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Province of Liaoning
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese辽宁省 (Liáoníng Shěng)
  AbbreviationLN / (pinyin :Liáo)
2014 Manchu Forbidden City Dazheng Hall 05.jpg
Xinghai Square .jpg
Dandong and Yalu River.jpg
Heishijiao, Shahekou, Dalian, Liaoning, China, 116000 - panoramio (7).jpg
Clockwise: Mukden Palace in Shenyang, Xinghai Square in Dalian, Dalian coast, Yalu River at Dandong
Liaoning in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Liaoning Province
Coordinates: 41°06′N122°18′E / 41.1°N 122.3°E / 41.1; 122.3
Named for Liáo—"Liao (River)"
"Pacified of the Liao (River)"
(and largest city)
Divisions14 prefectures, 100 counties, 1511 townships
  Type Province
  Body Liaoning Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Hao Peng
   Congress chairmanHao Peng
   Governor Li Lecheng
   CPPCC chairman Zhou Bo
  Total145,900 km2 (56,300 sq mi)
  Rank 21st
Highest elevation1,336 m (4,383 ft)
 (2020) [2]
  Rank 14th
  Density290/km2 (760/sq mi)
   Rank 15th
  Ethnic composition Han – 84%
Manchu – 13%
Mongol – 2%
Hui – 0.6%
Korean – 0.6%
Xibe – 0.3%
  Languages and dialects Northeastern Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Pyongan Korean, Manchu
ISO 3166 code CN-LN
GDP (2020) CNY 2.511 trillion
USD 364 billion (16th) [3]
 - per capita CNY 58,967
USD 8,546 (15th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 0.6%
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.774 [4] (high) (7th)
The Ming Liaodong Wall (in purple) Map of the Liaodong Wall.jpg
The Ming Liaodong Wall (in purple)
The late-Ming Liaodong (eastern Liaoning) separated by the wall from the "Kingdom of the Jurchen" (Regno di Niuche). The map was created during the early Qing, and mentions that "presently" the Jurchen (Tartari del Kin) have already conquered the rest of China CEM-36-NE-corner.jpg
The late-Ming Liaodong (eastern Liaoning) separated by the wall from the "Kingdom of the Jurchen" (Regno di Niuche). The map was created during the early Qing, and mentions that "presently" the Jurchen (Tartari del Kin ) have already conquered the rest of China

The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, [10] just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the agricultural heartland of the province from a potential threat from the Jurchen-Mongol Oriyanghan (who were Ming's tributaries) from the northwest. Between 1467 and 1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens (who were later to become known as the Manchu people). Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this "Liaodong Wall" was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides. [11]

Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Jurchens conquered Liaodong, or eastern Liaoning, in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Jurchen dynasty, styled "Later Jin" before being renamed to Qing, established its capital in 1616–1621 in Xingjing (兴京), which was located outside of the Liaodong Wall in the eastern part of the modern Liaoning Province. [12] It was moved to Dongjing (east of today's Liaoyang, Liaoning), [13] [14] and finally in 1625 to Shengjing (now, Shenyang, Liaoning). Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era.

The Qing conquest of Liaoning resulted in a significant population loss in the area, as many local Chinese residents were either killed during fighting, or fled south of the Great Wall, many cities being destroyed by the retreating Ming forces themselves. As late as 1661, the Civil Governor (Fuyin) of Fengtian Province, Zhang Shangxian reported that, outside of Fengtian City (Shenyang), Liaoyang, and Haicheng, all other cities east of the Liao River were either abandoned, or hardly had a few hundred residents left. In the Governor's words, "Tieling and Fushun only have a few vagrants". West of the Liao, only Ningyuan, Jinzhou, and Guangning had any significant populations remaining. [15]

The full picture of Shengjing area 1734 Sheng Jing Yu Di Quan Tu 1734.jpeg
The full picture of Shengjing area 1734
Liaodong (Leao-Tong) in the early Qing, surrounded by the Willow Palisade. This map, published in 1734, was based on data collected by Jesuits in the early 18th century. The capital is in Shenyang (Chinyang); most other cities mentioned in Governor Zhang's report are shown as well CEM-44-La-Chine-la-Tartarie-Chinoise-et-le-Thibet-1734-Liaodong-2755.jpg
Liaodong (Leao-Tong) in the early Qing, surrounded by the Willow Palisade. This map, published in 1734, was based on data collected by Jesuits in the early 18th century. The capital is in Shenyang (Chinyang); most other cities mentioned in Governor Zhang's report are shown as well

In the latter half of the seventeenth century (starting with laws issued in 1651 and 1653), the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall (notably, from Shandong) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province (roughly corresponding to today's Liaoning). [16] Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. The rest of China's Northeast, however, remained officially off-limits to Han Chinese for most of the Manchu era. To prevent the migration of Chinese to those regions (today's Jilin and Heilongjiang, as well as the adjacent parts of Inner Mongolia), the so-called Willow Palisade was constructed (c.1638 – c.1672). The Palisade encircled the agricultural heartlands of Fengtian, running in most areas either somewhat outside the old Ming Liaodong Wall, or reusing it, and separating it from the Manchu forests to the northeast and the Mongol grazing lands to the northwest. [17]

Later on, the Qing government tried to stop the migrants flow to Fengtian or even to make some settlers return to their original places of residence – or, failing that, to legalize them. For example, an edict issued in 1704 commented on the recent Han Chinese settlers in Fengtian having failed to comply with earlier orders requiring them to leave, and asked them either to properly register and join a local defense group (; bao), or to leave the province for their original places within the next ten years. Ten years later, naturally, another edict appeared, reminding of the necessity to do something with illegal migrants ... [18] In any event, the restrictive policy was not as effective as desired by the officials in Beijing, and Fengtian's population doubled between 1683 and 1734. [18]

During the Qing Dynasty, Manchuria was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing (Mukden i Jiyanggiyūn) ruled much of modern Liaoning. In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region.

In the 20th century, the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought. During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang. The province first received its present name on January 29, 1929; the Zhongdong Railway Incident took place later that year. In 1931, Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign) in and around Liaoning.

At the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi, as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Lüda (present-day Dalian), Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution Liaoning also took in a part of Inner Mongolia, though this was reversed later.

Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years, this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.


Landsat 7 image of western Liaoning Liaoning L7 2000-10-02.jpg
Landsat 7 image of western Liaoning
Liaoning (Chinese characters).svg
"Liaoning" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Romanization Liyoo'ning golo

It is possible to think of Liaoning as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plains in the middle, and hills in the east.

The highlands in the west are dominated by the Nulu'erhu Mountains, which roughly follow the border between Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. The entire region is dominated by low hills. A narrow strip of coastal plains, known as the Liaoxi Corridor, connects the Liao River Basin to the North China Plain, ending at the Shanhai Pass of the Great Wall.

The central part of Liaoning consists of a basin drained by rivers such as the Liao, Daliao, and their tributaries. This region is mostly flat and low-lying.

The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai Mountains and Qianshan Mountains which extend into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region.

Liaoning has a continental monsoon climate, and rainfall averages to about 440 to 1130 mm annually. Summer is rainy while the other seasons are dry.

Major cities:


Liaoning contains some of the foremost paleontological sites in the world. Known collectively as the Jehol Group, they include the Yixian Formation, Jiufotang Formation and Tiaojishan Formation. The name Jehol derives from a now defunct provincial division of that name, which covered an area that is now Western Liaoning, Eastern Hebei, and a small part of Inner Mongolia. Fossils were first found there during the 1920s. During the Japanese occupation of the area through the 1930s and early 1940s, more fossils were found, but records of them were lost after World War II ended. The area remained relatively unexplored until the 1990s. It was in 1996 that Liaoning made the headlines with the announcement of the discovery of Sinosauropteryx prima , the first example of a filamented "feathered" dinosaur. Sinosauropteryx prima was a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation. [19] This discovery pushed the evolution of feathers back in time and showed that dinosaurs, not only birds, had feathers. It also showed a direct evolutionary link between theropod dinosaurs and modern birds.

Since then, dozens of ground-breaking finds have been discovered throughout the Jehol group. These including the earliest flower, earliest eutherian mammal, known as Eomaia , [20] the earliest known metatherian, an intact embryo of a pterosaur, [21] Repenomamus robustus —a 15 kg heavy mammal that ate dinosaurs, Sinornithosaurus millenii , as well as many birds and feathered dinosaurs. [22] Discoveries such as Dilong paradoxus , another feathered theropod, date to the early Cretaceous Period. This is some 60 million years before Tyrannosaurus, and thus these discoveries push the evolution of feathers earlier than previously thought. [21]

The Liaoning fossils are noted for their high degree of preservation—often including soft body tissues, which is rare. [23] Aside from the famous birds and feathered dinosaurs, the Liaoning fossils include insects, fish, aquatic arthropods, and plants. [24] The Liaoning deposit is widely considered to be one of the world's premier fossil sites. [23] The high level of preservation is believed to be due to how the animals died. The area was volcanically active, and large plumes of volcanic dust repeatedly covered the area, instantly killing and burying any living thing in the area. The extremely fine grain of the sediment and the chemical composition of the ash prevented the usual bacterial decay. [24] In some specimens, extremely fine details can be seen such as the proboscis of the bee Florinemestruis used to drink nectar from the earliest flowers. [21] In other specimens, colours are still visible, including stripes on fish and spots on turtles. [24]


The politics of Liaoning is structured in a single party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Liaoning (辽宁省省长) is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Liaoning. However, in the province's single party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Chinese Communist Party Liaoning Provincial Committee Secretary (辽宁省委书记 for short), colloquially termed the "Liaoning Party Chief".

Prior to 1949 and the Chinese Communist Revolution, Liaoning was governed by the Fengtian clique of warlords and interchangeably officials of the Chiang Kai-shek bureaucracy. During the Qing Dynasty Liaoning was known as the province of Fengtian (奉天), and was governed by a zǒngdū or Viceroy (The Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces, 东三省总督), along with the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang. The province itself also had a governor (巡抚; xúnfǔ).

Administrative divisions

Liaoning is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions, all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities):

Administrative divisions of Liaoning
Division code [25] DivisionArea in km2 [26] Population 2010 [27] SeatDivisions [28]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
210000Liaoning Province145,900.0043,746,323 Shenyang city5917816
210100 Shenyang city12,860.008,106,171 Hunnan District 1021
210200 Dalian city12,573.856,690,432 Xigang District 712
210300 Anshan city9,252.003,645,884 Tiedong District 4111
210400 Fushun city11,272.002,138,090 Shuncheng District 412
210500 Benxi city8,420.001,709,538 Pingshan District 42
210600 Dandong city15,289.612,444,697 Zhenxing District 312
210700 Jinzhou city9,890.623,126,463 Taihe District 322
210800 Yingkou city5,365.462,428,534 Zhanqian District 42
210900 Fuxin city10,354.991,819,339 Xihe District 511
211000 Liaoyang city4,743.241,858,768 Baita District 511
211100 Panjin city4,071.101,392,493 Xinglongtai District 31
211200 Tieling city12,979.692,717,732 Yinzhou District 232
211300 Chaoyang city19,698.003,044,641 Shuangta District 2212
211400 Huludao city10,414.942,623,541 Longgang District 321

These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 county-level divisions (56 districts, 17 county-level cities, 19 counties, and 8 autonomous counties), which are then further subdivided into 1511 township-level divisions (613 towns, 301 townships, 77 ethnic townships, and 520 subdistricts). At the end of the year 2017, the total population is 43.69 million.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [29] District area [29] City proper [29] Census date
1 Shenyang [lower-alpha 1] 5,718,2326,255,9218,106,1712010-11-01
(1)Shenyang (new district) [lower-alpha 1] 172,439476,081see Shenyang2010-11-01
2 Dalian [lower-alpha 2] 3,902,4674,087,7336,690,4322010-11-01
(2)Dalian (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 319,942741,230see Dalian2010-11-01
3 Anshan 1,504,9961,544,0843,645,8842010-11-01
4 Fushun 1,318,8081,431,0142,138,0902010-11-01
5 Benxi 1,000,1281,094,2941,709,5382010-11-01
6 Jinzhou 946,0981,091,7993,126,4632010-11-01
7 Yingkou 880,4121,032,0482,428,5342010-11-01
8 Dandong 775,787865,5762,444,6972010-11-01
9 Fuxin 750,283790,6561,819,3392010-11-01
10 Liaoyang 735,047789,1371,858,7682010-11-01
11 Haicheng 687,2231,293,877see Anshan2010-11-01
12 Panjin [lower-alpha 3] 663,445676,4641,392,4932010-11-01
(12)Panjin (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 194,548430,913see Panjin2010-11-01
13 Huludao 646,482970,2082,623,5412010-11-01
14 Xinmin 484,287657,763see Shenyang2010-11-01
15 Chaoyang 477,610625,1873,044,6412010-11-01
16 Wafangdian 413,921942,197see Dalian2010-11-01
17 Tieling 396,505453,0732,717,7322010-11-01
18 Dashiqiao 330,328704,891see Yingkou2010-11-01
19 Zhuanghe 304,233841,321see Dalian2010-11-01
20 Donggang 290,957627,475see Dandong2010-11-01
21 Fengcheng 247,219543,933see Dandong2010-11-01
22 Kaiyuan 242,412545,624see Tieling2010-11-01
23 Gaizhou 218,478691,595see Yingkou2010-11-01
24 Lingyuan 200,354570,660see Chaoyang2010-11-01
25 Diaobingshan 195,673241,431see Tieling2010-11-01
26 Xingcheng 178,291546,176see Huludao2010-11-01
27 Beipiao 168,620496,164see Chaoyang2010-11-01
28 Dengta 163,064496,122see Liaoyang2010-11-01
29 Linghai 134,716508,079see Jinzhou2010-11-01
30 Beizhen 127,101514,898see Jinzhou2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New district established after census: Liaozhong (Liaozhong County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Pulandian (Pulandian CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Dawa (Dawa County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
Most populous cities in Liaoning
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [30]
Shenyang Wulihe CBD.jpg
1 Shenyang 5,651,20011 Huludao 728,700 View of Anshan on Shengli Plaza.jpg
IM000196 - panoramio.jpg
2 Dalian 3,808,30012 Dandong 668,100
3 Anshan 1,420,80013 Chaoyang 590,500
4 Fushun 1,223,50014 Tieling 435,200
5 Jinzhou 969,00015 Zhuanghe 348,000
6 Yingkou 892,80016 Wafangdian 329,500
7 Benxi 861,00017 Dashiqiao 261,600
8 Panjin 847,10018 Haicheng 244,800
9 Liaoyang 763,60019 Gaizhou 231,100
10 Fuxin 759,40020 Lingyuan 224,000


Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning Province Shenyang Wulihe CBD.jpg
Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning Province
Dalian, second largest city in Liaoning Province DalianSkyline.JPG
Dalian, second largest city in Liaoning Province

Liaoning has the largest and wealthiest provincial economy of Northeast China. Its nominal GDP for 2017 was 2.39 trillion yuan (ca. US$354 billion), making it the 14th largest in China (out of 31 provinces). Its per capita GDP was 54,745 yuan (US$8,108). Among the three provinces of Northeast China, Liaoning is the largest in terms of GDP and GDP per capita.

In 2008, Liaoning was the region with the highest GDP growth among global G8x8, the eight provinces or states below national level with the highest GDP of the top eight GDP nations. According to preliminary statistics, Liaoning maintained its GDP growth rate of 13.1 percent in 2009 and held its position as the province with the highest economic growth. Economic growth has since slowed down, with the economy expanding 3% in 2015 and contracting 1.3% in the first quarter of 2016.[ citation needed ]

Leading industries include petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics telecommunications, and machinery. [31] On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation. Liaoning is one of the most important raw materials production bases in China. Industries such as mining, quarrying, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum and natural gas extraction, are all of great significance.

Meanwhile, Liaoning is an important production base of equipment and machinery manufacturing, with Shenyang and Dalian being the industrial centers. Enterprises such as Shenyang Jinbei Co. Ltd., Daxian Group Co. Ltd., and Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd., are leaders in their sectors. The province's light industry mainly focuses on textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fiber production, knitting, silk production, and the manufacturing of both garments and textile machinery.

In 2008, its tertiary industry accounted for 34.5 percent of total GDP. In the future, Liaoning will continue its efforts to restructure large and medium-sized state enterprises. Meanwhile, the province will concentrate in developing its four pillar industries – petrochemicals, metallurgy, machinery and electronics.

Liaoning is the place of origin of the Li Keqiang index, an alternative measure of economic performance where GDP figures are unreliable.


Main agricultural products of Liaoning include maize, sorghum, and soybeans. The region around Dalian produces three-quarters of China's exported apples and peaches. Cotton is also produced.

Liaoning's fruits include apples from Dalian and Yingkou, golden peaches from Dalian, pears from Beizhen of Jinzhou, white pears from Huludao and Suizhong, and apricots and plums from Gushan of Dandong.


Liaoning has the most iron, magnesite, diamond, and boron deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning is also an important source of petroleum and natural gas. Salt is produced along the coast.


Along with Liaoning's rich mineral reserves, the province also has abundant deposits of crude oil, especially in the Liaohe Oilfield. [31]


Liaoning is one of China's most important industrial bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics, metal refining, petroleum, chemical industries, construction materials, coal, and so on.

The sea off Dalian abounds with quality seafood, such as abalones, sea cucumbers, scallops, prawns, crabs, and sea urchins. The big fish of Dandong, the jellyfish of Yingkou, and the clams of Panjin are known worldwide for their good tastes right from the sea and in products made in Liaoning for export domestically and internationally.


The cities of Dalian, Dandong and Yingkou have been developed as major ports and economic gateways to all of northeast China.

Economic and technological development zones

Of the development zones formally recognized by the PRC State Council, 56 are located in Liaoning, including 14 on the national level and 42 on the provincial level. These zones are further grouped into Economic Development Zones, High-Tech Zones, Free Trade and Export Processing Zones, and Special Development Zones. [32]

In October 1995, the Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone was approved to be established by State Council. The Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone is the only zone established as part of the Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. It has a total area of 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi). It welcomes international investment. It focuses on the development of instruments manufacturing, telecommunication, bio-pharmaceuticals, electronics, and new materials. [33]

The Liaoning Shenyang Zhangshi Export Processing Zone was approved to be established by the state government in June 2005. It is located in the national-level Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone, with a planned area of 62 km2 (24 sq mi) and current area of 14.1 km2 (5.4 sq mi). It encourages and focuses on the development of auto and auto parts, electronics, precision machinery, new energy, new materials, and the fine chemical industry. [34]

The Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone used to be called the Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. Established in 1988, it is a national high-tech development zone approved by the State Council. The zone is located in western Shenyang City with an area of 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi). Its encouraged industries include electronic information, new materials, biological engineering, energy saving, and environmental protection. [35]

The Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone (now known as the "Dalian Development Area") was established in September 1984, as one of the first of the China National Economic and Technological Development Zones. The zone had a GDP of 70.31 billion yuan in 2007 and the total volume of its import and export trade was 14.92 billion dollars, which accounts for a quarter of such trade for all of Liaoning Province. Most of the enterprises in Dalian ETDZ are factories owned by foreign enterprises, especially from Japan, South Korea and the United States, such as Canon, Pfizer, Toshiba, and Intel. [36]

The Dalian Export Processing Zone was approved to be set up by the State Council in April 2000, with a planned area of 2.95 km2 (1.14 sq mi). It is divided into two parts, A Zone and B Zone. A Zone has a construction area of 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi), and started operation in May 2001. All the basic infrastructure is available, which includes road, water, gas, and power supply, telecommunication, and so on. A Zone promotes industries such as home appliances, lighting, machinery, construction materials, and medical instruments. [37]

The Dalian Free Trade Zone was approved to be set up by the government in May, 1992. Policies include duty-free trade. It has attracted some leading industries, such as electronics, machinery, and plastics. [38]

The Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 35.6 square kilometres (13.7 sq mi). It focuses on and encourages the following industries: electronic information, bio-pharmaceuticals, and new materials. [39]

The Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1992. It is located in the bank of Yalu River, and opposite Sinuiju, a North Korean city. It promotes industries such as electronic information, machinery manufacturing, and bio-pharmaceuticals. [40]

Regional development strategies

Central Liaoning City Cluster (Shenyang Metro Area)

The Central Liaoning city cluster is a megalopolis centered on Shenyang (urban population 4 million). Within its 150 km (93 mi) radius, it includes Anshan (urban population 1.3 million), Fushun (1.3 million), Yingkou (1.1 million), Benxi (0.95 million), Liaoyang (0.7 million), and Tieling (0.4 million).

In April 2010, the State Council of the People's Republic of China approved a national development strategy for the Shenyang Metro Area. The core of this strategy is innovation in industrial development, integration of the eight cities, integration of urban and rural areas as well as the promotion of more market-oriented development. [41]

Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt

The Chinese Communist Party Committee Secretary of Liaoning, Li Keqiang, initiated the development of a strategy entitled "5 Points and One Line", which he first proposed on a visit to Yingkou in late 2005. Liaoning Province formally launched the development strategy for the entire Liaoning coastline in early 2006, so as to re-invigorate the provincial economy from its traditional status as a "rustbelt" of Chinese state-owned enterprises.

The "Five Points" indicate five key development areas in the province and cover seven zones: the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in Dalian; Yingkou Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi Jinzhou Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong, and the Zhuanghe Huayuankou Industrial Zone.

The five zones together cover a planned area of nearly 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi).

The "One Line" mentioned in the strategy represents a new series of motorways along the coast. The coastline of 1,433 kilometers will become the connection between the five above zones, through which 6 provincial cities, 21 counties and 113 towns will be interlinked. Coastal motorways directly connect the entire string of five zones along the Bohai sea.


Historical population
1912 [42] 12,133,000    
1928 [43] 15,233,000+25.6%
1936–37 [44] 15,254,000+0.1%
1947 [45] 10,007,000−34.4%
1954 [46] 18,545,147+85.3%
1964 [47] 26,946,200+45.3%
1982 [48] 35,721,693+32.6%
1990 [49] 39,459,697+10.5%
2000 [50] 41,824,412+6.0%
2010 [51] 43,746,323+4.6%
2020 42,591,407−2.6%
Liaoning Province was known as Fengtian Province until 1929.
Shenyang part of Liaoning Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Liaoning Province.
Dalian (Lüda) part of Liaoning Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Liaoning Province.
Andong Province (Liaodong Province) split from Liaoning Province in 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Liaoning Province.
Liaobei Province split from Liaoning Province in 1947; dissolved in 1949 and parts were incorporated into Liaoning Province.
Rehe Province incorporated into a province in 1928; dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Liaoning Province.
Liaoxi Province split from Liaoning Province in 1949; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Liaoning Province.

The population of Liaoning is mostly Han Chinese with minorities of Manchus, Mongols, Hui, Koreans and Xibe. Liaoning has both the highest absolute number and highest percentage of Manchus in all of China.

Ethnic groups in Liaoning, 2000 census
Han Chinese 35,105,99183.94%
Manchu 5,385,28712.88%
Mongol 669,9721.60%
Hui 264,4070.632%
Koreans 241,0520.576%
Xibe 132,6150.317%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: [52]


Religion in Liaoning (2012) [53]

  Non religious and traditional faiths (91.3%)
   Buddhism (5.5%)
   Protestantism (2.2%)
   Islam (0.6%)
   Catholicism (0.2%)
  Others (0.1%)

According to a 2012 survey [53] only around 10% of the population of Liaoning belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 5.5%, followed by Protestants with 2.2%, Muslims with 0.6% and Catholics with 0.2%.

Jade Buddha Temple in Anshan Jade Buddha Palace in Anshan.jpg
Jade Buddha Temple in Anshan

The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; around 90% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religions (cults of nature deities and ancestors), Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

The significant Manchu population, although strongly assimilated to the Han Chinese and practicing Chinese religions, also retains its own pure Manchu shamanism. At the same time, the local religion of the Han people throughout Manchuria has developed patterns of deities, ideas, and practices inherited from Manchu and Tungus shamanism, making it quite different from central and southern Chinese folk religion. The Mongol ethnic minority either follows the Mongolian folk religion and shamanism, or Tibetan Buddhism.


Chongzheng Hall in the Mukden Palace Mukden palace Chongzheng Hall 04.jpg
Chongzheng Hall in the Mukden Palace

The Mukden Palace was the palace of the Qing Dynasty emperors before they conquered the rest of China and moved their capital to Beijing. Though not as large nor as well known as its counterpart (the Forbidden City) in Beijing, the Mukden palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been included on the UNESCO World Heritage Site as an extension of the Imperial Palace site in Beijing.

In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming and Qing Dynasties tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty Tombs in Beijing, and the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing) as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Wunu Mountain City, a Goguryeo site found in Huanren Manchu Autonomous County, is part of a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site that also includes sites in Ji'an, Jilin.

Benxi offers a boat ride through a large stalactite filled cave and underground river.

Anshan hosts the Jade Buddha Palace, the largest Buddha statue made of jade in the world.

Liaoyang, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in northeast China, has a number of historical sites, including the White Pagoda (Baita), that dates to the Yuan Dynasty.

The port city of Dalian, located on the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beaches, resorts, zoos, seafood, shopping, Russian- and Japanese-era heritage architecture, and streetcars, a rare sight in China.

Dandong, on the border with North Korea, is a medium-sized city that offers a cross-river view of the North Korean city of Sinŭiju.

Bijia Mountain is an island which joins to the mainland at low tide by a land bridge.

Education and research

Liaoning is also one of China's leading provinces in research and education. As of 2022, two major cities in Liaoning ranked in the world's top 200 cities (Dalian 49th and Shenyang 162nd) by scientific research output, as tracked by Nature Index. [6]

Colleges and universities

Under the national Ministry of Education:

Under various other national agencies:

Under the provincial government:


Dalian Sports Center Stadium. Da Lian Ti Yu Zhong Xin .jpg
Dalian Sports Center Stadium.

Professional sports teams based in Liaoning include:

See also

Related Research Articles

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