Guilin

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Guilin

桂林市Gveilinz Si

Kweilin
Guilinshi.png
Scenery of Guilin
Guangxi subdivisions - Guilin.svg
Location of Guilin City jurisdiction in Guangxi
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Guilin
Location in China
Coordinates(Guilin Central Square (桂林中心广场)): 25°16′30″N110°17′46″E / 25.275°N 110.296°E / 25.275; 110.296 Coordinates: 25°16′30″N110°17′46″E / 25.275°N 110.296°E / 25.275; 110.296
Country People's Republic of China
Autonomous region Guangxi
Area
  Total27,809 km2 (10,737 sq mi)
Elevation
153 m (502 ft)
Population
 (2010) [1]
  Total4,747,963
  Density170/km2 (440/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
541XXX
Area code(s) 0773
ISO 3166 code CN-GX-03
License plate prefixes 桂C for Guilin's city proper, Yangshuo, and Lingui; all others 桂H
Website www.guilin.gov.cn
Guilin
Guilin (Chinese characters).svg
"Guìlín" in Chinese characters
Chinese name
Chinese 桂林
Hanyu Pinyin Guìlín
Postal Kweilin
Literal meaning"Sweet Osmanthus Forest"
Zhuang name
Zhuang Gveilinz
1957 orthography Gveilinƨ

Guilin (Standard Zhuang: Gveilinz; alternatively romanized as Kweilin) is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It is situated on the west bank of the Li River and borders Hunan to the north. Its name means "forest of sweet osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant sweet osmanthus trees located in the region. The city has long been renowned for its scenery of karst topography.

Contents

Guilin is one of China's most popular tourist destinations, [2] and the epithet "By water, by mountains, most lovely, Guilin" (山水甲天下) [3] is often associated with the city. The State Council of China has designated Guilin a National Famous Historical and Cultural City, doing so in the first edition of the list.

History

Relics found in the city's Baojiyan (simplified Chinese :宝积岩; traditional Chinese :寶積巖) and Zengpiyan (甑皮巖) caves date back to approximately 10,000 years ago. The Zengpiyan people had a matriarchal clan society. Before the Qin dynasty, Guilin region was settled by the Baiyue people. [4] In 314 BC, a small settlement was established along the banks of the Li River. [5]

During the Qin dynasty's (221–206 BC) campaigns against the state of Nanyue, the first administration was set up in the area around Guilin. [6] The modern city was located within the Guilin Commandery, which is origin of the modern name "Guilin".

In 111 BC, during the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty, Shi'an County (simplified Chinese:始安县; traditional Chinese:始安縣) was established, which could be regarded as the beginning of the city.

In AD 507, the town was renamed Guizhou (Gui Prefecture, 桂州). [4]

In 634, Lingui County was established at the modern site of Guilin, under Gui Prefecture. In 868, Pang Xun rebelled against the Tang from Gui Prefecture. [4]

Guilin prospered in the Tang and Song dynasties but remained a county. The city was also a nexus between the central government and the southwest border, and it was where regular armies were placed to guard that border. Canals were built through the city so that food supplies could be directly transported from the food-productive Yangtze plain to the farthest southwestern point of the empire.

In 997, Guangnan West Circuit, predecessor of modern Guangxi, was established, with Guizhou as the capital. In 1133, Guizhou was renamed Jingjiang Prefecture (simplified Chinese:静江路; traditional Chinese:靜江路). In 1367, the name was changed to Guilin Prefecture (桂林府). [4]

In 1921, Guilin became one of the headquarters of the Northern Expeditionary Army led by Sun Yat-sen. [7]

In 1940, Guilin City was established. [8] [9]

In 1950, the provincial capital of Guangxi was moved from Guilin to Nanning.

In 1981, Guilin was listed by the State Council as one of the four cities (the other three being Beijing, Hangzhou and Suzhou) where the protection of historical and cultural heritage, as well as natural scenery, should be treated as a priority project. [10] [11]

Administrative divisions

Statue of Ma Yuan at Fuboshan, Guilin. Fu Bo Shan .JPG
Statue of Ma Yuan at Fuboshan, Guilin.
Map including Guilin (labeled as Gui Lin 
KUEI-LIN (KWEILIN) (Walled)) (AMS, 1954) Txu-oclc-10552568-ng49-10.jpg
Map including Guilin (labeled as 桂林 KUEI-LIN (KWEILIN) (Walled)) (AMS, 1954)

Guilin administers seventeen county-level divisions, including 6 districts, 8 counties, 2 autonomous counties, and 1 county-level city.

Map

Geography

Guilin is located in northern Guangxi, bordering Liuzhou to the west, Laibin to the southwest, Wuzhou to the south, Hezhou to the southeast, and within neighbouring Hunan, Huaihua to the northwest, Shaoyang to the north, and Yongzhou to the east. It has a total area of 27,809 square kilometres (10,737 sq mi). The topography of the area is marked by karst formations. The karsts surrounding Guilin are made of Triassic period limestone and dolomite rocks. The Li River flows through the city.

Climate

Guilin has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa, bordering on Cwa), with short, mild winters, and long, hot, humid summers. Winter begins dry but becomes progressively wetter and cloudier. Spring is generally overcast and often rainy, while summer continues to be rainy though is the sunniest time of year. Autumn is sunny and dry. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 8.1 °C (46.6 °F) in January to 28.2 °C (82.8 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 19.12 °C (66.4 °F). The annual rainfall is just under 1,890 mm (74 in), and is delivered in bulk (~50%) from April to June, when the plum rains occur and often create the risk of flooding. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 14% in March to 53% in September, the city receives 1,487 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Guilin, 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1951−2010
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)27.6
(81.7)
32.8
(91.0)
33.7
(92.7)
35.6
(96.1)
35.4
(95.7)
37.4
(99.3)
39.5
(103.1)
39.4
(102.9)
38.5
(101.3)
35.2
(95.4)
31.4
(88.5)
27.6
(81.7)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F)11.6
(52.9)
13.3
(55.9)
16.9
(62.4)
23.2
(73.8)
27.5
(81.5)
30.5
(86.9)
32.7
(90.9)
33.0
(91.4)
30.6
(87.1)
25.9
(78.6)
20.5
(68.9)
15.1
(59.2)
23.4
(74.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)8.1
(46.6)
9.9
(49.8)
13.3
(55.9)
19.0
(66.2)
23.3
(73.9)
26.4
(79.5)
28.2
(82.8)
28.2
(82.8)
25.6
(78.1)
21.1
(70.0)
15.8
(60.4)
10.6
(51.1)
19.1
(66.4)
Average low °C (°F)5.7
(42.3)
7.6
(45.7)
10.8
(51.4)
16.1
(61.0)
20.2
(68.4)
23.5
(74.3)
24.9
(76.8)
24.7
(76.5)
22.2
(72.0)
17.7
(63.9)
12.5
(54.5)
7.4
(45.3)
16.1
(61.0)
Record low °C (°F)−4.9
(23.2)
−3.6
(25.5)
0.0
(32.0)
4.0
(39.2)
10.7
(51.3)
13.0
(55.4)
18.2
(64.8)
18.3
(64.9)
12.9
(55.2)
6.1
(43.0)
0.7
(33.3)
−3.3
(26.1)
−4.9
(23.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)65.7
(2.59)
99.2
(3.91)
136.9
(5.39)
217.8
(8.57)
324.5
(12.78)
395.2
(15.56)
232.2
(9.14)
147.4
(5.80)
82.2
(3.24)
66.8
(2.63)
73.1
(2.88)
46.8
(1.84)
1,887.8
(74.33)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)15.115.518.620.219.017.516.114.88.29.78.79.1172.5
Average relative humidity (%)73757980798179777268676675
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.950.051.672.6109.5131.1199.4204.1193.4157.1134.4117.21,487.3
Percent possible sunshine 20161419273248515344413633
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 19712000) [12] [13]

Demographics

Economy

Guilin Museum and Library Gui Lin Yi Yuan Liang Guan Bei Que .jpg
Guilin Museum and Library

Until 1949 only a thermal power plant, a cement works, and some small textile mills existed as signs of industrialization in Guilin. [6] However, since the 1950s Guilin has added electronics, engineering and agricultural equipment, medicine, rubber, buses, textile and cotton yarn factories. Food processing, including the processing of local agricultural produce, remains the most important industry. More recent and modern industry features high technology, and the tertiary industry characterized by tourism trading and service. [15]

Transportation

Air

Guilin Liangjiang International Airport GuilinAirport.jpg
Guilin Liangjiang International Airport

The airport is Guilin Liangjiang International Airport(ICAO:ZGKL, IATA:KWL). Airlines that fly to the airport are:

Rail

Guilin North railway station Guilin North Railway Station (cropped).jpg
Guilin North railway station

Guilin has the most high-speed rail stations out of all cities in China. There is Guilin North, Guilin West, Guilin and a new station in the Lingui District. Guilin station and Guilin North station are on the Hunan–Guangxi railway, Hengyang–Liuzhou intercity railway and Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railway, the main railways connecting Guangxi with central and southern China. Arriving at North station, high-speed trains between Guilin and Changsha and Beijing came into operation in December 2013. In December 2014, high-speed operations began connecting Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Guiyang, and Shanghai. This made it more convenient for people to come to Guilin. It takes only about 2 or 3 hours from Guangzhou to Guilin, 9 hours from Shanghai to Guilin and 13 hours from Beijing to Guilin. [16] Trains traveling between Kunming South and West Kowloon stations (for example) stop at Guilin West railway station. [17]

Urban

The city's public transportation includes bus routes and taxis. Guilin is the leading city in Mainland China operating double-decker buses regularly on major routes; in its main street the double-deckers run one-by-one almost every minute. Sightseeing boats also run on the city's canals and lakes.

A Guilan Metro is planned for 7 lines by 2040 with 117 stations and a total length of 273.2 kilometres. Line 1 is planned to have been opened by 2025, and it will be 29.23 km with 13 stations.

Public colleges and universities

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

Scenic spots

Scenic spots around Guilin include:

Cuisine

Guilin pickled tofu Doufuru.JPG
Guilin pickled tofu

Guilin cuisine is a mixture of Cantonese cuisine and Zhuang cuisine. It is known for its snacks and the use of spices, especially chili. Guilin chili sauce (桂林辣椒酱), used widely in cooking by locals, is made of fresh chili, garlic, and fermented soybeans, and is considered one of the city's Three Treasures (桂林三宝). The other two of the Three Treasures are Guilin Sanhua Jiu (桂林三花酒), a variety of rice baijiu , or liquor distilled from rice; and Guilin pickled tofu.

Guilin rice noodles Guilin mifan.jpg
Guilin rice noodles

Guilin rice noodles have been the local breakfast staple since the Qin dynasty and are renowned for their delicate taste. Legend has it that when Qin troops suffering from diarrhea entered this region, a cook created the Guilin rice noodles for the army because they had trouble eating the local food. Specifically, the local specialty is noodles with horse meat, but this dish can also be ordered without the horse meat. Zongzi , a dumpling made from glutinous rice and mung bean paste wrapped in a bamboo or banana leaf is another popular delicacy in Guilin.

Quotes

"I often sent pictures of the hills of Guilin which I painted to friends back home, but few believed what they saw."
- Fan Chengda (Chinese Song Dynasty scholar) [19]
"Guilin's scenery is best among all under heaven." (Chinese:桂林山水甲天下; pinyin:Guìlín shānshuǐ jiǎ tiānxià)
- popular Chinese saying [20]

International relations

Twin towns—Sister cities

Guilin is twinned with:

The Guilin relationship with the New Zealand city Hastings started in 1977, after a research scientist, Stuart Falconer, identified a number of common areas of interest between the two cities, including horticulture and their rural-urban mix. [26] In 1997 Guilin commenced an exchange relationship with Ōta, Gunma, Japan. [27]

Notable residents

See also

Related Research Articles

Yangshuo County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Yangshuo County is a county under the jurisdiction of Guilin City, in the northeast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Its seat is located in Yangshuo Town. Surrounded by karst peaks and bordered on one side by the Li River it is easily accessible by bus or by boat from nearby Guilin.

Li River

The Li River or Li Jiang, which belongs to the Xijiang River system in the Pearl River Basin, is a generic term for the tributary of the upper reaches of the Guijiang River and is located in the northeastern part of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It flows 215 kilometres (134 mi) from Xing'an County to Pingle County, where the karst mountains and river sights highlight the famous Li River cruise.

Yulin, Guangxi Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Yulin, alternately romanized as Watlam, is one of the fourteen prefecture-level cities of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. Its Chinese name was changed in 1956 from the historical name "鬱林", which is homophonous in Standard Mandarin, but different in the local dialect of Yue Chinese; "鬱" is [uat˥] while "玉" is [ȵok˨]. The former romanization follows the pronunciation of the historical name in Yue Chinese. Its built-up area is made of two urban districts, and Beiliu City was home to 2,309,600 inhabitants as of 2016 census.

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Elephant Trunk Hill

The Elephant Trunk Hill is a hill, landmark and tourist attraction in Guilin, Guangxi, China. It is not only one of the major tourist attractions of Guilin, an international tourist city, but also the symbol of Guilin, which uses elephant trunk mountain and osmanthus flower as its city emblem. [2]The Elephant Trunk Hill formerly known as Li Mountain, also known as Yi mountain, Chen Shui mountain, referred to as elephant mountain. In 1986, Xiang Shan park was built in accordance with Xiang Shan mountain. The main part of the park is Xiang Shan mountain and water moon, the ancient building Yun Feng temple, the love island, and the Ming dynasty building Pu Xian pagoda. [3] Elephant Trunk Hill is the symbol of the city of Guilin. It got its name because it looks like an elephant drinking water. The round opening that would be under the elephant’s trunk is known as Water-Moon Cave because at night the reflection of the moon can be seen through the arch and it looks as if it is under the water and floating on the surface of the water at the same time. Elephant Trunk Hill and Water-Moon Cave are located at the confluence of the Taohua River and the Lijiang River.[1]

Hezhou Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Hezhou (贺州) is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. Hezhou was home to 2,038,700 inhabitants as of the last 2016 estimation whom 1,415,700 lived in the built-up area made of Babu and Pinggui urban districts and Zhongshan county largely being urbanized.

Lingui District District in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Lingui District is a district administered by Guilin, Guangxi, China, and located midway between Guilin and Yangshuo. The district is mostly rural and hilly, marked by the same dramatic karst topography for which Guilin is famous. Tourist attractions include Snake World, Xiongsheng Tiger and Bear Village, and Crocodile Kingdom.

Guilin Liangjiang International Airport

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The Kam–Sui languages are a branch of the Kra–Dai languages spoken by the Kam–Sui peoples. They are spoken mainly in eastern Guizhou, western Hunan, and northern Guangxi in southern China. Small pockets of Kam–Sui speakers are also found in northern Vietnam and Laos.

Guilin Medical University

Guilin Medical University is a public university, located in Guilin, Guangxi, China. The university offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs through its schools: School of Medicine, School of Nursing and Midwifery and Graduate School.

Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County Autonomous county in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Longsheng Various Nationalities (Gezu) Autonomous County is a county in the northeast of Guangxi, China, bordering Hunan Province to the north. It is under the administration of Guilin City. The county covers 2,538 km2 (980 sq mi), and as of 2019 it had a census registered population of 186,000. The county has six towns and four townships under its jurisdiction, the county seat is the town of Longsheng.

Hunan–Guangxi railway

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Northern Tai languages

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Silver Cave

Silver Cave is a national AAAA level scenic spot in Lipu County, Guilin City, Guangxi Province of China, 85 km from Guilin and 18 km away from Yangshuo.

Guizhou or Gui Prefecture (桂州) was a zhou (prefecture) in imperial China centering on modern Guilin, Guangxi, China. It existed (intermittently) from 507 to 1133.

Guangxi Autonomous region of China

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Longsheng, Guangxi Town in Guangxi, China

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Longji Town in Guangxi, China

Longji is a town in Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County, Guangxi, China. As of the 2018 census it had a population of 16,000 and an area of 273.34-square-kilometre (105.54 sq mi). Longji is known worldwide for Longsheng Rice Terraces.

References

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Further reading