Jinan

Last updated
Jinan
济南市
Tsinan, Chi-nan
Skyline of CBD, Jinan, China.jpg
Skyline of CBD, Jinan
Nickname: 
City of Springs (泉城)
Jinan
Ji Nan Shi Sheng Nei Wei Zhi Gai Lan Tu .svg
Location of Jinan City within Shandong
China Shandong location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Jinan
Location in the North China Plain
China Northern Plain relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Jinan
Jinan (Northern China)
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Jinan
Jinan (China)
Coordinates(Shandong People's Government): 36°40′13″N117°01′15″E / 36.6702°N 117.0207°E / 36.6702; 117.0207 Coordinates: 36°40′13″N117°01′15″E / 36.6702°N 117.0207°E / 36.6702; 117.0207
Country China
Province Shandong
County-level divisions 12
Township divisions 166
Municipal seat Lixia District
Government
  Type Sub-provincial city
  Body Jinan Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Sun Licheng
   Congress ChairmanYin Luqian
   Mayor Sun Shutao
   CPPCC ChairmanLei Jie
Area
   Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city 10,247 km2 (3,956 sq mi)
  Urban
6,122.4 km2 (2,363.9 sq mi)
  Metro
3,304 km2 (1,276 sq mi)
Elevation23 m (75 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [1]
   Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city 9,202,432
  Density900/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
   Urban
8,352,574
  Urban density1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
   Metro
5,452,335
  Metro density1,700/km2 (4,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
250000
Area code 0531
ISO 3166 code CN-SD-01
License plate prefixes A, 鲁S
GDP (2018) CNY 886.221 billion
 - per capita CNY 101,864.5
Website www.jinan.gov.cn (Chinese)

Jinan Railway Station.jpg
CRH at Jinan Railway Station
China Jinan 5197201.jpg
Jinan West Railway Station

Jinan is positioned at the intersection of two major railways: The Jinghu Railway that runs from Beijing to Shanghai is the major north–south backbone of the railway system in eastern China. In Jinan, it intersects with the Jiaoji Railway that connects Jinan to the sea port of Qingdao to the east. In addition, the Hanji Railway connects Jinan to the city of Handan (Hebei Province) in the west. Within Shandong province, the Jinghu Railway connects Jinan with the cities of Dezhou, Tai'an, Jining, and Zaozhuang; the Jiaoji Railway provides a link to the cities of Zibo, Qingdao, and Weifang; the Hanji Railway serves the cities of Yancheng and Liaocheng.

Central Jinan is served by Jinan railway station, Jinan East railway station, and Daminghu railway station (just by Daming Lake).

The Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway calls at Jinan West railway station, which is outside the central metropolitan center and is in suburban western Jinan's Huaiyin District. Since it opened for public service on 30 June 2011, [68] it has become a future hub with west–east running high speed railways to Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang and Qingdao. Jinan East railway station opened in 2018. An additional station, Jinan North railway station, is planned.

Metro

Started by construction in 2013, [69] Jinan Metro opened in 2019. Currently, Lines 1, 2 and 3 are operational, and has 40 stations. [70]

Expressways

Major expressways include China National Highway 104, China National Highway 220, and China National Highway 309. Because of Jinan's location and role as a road and rail transportation hub, the Jinan Coach Terminus has one of the largest passenger flows nationally. On peak travel days, as many as 92,000 passengers per day have been counted, on off-peak days the number is around 42,000 passengers per day. [71]

Airport

Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport is located about 33 km (21 mi) northeast of the city center and located in Yaoqiang Subdistrict of Licheng District, Jinan, from which the name of the airport is derived. The airport is connected to the city center of Jinan by expressways. It has domestic flights to many of the major cities in China as well as to international destinations, in particular Helsinki, [72] Osaka, [73] Seoul, Paris, Bangkok and Singapore.

Buses

The conventional buses in the city have air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buses. Air-conditioned lines have a K prefix on their route numbers. From 2018, most lines are air-conditioned lines (Include lines without K perfix). [74] These lines comprise more than 200 routes covering the whole city.

Culture and contemporary life

Dialect

Local residents in the city proper, as well as in the surrounding areas, have traditionally spoken the Jinan dialect of Mandarin that is not readily understood even by native speakers of standard Mandarin. The younger people of Jinan are more likely to speak standard Mandarin, whereas many older residents retain strong local dialect elements in their speech. Nevertheless, even the younger residents of Jinan tend to retain a strong local accent and mix local vocabulary into the standardized Mandarin vocabulary. Due to the influx of migrant workers during the past decade of China's economic boom, many of the current population that are of working age are not natives of Jinan but have learned to understand the Jinan dialect.

Cuisine

Jinan has its own cuisine, the Jinan style of the Shandong cuisine, one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China. One of its features is the use of soup in its dishes. Modern cuisines in northern China —Beijing, Tianjin and the northeastern regions including Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning— are all branches of Shandong cuisine.

Shopping centers

Most shopping malls in Jinan are in the downtown area centered around City of Springs Square and Quancheng Road ( ; 'spring city road'). City of Springs Square was built by the municipal government beside the city moat in the early 21st century; at the center is the statue "Spring" which has become a symbol of Jinan. The square borders on the ancient city moat. It has a music fountain, a 46,000 square meter underground shopping center and a memorial hall with statues of famous people from Shandong.

Most shopping malls in Jinan are in the downtown area centered around City of Springs Square and Quancheng Road ( ; 'spring city road'). City of Springs Square was built by the municipal government beside the city moat in the early 21st century

City of Springs Road was rebuilt at the same time that City of Springs Square was created. The government's intention was to create a modern business district and yet preserve the traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, newly built shopping malls with traditional Chinese architectural styles and modern western skyscrapers can be found side by side along City of Springs Road. Notable retail businesses are Quancheng Bookstore – the largest bookstore of the city – and Walmart (near the western end of City of Springs Road). Major shopping malls along the road are the Guihe Shopping Center ( ), the Sofitel Silver Plaza, the Shimao international shopping center, and the Wanda Shopping Mall ( 集团 ). Parc 66 ( 济南 广场 ) to the south of City of Springs Road (opposite of Water Lily Street), opened in August 2011, is Jinan's largest shopping mall with seven levels of retail space and a total gross floor area of 171,000 square meters. [67]

Main tourist attractions

Quancheng Square of Jinan Ji Nan Shi Quan Cheng Guang Chang .jpg
Quancheng Square of Jinan
Pavilion in the 10,000 Bamboo Garden of Baotu Spring Park Baotuspring 10000 bamboo garden courtyard 2008 09 14.jpg
Pavilion in the 10,000 Bamboo Garden of Baotu Spring Park
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Jinan Ji Nan Hong Lou Jiao Tang .jpg
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Jinan

Jinan is renowned across China for its numerous springs, the lakes fed by the spring water, and the weeping willows that grow along the water edges. The late-Qing author Liu E describes Jinan's cityscape in his novel "The Travels of Lao Can" ( , written 1903–04, published in 1907) as "Every family has spring water, every household has a willow tree". [75] Jinan was also the historical center of Buddhist culture for the whole province which is still manifest in the many historic sites that are left behind in its southern counties.

Springs and lakes

Jinan is known as the "City of Springs" because of the large number of natural artesian springs. The majority of the springs, many of which have been historically listed under the "72 Famous Springs" ( ) are concentrated in the downtown district and flow north to converge in Daming Lake. [7] The Baotu Spring Park is the most popular of the springs in the City of Jinan proper. Besides the Baotu Spring, the park contains several other springs that are listed among the "72 Famous Springs". "Bào tū" ( ) means "jumping and leaping" in Chinese. The water in the spring pool can be seen foaming and gushing, looking like a pot of boiling water. The spring was visited by the Qianlong Emperor (1711–1799) of the Qing dynasty who declared it "the best spring under the heaven" (Chinese : 天下第一泉 ; pinyin :tiān xià dì yī quán). A tablet with the Emperor's handwriting "Baotu Spring" has since been erected beside the spring pool.

Not far away to the northeast of Baotu Spring Park is the Daming Lake, which, together with Baotu Spring and the Thousand-Buddha Mountain is often regarded as the "Three Greatest Attractions in Jinan". Other notable parks in the city include the Five Dragon Pool ( ) near the Baotu Spring Park, the Black Tiger Spring ( ) on the southern city moat, and the Baimai Springs ( ) of Zhangqiu City to the east of Jinan.

Museums and libraries

Hall of Shandong Provincial Museum Shan Dong Sheng Bo Wu Guan Zheng Ting .jpg
Hall of Shandong Provincial Museum

The Shandong Provincial Museum located at the foothill of Thousand-Buddha Mountain is the largest museum in the province. It has a large collection of natural as well as historical treasures from the whole province. The museum was established in its present form in 1982 and currently has 8 exhibition halls : "Treasures of Shandong Province"; "Stone Sculptures"; "Warship of the Ming dynasty"; "Ancient Coins"; "Art Treasures"; "Fossil Collections"; "Dinosaurs"; and "Specimens". The museum has more than 210,000 relics and specimens, making up ⅓ of the collections in museums of whole province.

The Jinan Municipal Museum [76] is located at the south-western foot of the Thousand-Buddha Mountain, in the north of the city center. Although much smaller than the provincial museum, the municipal museum still houses a collection of more than 20,000 items, most of which were recovered in the city area.

The Shandong Art Museum is a large museum of fine arts built near the Provincial Museum.

The Shandong Provincial Library [77] in the eastern High-tech Park (address: 2912 Second Ring East Road) is the principal library of the province and is ranked among the Top 10 Chinese libraries. As of 2004, the library had more than 5.18 million documents, many of which date back many centuries and are important sources for research on Chinese history. The library also has a large collection of western journals/books. Originally, the library was built close to Daming Lake in 1909 by the then governor of Shandong. In the late 1990s, a project was undertaken to move the library to the eastern part of the city, and it reopened in 2002 with 35 reading rooms and more than 2000 seats.

Parks and Nature Reserves

Jinan Hundred Miles Yellow River Scenic Area is located in No.166 Luokou Huancheng Road in Tianqiao District. [78] It is designed as an ecological cultural theme park which focuses on ecological tourism, cultural tourism, and healthy tourism. The Yellow River of this section stretches 51.98 kilometers. [79] Jinan Hundred Miles Yellow River Scenic Area was awarded the title "Fifty Scenes of the Yellow River in China" on September 12, 2018. [80] The Levee extending along the Yellow River in this scenery area, is praised as "the Great Wall over water". [78]

Yellow River Forest Park (Jinan) is located on the north bank of the Yellow River. The Yellow River Forest Park sprawls over 1500mu (100 hectares) and has 300,000 trees of various breeds. [81] Yellow River Forest Park is the only park equipping with a forest racecourse, which has a course of 3 Li (unit), in Jinan City. [82] Yellow River Forest Park provides not only an area covering 5000 square meters for visitors to freely barbecue but also a fishing pond covering 1,800 square meters. Visitors can participate in various activities here, such as roller skating, cue sports, table tennis, archery, shooting, etc.

Daming Lake Park is located in the center of Jinan City, covering an area of 46.5 hectares. Daming Lake Park is considered one of the three must-see tourist spots of Jinan (the others are Baotu Spring Park and Thousand-Buddha Mountain). Daming Lake Park has many scenic spots, such as the Daming lake and the Lixia Pavilion. Daming Lake is a natural lake consisting of many springs. It is unique because the lake has constant water level unaffected by heavy rains or drought. [83] Lixia Pavilion, which was built in the Northern Wei period, is in the center of the Daming Lake. There are so many ancient buildings in Daming Lake Park that it has a title describing them, which is "One terrace, three gardens, three towers, four ancestral halls, six isles, seven bridges and ten pavilions". [84]

Education

Universities and colleges

Provincial high schools

Sports

The most renowned sports team in Jinan is Shandong Hi-Speed Kirin. They have been playing in the Chinese Basketball Association (CBA) since 1995. In the 2012–13 CBA season they reached the final, but lost 4–0 to Guangdong Southern Tigers.

The Shandong Taishan Football Club is the most widely known football team in Jinan. The club currently plays in the highest tier of Chinese football, the Chinese Super League. They have been playing in the top tier for every season since the league became professional in 1994. Shandong Taishan has won five top division titles, seven Chinese FA Cups, and one Chinese FA Super Cup. Jinan was also one of four host cities of China during the 2004 AFC Asian Cup.

In 2009, Jinan hosted the 2009 National Games of China, the premier sports event at the national level in China and the first major multi-sports event held in China after the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The National Games' main venue was the Jinan Olympic Sports Center. [96]

Since 2014, Jinan has also been known as the site of China’s national winter swimming festivals at Daming Lake, since 2016 organized in cooperation with the International Winter Swimming Association (IWSA). In the 2019–20 season, Jinan hosted the 8th Winter Springs-swimming International Invitational. [97]

Twin towns and sister cities

Flag of Germany.svg Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany (January 29, 2004)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Coventry, England, United Kingdom (May 5, 1983)
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia (September 4, 2004)
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kazanlak, Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria (January 21, 2013)
Flag of Ukraine.svg Kharkiv, Ukraine (July 31, 2006)
Flag of Israel.svg Kfar Saba, Israel (July 16, 2007)
Flag of Turkey.svg Marmaris, Muğla Province, Turkey (September 19, 2011)
Flag of Russia.svg Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (September 22, 1994)
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (February 29, 1988)
Flag of Brazil.svg Porto Velho, State of Rondônia, Brazil (September 19, 2011)
Flag of Cape Verde.svg Praia, Santiago Island, Cape Verde (April 9, 2009)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada (January 29, 1985)
Flag of France.svg Rennes, Brittany Region, France March 24, 2000)
Flag of the United States.svg Sacramento, California, United States (October 2, 1984)
Flag of South Korea.svg Suwon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea (June 16, 1993)
Flag of Finland.svg Vantaa, Uusimaa, Finland (December 22, 2000)
Flag of Belarus.svg Vitebsk, Belarus (August 17, 2009)
Flag of Japan.svg Wakayama, Honshu, Japan (April 20, 1982)
Flag of Japan.svg Yamaguchi, Honshu, Japan (March 22, 1985)
Flag of India.svg Nagpur, Maharashtra, India (December 8, 2017)
Flag of Ethiopia.svg Arba Minch, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, Ethiopia (September 4, 2018)

See also

Notes

  1. In addition to the names in the infobox above, Jinan has also been romanized as Tse-nan. [3]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shandong</span> Province of China

Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shandong University</span>

Shandong University is a public research comprehensive university in Jinan, Shandong with one campus in Weihai, Shandong and one campus in Qingdao, Shandong and is supported directly by the national ministry of education. It is one of the largest universities in China by student population.

Shandong Airlines Co,.Ltd. is an airline based in the Shandong Airlines Center in Jinan, Shandong. The Chinese carrier operates a sizable domestic network from Jinan, Qingdao and Yantai to major cities across China, together with an international network to regional Asian destinations. The airline's two largest shareholders are Shandong Aviation Group with a 42% controlling stake and Air China, a strategic partner, holding 22.8% of the airlines shares.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tai'an</span> Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Tai'an is a prefecture-level city in Western Shandong Province of the People's Republic of China. Centered on Mount Tai, the city borders the provincial capital of Jinan to the north, Zibo to the east, Linyi to the southeast, Liaocheng to the extreme west and Jining to the south. To the west, Tai'an is separated from the province of Henan by the Yellow River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Laiwu</span> Former prefecture-level city in Shandong, China

Laiwu was a prefecture-level city in central Shandong Province, China. Bordered the provincial capital of Jinan to the north, Zibo to the east and Tai'an to the southwest, it was the smallest prefecture-level city in the province. It had a population of 1,298,529 as of the 2010 census, all living in the built-up area made of 2 urban Districts and became part of Jinan in 2019 and 907,839 living in urban area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rizhao</span> Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Rizhao, alternatively romanized as Jihchao, is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Shandong province, China. It is situated on the coastline along the Yellow Sea, and features a major seaport. It borders Qingdao to the northeast, Weifang to the north, Linyi to the west and southwest, and faces Korea and Japan across the Yellow Sea to the east.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport</span> Airport in Licheng District, Jinan

Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport is the airport serving Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province, China. The airport is located approximately 33 kilometres (21 mi) northeast of the city center and immediately to the north of the Yaoqiang Subdistrict (遥墙街道) after which the airport is named. By road, the airport is connected to the Jinan Ring (济南绕城高速公路), Beijing–Shanghai, and Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressways.

Beishanyang is a village located in Kouzhen (口镇街道), Laiwu District, Jinan, Shandong Province of the People's Republic of China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tianqiao District</span> District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Tianqiao District is one of 10 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province in East China, forming part of the city's urban core. It has an area of 258.71 km2 (99.89 sq mi) and has 688,415 permanent residents as of 2010. It borders Jiyang County to the north, Licheng District to the east, Lixia District to the southeast, Shizhong District to the south, Huaiyin District to the southwest, as well as the prefecture-level city of Dezhou to the northwest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Changqing District</span> District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Changqing District is one of 10 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province, East China, covering part of the southwestern suburbs. It has an area of 1,208.54 km2 and has 578,740 permanent residents as of 2010.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jiyang District, Jinan</span> District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Jiyang is one of 10 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province, East China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shijiazhuang–Jinan passenger railway</span>

The Shijiazhuang–Jinan passenger railway, abbreviated Shiji passenger railway is a high-speed railway operated by China Railway High-speed, running between Shijiazhuang and Jinan, the provincial capitals of Hebei and Shandong, respectively. The line will additionally pass through and serve cities of Hengshui, Cangzhou and Dezhou. Traditionally, passengers travelling east from Shijiazhuang towards Shandong would need to detour towards Beijing or Tianjin. Its completion allowed trains to run directly between Shijiazhuang and Jinan at 250 km/h (160 mph), shortening travel times between the two cities from the previous 4 hours to 1 hour and 20 minutes.

The Dongdu–Pingyi railway or Dongping railway, is a railroad in northern China between Dongdu, near Xintai, and Pingyi central Shandong Province. The line, 60.19 km (37 mi) in length was built from 2009 to 2010 at the cost of 1.2558 billion Renminbi. The line is jointly owned by the Jinan Railway Bureau, Laiwu Iron & Steel Group, Xinwen Mining Enterprises Group and Port of Rizhao Joint Stock Company, and serves primarily to carry coal mined in central Shandong and imported iron ore to steel mills in Laiwu and exported steel products to the Port of Rizhao.

CRRC Shandong Co. Ltd., formerly also known as JRVEC, is a railway rolling stock factory located in Jinan, Shandong, China, established in 1910 as a workshop of the Jinpu Railway.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jinan Foreign Language School</span> School in Jinan, Shandong, China

Jinan Foreign Language School is a foreign language school located in Jinan, China, and is divided into three branches/levels: the junior, senior, and primary branches. The school is the only one of its kind officially registered with the State Education Ministry of Shandong Province. It is also the school which sends the largest number of admitted-by-recommendation students toward Chinese priority colleges and universities among all Chinese high schools. In a 2016 ranking of Chinese high schools that send students to study in American universities, Jinan Foreign Language School ranked number 42 in mainland China in terms of the number of students entering top American universities.

Yang Luyu is a former Chinese politician, who served as Mayor of Jinan, Shandong Province. He was dismissed from his position in April 2016 for investigation by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.

The Jinan–Qingdao high-speed railway or Jiqing high-speed railway is a high-speed railway between Qingdao and Jinan, the two main cities of Shandong province. Qingdao and Jinan were already served by two double-track lines consisting of the high-speed Qingdao–Jinan Passenger Railway and the conventional Qingdao–Jinan Railway. The new railway is a part of the Qingdao–Yinchuan corridor, one of the 8+8 national high-speed rail gridline, and provides further relief to rail transport between Qingdao and Jinan. Planning was approved by the NDRC on June 10, 2014 with construction starting a year later. Tracklaying started in 2017 and the whole line was opened on 26 December 2018. The railway shortens travel times between Qingdao and Jinan to 1 hour. This is in contrast to the 2.5 hours needed on the Qingdao–Jinan Passenger Railway and 4 hours on the original conventional Qingdao–Jinan Railway.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jinan East railway station</span>

Jinan East railway station is a high-speed railway station in Licheng District, Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, China. The station is located on the east-west Jinan–Qingdao high-speed railway.

The Jinan–Laiwu high-speed railway is a high-speed railway currently under construction in Jinan, Shandong Province, China. It will have a design speed of 350 kilometres per hour (220 mph). The expected journey time between the two terminii is 22.5 minutes.

References

  1. "China: Shāndōng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. "Jinan". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021.
  3. "China" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., 1878.
  4. "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions-Shandong". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Archived from the original on 2014-06-19. Retrieved 2014-04-22.
  5. 1 2 "Jinan (Shandong) City Information". HKTDC. Archived from the original on 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  6. 中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号. 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Archived from the original on 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
  7. 1 2 3 济南新72名泉评定前后. 163.com news. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  8. "Nature Index 2020 Science Cities | Supplements | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2020-10-16.
  9. "US News Best Global Universities Rankings in Jinan". U.S. News & World Report. 2021-10-26. Retrieved 2021-10-31.
  10. "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2020". www.lboro.ac.uk. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  11. The Geography of China. 15 August 2010. ISBN   9781615301348. Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  12. Chisholm 1911.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Jinan". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  14. The Travels of Marco Polo – The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition, Volume II
  15. Neolithic Painted Pottery, National Museum of History, Taipeh
  16. Needham, Joseph. 1978. The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. Colin A. Ronan, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.142–143 ISBN   0-521-21821-7
  17. 《第五批重点文物保护单位:汉济北王墓(古墓葬)》. 中国文明网 (in Simplified Chinese). Archived from the original on 2016-10-02. Retrieved 2009-10-03.
  18. Liu Guolin (刘国林). 《济北王墓:一个诸侯王的身后事》. 大众网 (in Simplified Chinese). Archived from the original on 2009-09-03. Retrieved 2009-10-03.
  19. de Crespigny, p.39
  20. Morris Rossabi (1988): "Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times" Berkeley: University of California Press
  21. Li, Si (李斯). 1904年06月01日 胶济铁路通车. www.todayonhistory.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  22. Xiang, Lanxin (2003). The Origins of the Boxer War. ISBN   9780700715633. Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  23. 1 2 Wittebols, James H.; Meyer, Kathryn; Parssinen, Terry M. (2004). The Soap Opera Paradigm. ISBN   9780742520035. Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  24. Waldron, Arthur (2003). From War to Nationalism: China's Turning Point, 1924–1925. Cambridge UP. p. 105. ISBN   978-0-521-52332-5. Archived from the original on 2017-03-23. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  25. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (24 November 2009). Chinese Civilization. ISBN   9781439188392. Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  26. Iriye, After Imperialism, 195–200.
  27. Iriye, After Imperialism, 199–201.
  28. Ji'nan Government (September 1, 2005). "The Year of 1928". Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 蔡公时用日语抗议,日兵竟将其耳鼻割去,继又挖去舌头、眼睛。日军将被缚人员的衣服剥光,恣意鞭打,然后拉至院内用机枪扫射
  29. C. Martin Wilbur, "The Nationalist Revolution: from Canton to Nanking, 1923–1928," Cambridge History of China, Volume 12 Republican China, 1912–1949 Pt I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 702–706.
  30. "Orbat.com" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  31. Jay Taylor, The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009), 82–83.
  32. Frank Dorn, The Sino-Japanese War, 1937–41: From Marco Polo Bridge to Pearl Harbor (New York: Macmillan, 1974), pg. 81–82
  33. Dorn, pg. 81–82
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 Diana Lary: "Treachery, Disgrace and Death: Han Fuju and China's Resistance to Japan" War in History 2006 13 (1) 65–90
  35. Kent G. Budge. "The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Tsinan". Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  36. Dorn, pg. 82
  37. MacKinnon, Stephen R.; Capa, Robert (2008). Wuhan, 1938: War, Refugees, and the Making of Modern China. University of California Press. p. 18. ISBN   978-0-520-25445-9.
  38. Stephen MacKinnon, "The Tragedy of Wuhan, 1938", Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4, Special Issue: War in Modern China (October, 1996), pp. 931-943
  39. 1 2 3 "OHINA: Province for a Poet". TIME.com. 4 October 1948. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  40. 1 2 3 "Jinan City Government online records for 1966 (1st half)". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  41. "Jinan City Government online records for 1967 (1st half)". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  42. "Jinan City Government online records for 1967 (2nd half)". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  43. "Jinan City Government online records for 1968". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  44. "Jinan City Government online records for 1969". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  45. "Jinan City Government online records for 1970". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  46. City Government online records for 1974 [ permanent dead link ]
  47. "Jinan City Government online records for 1971". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  48. "Jinan City Government online records for 1972". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  49. "Jinan City Government online records for 1975". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  50. "Jinan City Government online records for 1976". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  51. http://www.11th-games.org.cn/ Archived 2008-12-16 at the Wayback Machine 11th All China Games website
  52. 国务院批复同意山东省调整济南市莱芜市行政区划-新华网. Xinhua . 2019-01-09. Archived from the original on 2019-02-12. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  53. "Cleaner Production in China". Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
  54. 高温逼出新"火炉"之争 济南城热门候选_山东新闻_新闻_腾讯网 (in Simplified Chinese). QQ News. 31 July 2007. Archived from the original on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  55. "无标题文档". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
  56. 中国气象科学数据共享服务网. China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2015-03-02. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
  57. 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  58. "Weather & Extreme Events: 7 of 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities Are in China". January 16, 2013. Imaginechina/Corbis. http://news.discovery.com. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.{{cite news}}: External link in |agency= (help)
  59. Bildner, Eli (February 27, 2013). "Interactive Maps of China's Most–and Least–Polluted Places". Global Voices China. http://newsmotion.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.{{cite news}}: External link in |agency= (help)
  60. "Smog Shrouds Eastern China". Earth Observatory. 10 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  61. "Smog and fog hit east, north China". Xinhua News Agency. 6 December 2013. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  62. 三问今冬十面"霾"伏. 人民日报海外版[ People's Daily overseas version]. 2013-12-07. Archived from the original on 2013-12-22. Retrieved 2014-09-01 via Xinhua.
  63. "Map: Shanghai's off the charts air pollution". Greenpeace. 6 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  64. "Introduction CNHTC Archived 2008-05-08 at the Wayback Machine ." China National Heavy Duty Truck Group. Retrieved on July 8, 2010. "The headquarters of China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Co., Ltd. (CNHTC) is located in Jinan, Shandong, P. R. China."
  65. "Ji'nan High-tech Industrial Development Zone". Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  66. "Ji'nan Export Processing Zone". Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  67. 1 2 "Hang Lung – Home". Archived from the original on 22 January 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  68. "Jinan welcomes high-speed rail". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  69. 田艳敏. 20131229济南新闻 济南轨道交通市域快线建设启动. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  70. "定了!济南地铁3号线12月28日正式通车". sd.ifeng.com. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
  71. "Jinan Coach Terminus official website (in Chinese)". Archived from the original on 2009-02-05. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
  72. "New long distance route to Asia: Tibet Airlines will commence flights from Jinan, China, to Helsinki Airport in the spring 2019". Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  73. "Shandong Airlines to Resume Jinan – Osaka Service from late-October 2013". Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  74. 年底济南公交车全部更新为空调车 还将推虚拟公交卡 [By the end of the year, all Jinan buses will be updated to air-conditioned vehicles, and virtual bus cards will also be introduced]. Qilu Evening News. 2018-07-06. Archived from the original on 2019-06-22.
  75. Original simplified Chinese :家家泉水,户户垂杨; traditional Chinese :家家泉水,戶戶垂楊
  76. Jinan Municipal Museum Archived 2008-01-07 at the Wayback Machine
  77. "Shandong Provincial Library". Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
  78. 1 2 "Jinan Baili Yellow River Scenic Area-Shandong-Places To Go-Exploring China – China – Beyond Your Imagination,China Overseas Tourism Promotion Website". www.travelchina.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2018-11-27. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  79. Jinan Baili Yellow River Scenic Area http://www.travelchina.gov.cn/sitefiles/gjly_en/html/meijing/4203.shtml Archived 2018-11-27 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2018-11-27
  80. "中国黄河50景"新鲜出炉_旅游. www.sohu.com. 2018-09-12. Archived from the original on 2018-11-28. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  81. Li, Lina. "Jinan – ZhongWenHelp". www.zhongwenhelp.com. Archived from the original on 2017-05-06. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  82. 黄河森林公园森林气息自然清新,度假游玩的绝佳境地!. baijiahao.baidu.com. Archived from the original on 2018-11-28. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  83. "Daming Lake Park, Jinan". www.travelchinaguide.com. Archived from the original on 2018-11-27. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  84. 济南三大名胜之大明湖. www.wutongzi.com. Archived from the original on 2018-11-29. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  85. 齐鲁师范学院. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  86. "QILU UNIVERSITY OF TECHROLOGY". Archived from the original on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  87. 欢迎访问山东电子职业技术学院. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  88. "Shandong Jiaotong University official website". Archived from the original on 2014-03-29. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
  89. 山东职业学院(原济南铁道职业技术学院). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  90. 山东体育学院. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  91. 外事办. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  92. 欢迎访问山东艺术学院. Archived from the original on 2016-06-23. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  93. 山东财经大学欢迎您. Archived from the original on 23 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  94. Shandong University of Chinese Traditional Medicine official website Archived 2014-04-10 at the Wayback Machine
  95. "Senior High School Attached to Shandong Normal University official website". Archived from the original on 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
  96. 11th Chinese National Games opens in Jinan Archived 29 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine . Xinhua News Agency (17 October 2009). Retrieved on 21 October 2009.
  97. IWSA official website

Bibliography

Jinan
Jinan (Chinese characters).svg
"Jǐnán" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters