Shandong

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Shandong
山东
Province of Shandong
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese山东省 (Shāndōng Shěng)
  AbbreviationSD / (pinyin :)
Tai Shan 2015.08.12 11-18-27.jpg
Qingdao Buildings 3.jpg
China Jinan 5207307.jpg
Kong Miao - Dacheng Dian - P1050686.JPG
Yi Zhou Gu Cheng Lang Ye Jun Du Pai Fang .jpg
Gun Gun Huang He Ru Hai Liu  - The Yellow River Entering the Sea - 2012.07 - panoramio.jpg
Clockwise from top left: South Gate to Heaven at Mount Tai, Qingdao from the sea, Temple of Confucius in Qufu, Yellow River delta in Kenli, Acient City of Langya in Linyi, and Thousand Buddha Mountain in Jinan
Shandong in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Shandong Province
Coordinates: 36°24′N118°24′E / 36.4°N 118.4°E / 36.4; 118.4
Country China
Named for Shān—"(Taihang) Mountains"
dōng—"east"
"East of the (Taihang) Mountains"
Capital Jinan
Largest city Linyi
Divisions16 prefectures, 140 counties, 1941 townships
Government
  Type Province
  BodyShandong Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Lin Wu [1]
  Congress chairmanLin Wu
   Governor Zhou Naixiang
   CPPCC chairman Ge Huijun
   National People's Congress Representation174 deputies
Area
[2]
  Total157,100 km2 (60,700 sq mi)
  Rank 20th
Highest elevation1,545 m (5,069 ft)
Population
 (2020) [3]
  Total101,527,453
  Rank 2nd
  Density650/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
   Rank 5th
Demonym Shandongese
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han - 99.3%
Hui - 0.6%
  Languages and dialects Jiaoliao Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin, Zhongyuan Mandarin
GDP [4]
  Total CN¥ 8.31 trillion
US$ 1.3 trillion
  Per capitaCN¥ 81,846
US$ 12,689
ISO 3166 code CN-SD
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.759 [5]
high · 14th
Website SD.gov.cn
Shandong
Shandong (Chinese characters).svg
"Shandong" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Tomb of the 59th generation senior descendant of Confucius, Kong Yanjin. Many generations of the senior-branch direct descendants of Confucius ruled the Qufu area as its feudal rulers. Kong Yanjin - bixi - seen from SSE - P1060183.JPG
Tomb of the 59th generation senior descendant of Confucius, Kong Yanjin. Many generations of the senior-branch direct descendants of Confucius ruled the Qufu area as its feudal rulers.

The Shandong Provincial People's Congress is the highest organ of state power in Shandong province and Shandong's provincial legislature. Its standing committee exercises the majority of the power of The Shandong Provincial People's Congress. The current chairman of the standing committee is Li Ganjie.

The Shandong Provincial People's Government is the State Administration in Shandong province. Its main officials are elected and appointed by The Shandong Provincial People's Congress. The provincial government reports to Shandong Provincial People's Congress and State Council of the People's Republic of China.

The current Governor of Shandong is Zhou Naixiang.

Economy

As of 1832, Shandong was exporting fruits, vegetables, wine, drugs, and deerskin, often heading to Guangzhou to exchange clothing and fabrics. [20] The economy of Shandong is China's third largest provincial economy with a GDP of CNY¥8.3 trillion in 2021 or USD$1.3 trillion in (nominal), which is equivalent to the GDP of Mexico. [13] [14] Its GDP per capita is around the national average. Compared to a country, it would be the 15th-largest economy and the 15th most populous as of 2021. [15]

Shandong ranks first among the provinces in the production of a variety of products, including cotton, wheat, and garlic [28] as well as precious metals such as gold and diamonds. It also has one of the biggest sapphire deposits in the world. [29] Other important crops include sorghum and maize. Shandong has extensive petroleum deposits as well, especially in the Dongying area in the Yellow River delta, where the Shengli Oil Field (lit. Victory Oilfield) is one of the major oilfields of China. Shandong also produces bromine from underground wells and salt from seawater. It is the largest agricultural exporter in China.

Shandong is one of China's richest provinces, and its economic development focuses on large enterprises with well-known brand names. Shandong is the biggest industrial producer and one of the top manufacturing provinces in China. Shandong has also benefited from South Korean and Japanese investment and tourism, due to its geographical proximity to those countries. [30] The richest part of the province is the Shandong Peninsula, where the city of Qingdao is home to three of the most well-known brand names of China: Tsingtao Beer, Haier and Hisense. Besides, Dongying's oil fields and petroleum industries form an important component of Shandong's economy. Despite the primacy of Shandong's energy sector, the province has also been plagued with problems of inefficiency and ranks as the largest consumer of fossil fuels in all of China. [30]

Historical GDP of Shandong Province, 1952–present (SNA2008) [31]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [note 1]
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
growth
(%)
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNYUSDPPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20166,802,4491,024,1101,943,0577.668,73310,34819,6336.64233.5009
20156,393,0741,026,4391,801,1208.065,11410,45418,3456.22843.5495
20146,030,036981,6431,698,4108.761,77410,05617,3996.14283.5504
20135,602,372904,6011,566,2659.657,7029,31716,1326.19323.5769
20125,071,045803,3341,428,1429.952,4908,31514,7836.31253.5508
20114,543,951703,5291,296,23510.947,4167,34113,5266.45883.5055
20103,962,074585,2831,196,78412.341,5796,14212,5596.76953.3106
20093,425,154501,4131,084,76812.236,2705,31011,4876.83103.1575
20083,123,138449,689983,10812.133,2534,78810,4676.94513.1768
20072,599,074341,804862,07614.327,8333,6609,2327.60403.0149
20062,205,967276,721766,57314.723,7752,9828,2627.97182.8777
20051,849,700225,802646,97415.120,0752,4517,0228.19172.8590
2000833,747100,714306,60410.39,3261,1273,4308.27842.7193
1990151,11931,59488,7585.31,8153791,0664.78321.7026
198029,21319,49619,53412.24022682691.49841.4955
197822,54514,49810.13162031.5550
197012,6315,13115.7199812.4618
19658,6253,50422.0152622.4618
19576,1392,358-3.5116452.6040
19524,3811,97191412.2227

Wine industry

Shandong coastal vineyards Chinese-Vineyards.jpg
Shandong coastal vineyards

The production of wine is the second largest[ citation needed ] industry in the Shandong Province, second only to agriculture.

Geographically, the coastal areas remain relatively flat. Most of the soil is loose, well-ventilated, and rich in minerals and organic matter that enable full development of the root systems.

Presently, there are more than 140 wineries in the region, mainly distributed in the Nanwang Grape Valley and the Yan-Peng Sightseeing Highway(both are in Yantai). The region produced more than 40% of China's grape wine production. [34] Main varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt, Merlot, Riesling and Chardonnay are all at 20 years of age, considered to be the golden stage for these grapes. Most of them maintain an average saccharinity of above 20%.

Major producers

Economic and technological development zones

Founded in 1991, the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development zone was one of the first of its kind approved by the State Council. The zone is located to the east of the city and covers a total planning area of 83 km2 (32 sq mi) that is divided into a central area covering 33 km2 (13 sq mi), an export processing district of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi), and an eastern extension area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi). Since its foundation, the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted enterprises as LG, Panasonic, Volvo, and Sanyo. In 2000, it joined the world science and technology association and set up a China-Ukraine High-tech Cooperation Park. The Qilu Software Park became the sister park of Bangalore park of India.[ citation needed ]

The export processing zone is located in the eastern suburbs of Jinan, east of the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone, and to the north of the Jiwang highway. The distances to the Jiqing Highway and the Jinan Airport are 9 and 18 km (5.6 and 11.2 mi) respectively. [35]

Approved by the State Council in October 1984, Qingdao Economic and Technical Development Zone has a plan of 12.5 km2 (4.8 sq mi). In 2004 the local GDP was ¥27.51 billion, which increased by 28.9%; the total industrial output value is ¥60.6 billion, which increased by 31%. There have been 48 projects invested by companies listed among the Global Fortune 500 in the zone. With the fast development of reform and opening-up, Haier, Hisense, Aucma, Sinopec, CSIC, CNOOC, CIMC etc. are all located in the zone. [36]

The State Council established Qingdao Free Trade Zone in 1992. The zone is 60 km (37 mi) away from Qingdao Liuting Airport. It is also close to Qingdao Qianwan Container Terminal. At present, more than 40 foreign-invested enterprises have moved in, and 2000 projects have been approved. It is one of the special economic areas which enjoys the most favorable investment policies on customs, foreign exchange, foreign trade, and taxation in China.[ citation needed ]

The State Council approved Qingdao High-Tech Industrial Development Zone in 1992. The zone is located close to Qingdao Liuting Airport and Qingdao Harbor. Encouraged industries include electronic information, biotechnology, medicine, new materials, new energy, advanced equipment manufacturing, marine science & technology, national defense technology. [37]

Established in August 1995, Weifang Binhai Economic & Technological Development Area (BEDA) is a national economic and technological development area approved by the State Council. Covering an area of 677 km2 (261 sq mi), BEDA has a population of 100,000. BEDA possesses a large state-owned industrial land for use with an area of 400 km2 (150 sq mi). The land can be transacted conveniently, guaranteeing the demand of any project construction and providing broad development space for the enterprises in the area. Continuously, BEDA has been accredited as National Demonstration Zone invigorating the Sea by Science and Technology, National Innovation Base for Rejuvenating Trade through Science and Technology and National Demonstration Eco-Industry Park.

Weihai Economic and Technological Development Zone is a state-level development zone approved by the State Council on Oct 21, 1992. The administrative area has an area of 194 km2 (75 sq mi), including the programmed area of 36 km2 (14 sq mi) and an initial area of 11.88 km2 (4.59 sq mi). Its nearest port is Weihai Port, and the airport closest to the zone is Wuhai Airport.[ citation needed ]

Weihai Export & Processing Zone (EPZ) was set up by the approval of the State Council on April 27, 2000. Weihai EPZ is located in Weihai Economic & Technological Development Zone with programmed area of 2.6 km2 (1.0 sq mi). Weihai EPZ belongs to comprehensive export & processing zone. The EPZ is located 30 km (19 mi) to Weihai Airport, 3 km (1.9 mi) to Weihai railway station and 4 km (2.5 mi) to Weihai Harbor.[ citation needed ]

Weihai Torch Hi-Tech Science Park is a state-level development zone approved by the State Council in March 1991. Located in Weihai's northwest zone of culture, education and science, the Park has the total area of 111.9 square kilometers (43.2 sq mi), the coastal line of 30.5 kilometers (19.0 mi) and 150,000 residents. It is 3 km (1.9 mi) away from the city center, 4 km (2.5 mi) away from Weihai Port, 10 km (6.2 mi) away from Weihai railway station, 30 km (19 mi) away from Weihai Airport and 80 km (50 mi) away from Yantai Airport. [38]

Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area is one of the earliest approved state level economic development zones in China. It now has planned area of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi) and a population of 115,000. It lies on the tip of the Shandong Peninsula facing the Yellow Sea. It adjoins to downtown Yantai, merely 6 km (3.7 mi) away from Yantai Port, 6 km (3.7 mi) away from Yantai railway station, and a 30-minute drive to Yantai International Airport. [39]

Yantai Export Processing Zone (YTEPZ) is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council. The total construction area of YTEPZ is 4.17 m2 (44.9 sq ft), in which the initial zone covers 3 km2 (1.2 sq mi). After developing for several years, YTEPZ is completely constructed. At present, the infrastructure has been completed, standard workshops of 120,000 m2 (140,000 sq yd) and bonded warehouses of 40,000 m2 (430,000 sq ft) have been built up. Up to now, owning perfect investment environment and conditions, YTEPZ has attracted investors both from foreign countries and regions such as Japan, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Sweden, the United States, Canada, etc., and from the domestic to invest and operate in the zone. [40]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [41] 30,989,000    
1928 [42] 28,672,000−7.5%
1936-37 [43] 38,100,000+32.9%
1947 [44] 38,865,000+2.0%
1954 [45] 48,876,548+25.8%
1964 [46] 55,519,038+13.6%
1982 [47] 74,419,054+34.0%
1990 [48] 84,392,827+13.4%
2000 [49] 89,971,789+6.6%
2010 [50] 95,793,065+6.5%
Qingdao was part of Shandong Province until 1929; dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Shandong Province.
Weihai, also known as Weihaiwei. Established in 1930, dissolved in 1945, and incorporated into Shandong Province.

Shandong is the second most populous province of China, after Guangdong, just slightly ahead of Henan, with a population of more than 101,527,453 at the 2020 Chinese census. Over 99% of Shandong's population is Han Chinese. Minority groups include the Hui and the Manchus. Shandong citizens are also known to have the tallest average height of any Chinese province. As of 2010, 16-18-year-old male students in Yantai measured 176.4 centimetres (5 ft 9.4 in) while female students measured 164 cm (5 ft 5 in). [51]

Religion

Religion in Shandong [52] [note 2]

   Christianity (1.21%)
   Islam (0.55%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 3] (80.05%)

The predominant religions in Shandong are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 25,28% of the population believes in ancestor veneration, while 1.21% of the population identifies as Christian, decreasing from 1.30% in 2004. [52] The Christians were 1.89% of the province's population in 1949, the largest proportion in China at that time. [52] According to a survey of the year 2010, Muslims constitute 0.55% of Shandong's population up from 0.14% in 1949. [53] [54]

The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 80.05% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and folk religious sects. Shandong is the province where Confucius was born in the year 551 B.C.

Confucianism: The most well-known religion and/or philosophy of Shandong is Confucianism. Each year thousands of people come to Shandong to visit and learn about Confucius' culture. According to Chinese tradition, Confucius was a thinker, political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought. His teachings, preserved in the Lunyu or Analects, form the foundation of much of subsequent Chinese speculation on the ideal man's education and comportment, how such an individual should live his life and interact with others, and the forms of society and government in which he should participate. Additionally, there are many famous books about Confucius; the most famous one is the Analects written by his students. Confucius also helped edit The Five Classics (五经). The Five Classics include The Book of Songs, History, Changes and Rites. [55] [56]

Famous view and arts

Administrative divisions

Shandong is divided into sixteen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities). On January 1, 2019, Laiwu was wholly annexed to Jinan:

Administrative divisions of Shandong
Division code [59] DivisionArea in km2 [60] Population 2010 [61] SeatDivisions [62]
Districts Counties CL cities
370000Shandong Province157,100.0095,792,719 Jinan city585226
370100 Jinan city10,247.018,112,513 Lixia District 102
370200 Qingdao city11,175.308,715,087 Shinan District 73
370300 Zibo city5,965.174,530,597 Zhangdian District 53
370400 Zaozhuang city4,563.223,729,140 Xuecheng District 51
370500 Dongying city7,923.262,035,338 Dongying District 32
370600 Yantai city13,746.476,968,202 Laishan District 56
370700 Weifang city16,143.149,086,241 Kuiwen District 426
370800 Jining city11,186.988,081,905 Rencheng District 272
370900 Tai'an city7,761.835,494,207 Taishan District 222
371000 Weihai city5,796.982,804,771 Huancui District 22
371100 Rizhao city5,347.992,801,013 Donggang District 22
371300 Linyi city17,191.2110,039,440 Lanshan District 39
371400 Dezhou city10,356.325,568,235 Decheng District 272
371500 Liaocheng city8,714.575,789,863 Dongchangfu District 251
371600 Binzhou city9,444.653,748,474 Bincheng District 241
371700 Heze city12,193.858,287,693 Mudan District 27

The 16 prefecture-level cities of Shandong are subdivided into 137 county-level divisions (55 districts, 26 county-level cities, and 56 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1941 township-level divisions (1223 towns, 293 townships, two ethnic townships, and 423 subdistricts).

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [63] District area [63] City proper [63] Census date
1 Jinan [lower-alpha 2] 3,527,5664,335,9898,396,1422010-11-01
(1)Jinan (new districts) [lower-alpha 2] 1,261,0402,880,687see Jinan2010-11-01
2 Qingdao [lower-alpha 3] 3,519,9193,718,8358,715,0872010-11-01
(2)Qingdao (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 1,036,1582,045,549see Qingdao2010-11-01
3 Zibo 2,261,7173,129,2284,530,5972010-11-01
4 Yantai 1,797,8612,227,7336,968,2022010-11-01
5 Linyi 1,522,4882,303,64810,039,4402010-11-01
6 Weifang 1,261,5822,044,0289,086,2412010-11-01
7 Tai'an 1,123,5411,735,4255,494,2072010-11-01
8 Zaozhuang 980,8932,125,4813,729,1402010-11-01
9 Jining [lower-alpha 4] 939,0341,241,0128,081,9052010-11-01
(9)Jining (new district) [lower-alpha 4] 388,449618,394see Jining2010-11-01
10 Rizhao 902,2721,320,5782,801,0132010-11-01
11 Dongying [lower-alpha 5] 848,9581,004,2712,035,3382010-11-01
(11)Dongying (new district) [lower-alpha 5] 114,073242,292see Dongying2010-11-01
12 Tengzhou 783,4731,603,659see Zaozhuang2010-11-01
13 Weihai [lower-alpha 6] 698,863844,3102,804,7712010-11-01
(13)Weihai (new district) [lower-alpha 6] 310,628673,625see Weihai2010-11-01
14 Xintai 672,2071,315,942see Tai'an2010-11-01
15 Liaocheng 606,3661,229,7685,789,8632010-11-01
16 Zhucheng 586,6521,086,222see Weifang2010-11-01
17 Heze [lower-alpha 7] 559,6361,346,7178,287,6932010-11-01
(17)Heze (new district) [lower-alpha 7] 166,037565,793see Heze2010-11-01
18 Dezhou [lower-alpha 8] 526,232679,5355,568,2352010-11-01
(18)Dezhou (new district) [lower-alpha 8] 170,317569,007see Dezhou2010-11-01
19 Zoucheng 513,4181,116,692see Jining2010-11-01
20 Shouguang 476,2741,139,454see Weifang2010-11-01
21 Feicheng 472,775946,627see Tai'an2010-11-01
22 Gaomi 466,786895,582see Weifang2010-11-01
23 Pingdu 427,694868,348see Qingdao2010-11-01
24 Binzhou [lower-alpha 9] 407,820682,7173,748,4742010-11-01
(24)Binzhou (new district) [lower-alpha 9] 146,577351,672see Binzhou2010-11-01
25 Jiaozhou 404,2161357,424see Qingdao2010-11-01
(26) Zouping [lower-alpha 10] 389,003778,777see Binzhou2010-11-01
27 Longkou 388,770688,255see Yantai2010-11-01
28 Qingzhou 384,358940,355see Weifang2010-11-01
29 Laizhou 379,789883,896see Yantai2010-11-01
30 Linqing 376,337719,611see Liaocheng2010-11-01
31 Rongcheng 363,420714,355see Weihai2010-11-01
32 Laiyang 358,092878,591see Yantai2010-11-01
33 Laixi 347,452750,225see Qingdao2010-11-01
34 Qufu 302,805640,498see Jining2010-11-01
35 Anqiu 300,160926,894see Weifang2010-11-01
36 Changyi 287,720603,482see Weifang2010-11-01
37 Zhaoyuan 281,780566,244see Yantai2010-11-01
38 Rushan 259,876572,481see Weihai2010-11-01
39 Haiyang 244,600638,729see Yantai2010-11-01
40 Leling 214,238652,415see Dezhou2010-11-01
41 Qixia 204,633589,620see Yantai2010-11-01
42 Yucheng 203,724490,031see Dezhou2010-11-01
43 Penglai 185,894451,109see Yantai2010-11-01
  1. UK: /ʃænˈdʊŋ/ shan-DUUNG, [6] US: /ʃɑːnˈdɔːŋ/ shahn-DAWNG; [7] simplified Chinese :山东; traditional Chinese :山東; alternately romanized as Shantung
  2. 1 2 Laiwu PLC is currently no longer exist after census it merged with Jinan in 2019. Laiwu PLC's districts merged after census: Laiwu (Laicheng), Gangcheng; and new districts established after census: Zhangqiu (Zhangqiu CLC), Jiyang (Jiyang County). Laiwu PLC's districts and the new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Jimo (Jimo CLC); Jiaonan CLC merged into Xihai'an (Huangdao) after census. The new district and annexed area not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New district established after census: Yanzhou (Yanzhou CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 New district established after census: Kenli (Kenli County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Wendeng (Wendeng CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. 1 2 New district established after census: Dingtao (Dingtao County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. 1 2 New district established after census: Lingcheng (Lingxian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. 1 2 New district established after census: Zhanhua (Zhanhua County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  10. Zouping County is currently known as Zouping CLC after census.
 
 
Most populous cities in Shandong
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [64]
RankPop.RankPop.
May Wind 20090215.jpg
Qingdao
Qianfoshanpark.jpg
Jinan
1 Qingdao 5,127,00011 Weihai 968,500 Yinqueshan Han tomb museum.jpg
Linyi
Yantai2017.jpg
Yantai
2 Jinan 4,154,90012 Heze 917,900
3 Linyi 2,188,30013 Dongying 911,900
4 Yantai 2,186,10014 Liaocheng 910,600
5 Zibo 1,824,60015 Rizhao 900,000
6 Jining 1,577,40016 Binzhou 887,600
7 Weifang 1,497,60017 Laiwu 720,000
8 Dezhou 1,074,20018 Shouguang 574,900
9 Tai'an 1,027,10019 Xintai 555,000
10 Zaozhuang 1,025,80020 Zhucheng 496,900

Culture

Map of Shandong Dialects Map of Shandong Dialects.png
Map of Shandong Dialects

Mandarin dialects are spoken in Shandong. Linguists classify these dialects into three broad categories: Ji Lu Mandarin spoken in the northwest (as well as in neighboring Hebei), such as the Jinan dialect; Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in the southwest (as well as in neighboring Henan); and Jiao Liao Mandarin spoken in the Shandong Peninsula (as well as the Liaodong Peninsula(e.g., Dalian, Dandong) and the southeastern Jilin(e.g., Baishan, Tonghua)), such as the Weihai Dialect. When people speak of the "Shandong dialect" (山東話), it is generally the first or the second that is meant; the Jiao Liao dialects of Shandong are commonly called the "Jiaodong dialect" (膠東話).

Shandong cuisine (鲁菜) is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is known for its bread(corn-based) and fish dishes. [65] It can be more finely divided into inland Shandong cuisine (e.g. Jinan cuisine); the seafood-centered Jiaodong cuisine in the peninsula; and Confucius's Mansion cuisine, an elaborate tradition originally intended for imperial and other important feasts.

Shandong Bangzi and Lüju are popular types of Chinese opera in Shandong; both originated from southwestern Shandong.

Transport

The Jingjiu railway (Beijing-Kowloon) and Jinghu railway (Beijing-Shanghai) are both major arterial railways that pass through the western part of Shandong. The Jingjiu passes through Liaocheng and Heze; the Jinghu passes through Dezhou, Jinan, Tai'an, Yanzhou (the Jinghu high-speed railway will through Qufu) and Zaozhuang. The Jiaoji railway is an important railway of Shandong, linking its two largest cities of Qingdao and Jinan, with the longest history of all.

Shandong has one of the densest and highest quality expressway networks among all Chinese provinces. These National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) expressways pass through or begin in Shandong. Expressways that begin in Shandong are in bold:

There are also many shorter regional expressways within Shandong.

The Shandong Peninsula, with its bays and harbours, has many important ports, including Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai, Rizhao, Dongying and Longkou. Many of these ports have historical significance and the sites of former foreign naval bases or historical battles. Ferries link the cities on the north coast of the peninsula with the Liaodong Peninsula, further north across the sea.

Important airports include Jinan Yaoqiang Airport and Qingdao Jiaodong International Airport. Other airports are Dongying Shengli Airport, Jining Qufu Airport, Linyi Shubuling Airport, Weifang Airport, Weihai Dashuibo Airport and Yantai Laishan International Airport.

As of the end of 2018, Qingdao is the only city in Shandong with a metro system, with four lines in operation. Jinan was opened in early 2019.

Tourism

Tourist attractions in Shandong include:

Five-Year Clean Heating Plan

In 2017 air pollution contributed to about 21% of deaths in China. [66] In 2017, the Chinese government began a five-year plan to convert half of northern China to clean energy for winter heating. [67] Haiyang city is expected to convert completely to nuclear power by 2021, [68] reducing fossil fuel emissions by more than 60,000 tons annually. [69]

Education

Colleges and universities

Shandong is considered one of China's leading provinces in education and research. Shandong hosts 153 higher education institutions, ranking second in the East China region after Jiangsu and fourth among all Chinese provinces/municipalities after Jiangsu, Guangdong and Henan. [16]

As of 2023, two major cities in the province ranked in the top 50 cities in the world (Jinan 32nd and Qingdao 43rd) by scientific research output, as tracked by the Nature Index. [70]

Sports

Jinan Olympic Sports Center Stadium. JinanOlympic.JPG
Jinan Olympic Sports Center Stadium.

Events held in Shandong

Professional sports teams based in Shandong

Former professional sports teams based in Shandong

See also

Notes

    1. Purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017. Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate according to IMF WEO [32] data; Exchange rate of CN¥ to US$ is according to State Administration of Foreign Exchange, published in the China Statistical Yearbook. [33]
    2. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [52] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010. [53]
    3. This may include:

    Related Research Articles

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Jinan</span> Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city in Shandong, China

    Jinan is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. With a population of 9.2 million, it is one of the largest cities in Shandong in terms of population. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub. The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994. Jinan is often called the "City of Springs" for its famous 72 artesian springs.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Qingdao</span> City in Shandong, China

    Qingdao is a city in eastern Shandong Province of China. Located on China's Yellow Sea coast, it is a major nodal city of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) that connects Continental and East Asia with Europe. It has the highest GDP of any city in the province. Administered at the sub-provincial level, Qingdao has jurisdiction over seven districts and three county-level cities. As of the 2020 census, Qingdao built-up area made of the seven urban districts was home to 7,172,451 inhabitants, making it the 15th largest city in China by population. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Yantai</span> Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

    Yantai, formerly known as Chefoo, is a coastal prefecture-level city on the Shandong Peninsula in northeastern Shandong province of People's Republic of China. Lying on the southern coast of the Bohai Strait, Yantai borders Qingdao on the southwest and Weihai on the east, with sea access to both the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. It is the largest fishing seaport in Shandong. Its population was 6,968,202 during the 2010 census, of whom 2,227,733 lived in the built-up area made up of the 4 urban districts of Zhifu, Muping, Fushan and Laishan.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Shandong University</span> Public university in Jinan, Shandong, China

    Shandong University is a public university in Jinan, Shandong, China. It is affiliated with the Ministry of Education of China. The university is part of Project 211, Project 985, and the Double First-Class Construction.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Weifang</span> Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

    Weifang is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, People's Republic of China. The city borders Dongying to the northwest, Zibo to the west, Linyi to the southwest, Rizhao to the south, Qingdao to the east, and looks out to the Laizhou Bay to the north. Its population was 9,386,705 at the 2020 census, of whom 3,095,520 lived in the built-up area made up of four urban districts and Changle County largely being urbanized.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Shandong Peninsula</span> Peninsula in China

    The Shandong (Shantung) Peninsula or Jiaodong (Chiaotung) Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south. The latter name refers to the east and Jiaozhou.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Weihai</span> Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

    Weihai, formerly Weihaiwei, is a prefecture-level city and major seaport city in easternmost Shandong province of China. It borders Yantai to the west and the Yellow Sea to the east, and is the closest Chinese city to South Korea.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Zibo</span> Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

    Zibo is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, China. It borders the provincial capital Jinan to the west, Tai'an to the southwest, Linyi to the south, Weifang to the east, Dongying to the northeast, and Binzhou to the north.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Jining</span> Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

    Jining is a former capital of Shandong. Is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Shandong province. It borders Heze to the southwest, Zaozhuang to the southeast, Tai'an to the northeast, and the provinces of Henan and Jiangsu to the northwest and south respectively. Jining, which is located directly to the north of Lake Nanyang, is today the northernmost city reachable by navigation on the Grand Canal of China making it an important inland port.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Rizhao</span> Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

    Rizhao, alternatively romanized as Jihchao, is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Shandong province, China. It is situated on the coastline along the Yellow Sea, and features a major seaport, the Port of Rizhao. It borders Qingdao to the northeast, Weifang to the north, Linyi to the west and southwest, and faces Korea and Japan across the Yellow Sea to the east.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Longkou</span> County-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

    Longkou, formerly Huang County, is a port city in northeastern Shandong province, China, facing the Bohai Sea to the north and the Laizhou Bay to the west. Longkou, a county-level city, is administered by the prefecture-level city of Yantai. It is located in the northwest of Jiaodong Peninsula and the south bank of Bohai Bay, adjacent to Penglai District in the east, Qixia City and Zhaoyuan City in the south, Bohai Sea in the west and north, and facing Tianjin and Dalian across the sea. With a total area of 901 square kilometers, the city has jurisdiction over 5 subdistricts, 8 towns and 1 high-tech industrial park.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Weihai Dashuipo Airport</span> Airport in Wendeng District, Weihai

    Weihai Dashuipo Airport is an airport serving the city of Weihai in Shandong province, China.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Bohai Economic Rim</span> Economic region in China

    The Bohai Economic Rim (BER) or Bohai Bay Economic Rim (BBER) is the economic region surrounding Tianjin (Tientsin). It also includes areas in Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong surrounding the Bohai Sea. This region has undergone major economic and infrastructural changes and is an emerging economic powerhouse of North China, rivaling both the Pearl River Delta in southern China and the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China.

    The people of Shandong province or Shandong people refers to those who are native to Shandong province, the majority (99%) are classified as Han Chinese. They speak various forms of Chinese such as Jilu, Jiaoliao, and Zhongyuan. There is a small Shandong community in Singapore and Malaysia. Nine-tenths of the early overseas Chinese in Korea also came from Shandong. Shandong citizens, are also known to have the tallest average height of any Chinese province. As of 2010, 16- to 18-year-old male students in Yantai measured 176.4 cm (5'9.5), while female students measured 164 cm (5'4.5). Provincial average for both genders would be about 1cm less.

    Christianity is a minority religion in Shandong province of China. Christianity in Henan, Christianity in Anhui and Christianity in Jiangsu are other major provincial Christian populations. Cheeloo University is defunct. St. Michael's Cathedral, Qingdao and Sacred Heart Cathedral (Jinan) are churches of European style. Another European-style church is due to be built in Qufu, where Confucius originated. This idea was or is opposed by Confucianist groups. There is official action against house churches.

    Shandong Hi-Speed Group Corporation or Shandong Gaosu Group, (SDHS), is a solely state-owned enterprise in Jinan, China, owned by the Shandong Provincial People's Government. It is mainly engaged in investment, construction and operation of highways, expressways, bridges, railways, rail transits, harbours, shipping and logistics. It also sets foot in construction, building material, information, financing, real estate and other sectors related to its main business. In June 2011, SDHS opened the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge spanning more than 40 kilometers between Qingdao and Huangdao District in Shandong, making it the longest cross-sea bridge in the world.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Weifang railway station</span> Railway station in Weifang, Shandong, China

    The Weifang railway station is a railway station in Weicheng District, Weifang, Shandong. It currently lies on the Qingdao–Jinan passenger railway and Qingdao–Jinan railway .First class seat

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Qingdao–Rongcheng intercity railway</span> Railway line in Shandong, China

    Qingdao–Rongcheng intercity railway is a high-speed railway located in China's, Shandong Province. It travels along the Shandong Peninsula connecting to Qingdao and Rongcheng. Line length is 298.842 km (186 mi). The design speed is based on 250 km/h (155 mph) service. However, it has been reserved for the line to be upgraded, if warranted, to 300 km/h (186 mph). Construction consisted of a three-month preparation period, a building period of 27 months and with a joint testing and commissioning period of six months. On December 28, 2014, the Qingdao–Rongcheng intercity railway opened from Jimo to Rongcheng. The whole line opened on November 16, 2016.

    The Rizhao–Lankao high-speed railway is a high-speed railway in Shandong and Henan, China.

    Qilu culture, also known as Haidai culture, is a regional culture formed and developed centered in Shandong Province, China. The Qilu Cultural District is centered on the Taiyi Mountains, and its scope roughly includes the area east of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal in today's Shandong Province, northern Jiangsu Province, and the Liaodong Peninsula. It is consistent with the Jiaoliao Mandarin District and the Hebei and Lu Mandarin Districts in Shandong Province. To the west, it is bounded by the Grand Canal and the Central Plains Culture, and to the south, it is adjacent to the Jianghuai Culture in the Jianghuai Mandarin District. Qilu culture can be subdivided into "Western Lu culture" and "Jiaodong culture".

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