16] SeatDivisions [17]
Districts Counties CL cities
340000Anhui Province139600.0059,500,468 Hefei city45509
340100 Hefei city11,445.067,457,027 Shushan District 441
340200 Wuhu city6,004.973,545,067 Jiujiang District 511
340300 Bengbu city5,950.723,164,467 Bengshan District 43
340400 Huainan city5532.303,342,012 Tianjia'an District 52
340500 Ma'anshan city4,049.132,202,899 Yushan District 33
340600 Huaibei city2,740.912,114,276 Xiangshan District 31
340700 Tongling city2,937.831,562,670 Tongguan District 31
340800 Anqing city13,525.034,472,667 Yingjiang District 352
341000 Huangshan city9,678.391,358,980 Tunxi District 34
341100 Chuzhou city13,515.993,937,868 Langya District 242
341200 Fuyang city10,118.177,599,913 Yingzhou District 341
341300 Suzhou city9,938.775,352,924 Yongqiao District 14
341500 Lu'an city15,450.824,603,585 Jin'an District 34
341600 Bozhou city8,521.234,850,657 Qiaocheng District 13
341700 Chizhou city8,364.811,402,518 Guichi District 13
341800 Xuancheng city12,312.552,532,938 Xuanzhou District 142

These 16 prefecture-level cities are in turn subdivided into 105 county-level divisions (44 districts, 6 county-level cities, and 55 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,845 township-level divisions (972 towns, 634 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 230 subdistricts).

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [18] District area [18] City proper [18] Census date
1 Hefei [lower-alpha 1] 3,098,7273,310,2687,457,0272010-11-01
2 Huainan [lower-alpha 2] 1,238,4881,666,8263,342,0122010-11-01
3 Wuhu [lower-alpha 1] 1,108,0872,487,1112,263,1232010-11-01
4 Huaibei 854,6961,113,3212,114,2762010-11-01
5 Bengbu 793,866972,7843,164,4672010-11-01
6 Fuyang 780,5221,768,9477,599,9132010-11-01
7 Suzhou 742,6851,647,6425,352,9242010-11-01
8 Lu'an [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 2] 661,2171,644,3444,603,5852010-11-01
(8)Lu'an (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 134,239134,239see Lu'an2010-11-01
9 Ma'anshan [lower-alpha 4] [lower-alpha 1] 657,847741,5312,304,7742010-11-01
(9)Ma'anshan (new district) [lower-alpha 4] 169,888169,888see Ma'anshan2010-11-01
10 Anqing [lower-alpha 5] 570,538780,5144,472,6672010-11-01
11 Bozhou 474,3181,409,4364,850,6572010-11-01
12 Tongling [lower-alpha 5] 438,981474,3631,562,6702010-11-01
(13) Chaohu [lower-alpha 1] 404,789780,711see Hefei2010-11-01
14 Chuzhou 392,461562,3213,937,8682010-11-01
15 Tianchang 324,625602,840see Chuzhou2010-11-01
16 Xuancheng 315,058772,4902,532,9382010-11-01
17 Chizhou 289,122595,2681,402,5182010-11-01
18 Huangshan 287,576460,7861,358,9802010-11-01
19 Tongcheng 269,346664,455see Anqing2010-11-01
20 Ningguo 231,090376,857see Xuancheng 2010-11-01
21 Jieshou 214,776561,956see Fuyang2010-11-01
22 Mingguang 204,323532,732see Chuzhou2010-11-01
(23) Qianshan [lower-alpha 6] 165,779500,292see Anqing2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 3 4 Chaohu PLC is currently no longer exist after census it was split among Hefei (Juchao & Lujiang), Wuhu (Wuwei), & Ma'anshan (Hexian & Hanshan); Juchao District is currently known as Chaohu CLC. Chaohu PLC city proper count is reflected among the three PLCs.
  2. 1 2 Shouxian County was transferred from Lu'an PLC to Huainan PLC's jurisdiction after census; the City proper count is reflected onto Huainan PLC not Lu'an PLC.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Yeji by splitting from parts of Huoqiu County. The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New district established after census: Bowang by splitting from parts of Dangtu County. The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 Zongyang County was transferred from Anqing PLC to Tongling PLC's jurisdiction after census; the City proper count is reflected onto Tongling PLC not Anqing PLC.
  6. Qianshan County is currently known as Qianshan CLC after census.
 
 
Most populous cities in Anhui
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [19]
RankPop.RankPop.
South Erhuan Rd.jpg
Hefei
Wuhu Skyline, December 2019.jpg
Wuhu
1 Hefei 4,292,40011 Tongling 535,300 An Hui Sheng Huai Nan Shi Yan Chang Bei Lu Jing Se -Ti Yu Chang  - panoramio (2).jpg
Huainan
Bang Bu Shi Mo Da Yan Chang -Nan Xiang Cheng Shi Yan Chang .jpg
Bengbu
2 Wuhu 1,536,70012 Chuzhou 507,600
3 Huainan 1,178,20013 Huangshan 406,100
4 Bengbu 961,10014 Bozhou 365,000
5 Fuyang 907,40015 Xuancheng 357,700
6 Huaibei 762,50016 Chaohu 357,000
7 Ma'anshan 752,50017 Chizhou 310,100
8 Anqing 631,50018 Tianchang 196,600
9 Lu'an 607,50019 Jieshou 188,600
10 Suzhou 578,60020 Mingguang 186,000

Government

The Politics of Anhui Province is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Anhui (安徽省省长) is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Anhui. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Anhui Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (安徽省委书记), colloquially termed the "Anhui Party Chief".

Most provincial government departments and the Governor office are located at No.1 Zhongshan Road, moved from old downtown of Hefei since 2016. Provincial government is responsible to manage 16 prefecture-level cities, 105 counties, 1845 townships and different departments in Anhui. The National People's Congress (NPC) is just located near provincial government. The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (C.P.P.C.C.) is located at No.317, Suzhou Road. The Provincial Higher People's Court is located at no. 472 Changjiang Rd.

Typically, annual provincial congress meeting is held in the first quarter of each year shortly before national congress meeting and the annual meeting of C.P.P.C.C. is held in the first quarter or the fourth quarter of each year.

Economy

Anhui products treemap, 2020 Anhui Province Product Exports (2020).svg
Anhui products treemap, 2020

Agriculture in Anhui varies according to the climate zones that the province crosses. To the north of the Huai River, wheat and sweet potatoes are grown, while to the south of the Huai River it is rice and wheat instead.

Natural resources of Anhui include iron in Ma'anshan, coal in Huainan, and copper in Tongling. There are industries related to these natural resources (e.g. steel industry at Ma'anshan). One of the famous Anhui-based corporations is the automobile company Chery, which is based in Wuhu.

Farmlands of Anhui Chuzhao Dingyuan Lianpuxiang - Nongke Hanlin Zhu IMG 9222.jpg
Farmlands of Anhui

Compared to its more prosperous neighbours to the east, Zhejiang and Jiangsu, Anhui has lagged markedly behind in economic development, with a GDP per capita around half of those two provinces in 2017 rapidly improved from 1/3 of those two provinces in 2010. However, the provincial GDP per capita is based on the population registered in the province (that is, with local Hukou), but not necessarily residing there. Therefore, the per-capita GDP of provinces with many residents working elsewhere is likely underestimated.[ citation needed ]

There is great regional disparity as well, and most of the wealth is concentrated in industrial regions close to the Yangtze River, such as Hefei, Wuhu, and Ma'anshan.

Anhui's nominal GDP for 2016 was approximately 2.4 trillion yuan (US$365.8 billion) in the year of 2016. In 2017, the province GPD exceeds Beijing's GDP first time. It is considered as a mid-size economy in terms of economic output. The province has some high tech companies like iFlyTek which was listed as the smartest companies in the world in 2016. At iFlyTek's basis, China Speech Valley was found in 2010s which represents China top concentration of commercialized Artificial Intelligence. The province is China biggest clusters of household electrical appliances as well as many electronic products with the largest volume manufacturing centers of Haier, Hisense, Whirlpool, Gree, Royalstar, Meling. Hefei, as capital city of Anhui, probably is one of China largest intelligence manufacturing centers in the world.

Additionally, the province has developed many other industries/companies within different fields, such as:

77 Fortune 500 companies have operations in this province, including 3M, ABB, VW, Continental AG, and Unilever.

Major economic and technological development zones

Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone

Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone is located in the southwest of Hefei. The zone is divided into two functional areas. The east part is allocated for manufacturing purpose and it also has two parks; the west part is where the business center, Hefei university town, and the international community center are located. It is established in 1993, and it is located close to Hefei Luogang International Airport. [20]

Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in October 1990 and approved by the State Council as a state-level Development Zone in March 1991. In 1997, the Development Zone was ratified as an APEC Science and Technology Industrial Park, with special open policies to APEC and EU members. Hefei High Tech Park was also approved as a National High Tech Export Base in 2000 and obtained the award of an Advanced High Tech Zone under the Torch Program in 2003. So far, more than 100 hi-tech enterprises have entered the zone. Industries encouraged in the zone include Chemicals Production and Processing, Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Research and Development, Telecommunications Equipment. [21]

Wuhu Economic and Technological Development Zone

Established in 1993, Wuhu Economic and Technological Development Zone is the first state-level development zone approved by central government in Anhui Province. As the hub in the west of the Yangtze Delta, it is an ideal place for business in Central China and East China such as manufacturing place or logistic center due to great transportation advantage. Wuhu port is the last fine deepwater port here going against the Yangtse River. It is the main foreign trade base and overseas transportation center. It takes 1 hour from Wuhu to Nanjing Lukou International Airport and to Hefei Luogang Airport. [22]

Wuhu Export Processing Zone

Wuhu Export Processing Zone was approved to be a national level export processing zone by State Council. Wuhu Export Processing Zone is located in the Wuhu EDZ, with a total planned area of 2.95 km2 (1.14 sq mi) with the first-stage are being 1.1 km2 (0.42 sq mi). It is located close to Wuhu Airport and Wuhu Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Trading and Distribution. [23]

Transportation

A high-speed train in Hefei railway station 201705 CRH380B-3606 at Hefei Station.jpg
A high-speed train in Hefei railway station
Hefei South Railway Station Hefei South Railway Station.jpg
Hefei South Railway Station
a metro entrance in Hefei 201705 Exit A of Hefei Railway Station Metro.jpg
a metro entrance in Hefei

Historically, Anhui's transport network was hampered by the lack of bridges across the Yangtze River, which divides the province into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the Yangtze in Anhui, the Tongling Yangtze River Bridge, was completed in 1995. As of October 2014, Anhui had four bridges across the Yangtze, at Ma'anshan, Wuhu, Tongling, and Anqing.

Rail

Anhui was a place with a lack of a railway network. The situation has improved in the last 20 years. Most cities in this province are now connected by a high-speed train system. The newest one is Hefei South railway station where most high-speed trains pass through. The Chinese government set Hefei as the leading National railway hub in 2016. In addition, according to the Chinese central government, Anhui will set at least 5 sub-central railway hubs in the next 5 years.

Since Hefei is the hub of China's high-speed train system, there are many important railway lines connecting the cities in this province, including:

Highway system

Several cities of Anhui have become the crossroads of China's highway system. The province has set an ambitious plan from 2015 to 2025. Some important highways include:

G3 Beijing-Taipei Expressway

G40 Shanghai-Xi'an Expressway

G42 Shanghai-Chengdu Expressway

S24 Changshu-Hefei Expressway

And G4212, G5011, National Highway 206, National Highway 312, National Highway 346, S17 Bengbu-Hefei Expressway, G3W Expressway

This is an important reason why so many express companies set their hubs in Hefei.

Subway

Hefei and Wuhu already have complete subway systems, and there are 9 cities in Anhui with clear future plans for subway systems.

Hefei Metro includes 2 completed lines, 3 lines under construction and another 10 lines planned. Wuhu Metro has 2 subway lines under construction and another 3 lines planned.

Aviation

The province has 5 major commercial airports and another 4 major airports are under construction. Hefei Xinqiao International Airport and Huangshan International Airport are the 2 international airports. The 5 airports in operation are:

The 4 airports under construction are:

Note: Hefei Xinqiao International Airport will undergo expansion from 2018 to 2025.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [25] 16,229,000    
1928 [26] 21,715,000+33.8%
1936–37 [27] 23,354,000+7.5%
1947 [28] 22,462,000−3.8%
1954 [29] 30,343,637+35.1%
1964 [30] 31,241,657+3.0%
1982 [31] 49,665,724+59.0%
1990 [32] 56,180,813+13.1%
2000 [33] 58,999,948+5.0%
2010 [34] 59,500,510+0.8%

Han Chinese make up the vast majority of the population. The Hui and She are the two largest minorities.

Anhui has a highly unbalanced gender ratio. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal , in the 1–4 age group, there are 138 boys for every 100 girls, making it among the most unbalanced of provinces in China. [35]

Religion

Religion in Anhui [36] [note 1]

   Islam (0.58%)
   Christianity (5.30%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 2] (89.48%)

The predominant religions in Anhui are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 4.64% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 5.30% of the population identifies as Christian. [36] According to a 2010 survey, Muslims constitute 0.58% of the population of Anhui. [37]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 89.48% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and folk religious sects.

Thousand Armed Avalokitesvara - Guanyin Nunnery - 3.jpeg
Avalokitesvara of One Thousand Arms at the Guanyin Nunnery.
Langyasi.jpg
Langya Buddhist Temple in Chuzhou, Anhui
The Qingyun Street Mosque in Fuyang ,China.jpg
The Qingyun Street Mosque in Fuyang, Anhui
Buddhist temple courtyard in Qingyang, Chizhou, Anhui, China.jpg
Courtyard of a Buddhist temple in Qingyang County, Anhui
Xiyan Temple Qi Yan Si .jpg
Xiyan Temple

Culture

Anhui spans many geographical and cultural regions. The northern, flatter parts of the province, along the Huai River and further north, are most akin to neighboring provinces like Henan, Shandong and northern Jiangsu. In contrast, the southern, hilly parts of the province are more similar in culture and dialect to other southern, hilly provinces, like Zhejiang and Jiangxi.

Mandarin dialects are spoken over the northern and central parts of the province, north of the Yangtze river. Dialects to the north (e.g. Bengbu dialect) are classified as Zhongyuan Mandarin, together with dialects in provinces such as Henan and Shandong; dialects in the central parts (e.g. Hefei dialect) are classified as Jianghuai Mandarin, together with dialects in the central parts of neighboring Jiangsu province. Non-Mandarin dialects are spoken to the south of the Yangzi: dialects of Wu are spoken in Xuancheng prefecture-level city, though these are rapidly being replaced by Jianghuai Mandarin; dialects of Gan are spoken in a few counties in the southwest bordering Jiangxi province; [38] and the Huizhou dialects are spoken in about ten counties in the far south, a small but highly diverse and unique group of Chinese dialects.

Huangmeixi, which originated in the environs of Anqing in southwestern Anhui, is a form of traditional Chinese opera popular across China. Huiju, a form of traditional opera originating in the Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, is one of the major precursors of Beijing Opera; in the 1950s, Huiju (which had disappeared) was revived. Luju is a type of traditional opera found across central Anhui, from east to west.

Anhui cuisine is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. Combining elements of cooking from northern Anhui, south-central Anhui, and the Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, Anhui cuisine is known for its use of wild game and herbs, both land and sea, and comparatively simple methods of preparation.

Anhui has a high concentration of traditional products related to calligraphy: Xuanzhou (today Xuancheng) and Huizhou (today Huangshan City) are revered for producing Xuan Paper and Hui Ink, respectively, which are traditionally considered the best types of paper and ink for Chinese calligraphy. She County is famous for the She Inkstone, one of the most preferred types of inkstones (a required tool in traditional calligraphy). [ citation needed ]

Education

University of Science and Technology of China Zhong Guo Ke Da Tu Shu Guan .JPG
University of Science and Technology of China
Main Campus of Hefei University of Technology Main Teaching Building of HFUT.jpg
Main Campus of Hefei University of Technology
East Campus of University of Science and Technology of China USTC.jpg
East Campus of University of Science and Technology of China

Anhui has some good universities. Most universities in Anhui are located in Hefei, Wuhu, Bengbu, Maanshan, some of them are pretty well known. Specifically, Hefei is one of the most important research central cities in China with leading basic scientific research capability.

Public universities

Military universities

Tourism

Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui - Xidi and Hongcun. Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui - Xidi and Hongcun-114145.jpg
Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui – Xidi and Hongcun.

Anhui's principal tourism sites include the following:

Development

In 2008, France helped the Anhui Provincial Tourism Bureau develop a rural tourism demonstration project. [39]

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [36] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organized into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010. [37]
  2. This may include:

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Tongling Prefecture-level city in Anhui, Peoples Republic of China

Tongling is a prefecture-level city in southern Anhui province. A river port along the Yangtze River, Tongling borders Wuhu to the east, Chizhou to the southwest and Anqing to the west.

Maanshan Prefecture-level city in Anhui, Peoples Republic of China

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Anqing Prefecture-level city in Anhui, Peoples Republic of China

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Wuhu Prefecture-level city in Anhui, Peoples Republic of China

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Huangshan City Prefecture-level city in Anhui, Peoples Republic of China

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Zongyang County County in Anhui, Peoples Republic of China

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Wuyuan County, Jiangxi County in Jiangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Wuyuan County is a county in northeastern Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering the provinces of Zhejiang to the east and Anhui to the north. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Shangrao.

Yi'an District, formerly Tongling County, is a district of the city of Tongling, in the south of Anhui province, lying on the southern and eastern (right) bank of the Yangtze River. The total area is 1,113 km2 (430 sq mi). The population is 716,300.

Sihong County County in Jiangsu, Peoples Republic of China

Sihong County is under the administration of Suqian, Jiangsu province, China. It borders the prefecture-level cities of Huai'an to the southeast, Chuzhou (Anhui) to the south, Bengbu (Anhui) to the west, and Suzhou (Anhui) to the northwest.

Hefei–Fuzhou high-speed railway

Hefei–Fuzhou high-speed railway, is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, high-speed rail line between Hefei and Fuzhou, the provincial capitals of Anhui and Fujian, respectively. It has a total length of 813 km (505 mi) and runs through Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian province. Construction began on April 27, 2010 and the line was opened on 28 June 2015. The total cost of the line was about ¥109.8 billion. On this line, trains can reach top speeds of 300 kilometres per hour, reducing the travel time by rail from Hefei to Fuzhou from fourteen to four hours. The railway is part of the future Beijing–Taipei high-speed rail corridor.

Nanjing–Tongling railway

Nanjing–Tongling railway or Ningtong railway, is a single-track railroad in eastern China between Nanjing in Jiangsu Province and Tongling in Anhui Province. The line is 208 km (129 mi) long. Major towns along route include Nanjing, Maanshan, Wuhu and Tongling. With the opening of the parallel Nanjing–Anqing intercity railway in 2015, the line is mostly used for freight traffic.

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