Ningbo

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Coordinates: 29°51′37″N121°37′28″E / 29.8603°N 121.6245°E / 29.8603; 121.6245

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Ningbo
宁波市
Ningpo
Ningbo City God Temple, 2021-10-23 06.jpg
Ningbo - Tianyi Pavilion Museum 04.jpg
Yinzhou District Government of Ningbo 24-09-2018.jpg
Moon Lake, Ningbo, 2009-05-01.jpg
Tianfeng Pagoda in Ningbo.jpg
Clockwise: Ningbo city god temple, Yinzhou District Government of Ningbo, Tianfeng Pagoda, Dongqian Lake, Tianyi Pavilion Museum
Ningbo
Location map of Ningbo, Zhejiang.png
Ningbo City in Zhejiang
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Ningbo
Location in China
Coordinates(Tianyi Square): 29°52′08″N121°33′14″E / 29.869°N 121.554°E / 29.869; 121.554
Country China
Province Zhejiang
County-level divisions 11
Township divisions 148
Municipal seat Yinzhou District
Government
  Type Sub-provincial city
  Body Ningbo Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Peng Jiaxue
   Congress ChairmanYu Hongyi
   Mayor Qiu Dongyao
   CPPCC ChairmanXu Yuning
Area
   Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city 9,816.23 km2 (3,790.07 sq mi)
  Urban
2,461.8 km2 (950.5 sq mi)
  Metro
2,461.8 km2 (950.5 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (488 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [1]
   Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city 9,404,283
  Density960/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
   Urban
5,057,140
  Urban density2,100/km2 (5,300/sq mi)
   Metro
4,479,635
  Metro density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
GDP (2020)
[2]
  Total CNY 1240.87 billion (US$191.68 billion)
  per capita CNY 131,947 (US$20,450)
  GrowthIncrease2.svg 3.3%
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
315000
Area code(s) 574
ISO 3166 code CN-ZJ-02
Vehicle registration 浙B
City trees Camphor Laurel
Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb.
City flowers Camellia
Website www.ningbo.gov.cn (in Chinese)
The Zunjing Hall (Zun Jing Ge 
) located within the Tianyi Chamber Zunjing Chamber.JPG
The Zunjing Hall (尊經閣) located within the Tianyi Chamber
King Ashoka Temple Sarira Hall of Ashoka Temple in Ningbo.JPG
King Ashoka Temple
The monument to victory in the Battle of Zhenhai (Sino-French War) Battle of Zhenhai victory monument.jpg
The monument to victory in the Battle of Zhenhai (Sino-French War)

Due to its long history and economic prosperity, Ningbo is a city with very rich tourist resources. The following is a list of the main tourist attractions authorized by the Ningbo Municipal Bureau of Culture, Radio, Television and Tourism in each subdivision of Ningbo city.

Main tourist attractions in 6 urban districts

Prayer hall of Yuehu Mosque The Prayer Hall of Yuehu Mosque. By Hamada Hagras.jpg
Prayer hall of Yuehu Mosque
Ningbo - Haishu District - Tianyi Square 2019-06-09 01 Tianyi Square 2019-06-09 01.jpg
Ningbo - Haishu District - Tianyi Square 2019-06-09 01

Haishu District

Yinzhou District

Jiangbei District

Zhenhai District

Beilun District

Fenghua District

Main tourist attractions in 2 counties

Xiangshan County

Ninghai County

Main tourist attractions in 2 county-level cities

Yuyao City (County)

Cixi City (County)

Notable people

Many well known Chinese came from Ningbo or have Ningbo as their ancestral home.

People in mainland China
People in Hong Kong
People in Taiwan
People overseas

Transportation

Zhao bao shan Bridge, Zhenhai District, Ningbo Zhaobaoshan Bridge in Zhenhai District.jpg
Zhao bao shan Bridge, Zhenhai District, Ningbo
Ningbo New Railway Station was reopened in December 2013 after years of on-site restoration to accommodate high speed rails and increasing passengers. Ningbo New Railway Station Interior.JPG
Ningbo New Railway Station was reopened in December 2013 after years of on-site restoration to accommodate high speed rails and increasing passengers.

Bridge

With three main rivers running through Ningbo, bridges are crucial for the efficiency of the transport network in Ningbo. The Ling Bridge, which connects Haishu district and Jiangdong District, is the earliest modern bridge built in Ningbo, designed by German engineers. Since the late 1980s, 16 bridges have been built on the three rivers. Currently, another 27 bridges are under construction.

The Hangzhou Bay Bridge, a combination cable-stayed bridge and causeway across Hangzhou Bay, opened to the public on May 1, 2008. This bridge connects the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo, and is considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. It is the world's second-longest bridge, after the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in Louisiana, United States.

The Jintang Bridge, a four-lane sea crossing bridge linking Jintang Island of Zhoushan and Zhenhai district, is a 27 km (17 mi) long opened on December 26, 2009.

The Xiangshan Harbor Bridge opened to traffic on December 29, 2012, connecting Ningbo with Xiangshan. The 47 km (29 mi) long project includes 22 km (14 mi) as the main body of the bridge and a 8 kilometer-long tunnel. [58]

Sea

The port of Ningbo is the world's busiest port. It was ranked number 1 in total Cargo Volume (1.22 billion tonnes in 2021 [59] ) and number 3 in total container traffic (31.1 million TEUs in 2021) since 2019. [60]

Air

Ningbo Lishe International Airport connects Ningbo by air to the rest of China, with regularly scheduled domestic and international flights. In 2009, new air routes between Ningbo and Taiwan were opened. Jetstar Asia launched a new route between Ningbo and Singapore in September 2011. Tiger Air planned to begin flying this route from 26 December 2013.[ needs update ]

Railway

Three railway lines intersect in Ningbo: the Xiaoshan–Ningbo Railway (Xiaoyong Line), which runs west to Hangzhou; the Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou (Yongtaiwen) Railway, which runs south to Wenzhou; and the Hangzhou–Ningbo High-Speed Railway, which runs parallel to the Xiaoyong Line providing high-speed railway service.

With the booming economy in the region, the Xiaoyong Railway, a conventional railway built in the 1950s, could not meet the demand for railway travel between Zhejiang's two largest cities, so construction of a new high-speed railway line between Hangzhou and Ningbo started in 2009. The new railway line was finished in 2013 and reduced travel time between Ningbo and Hangzhou to 50 minutes.

The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a high-speed railway that opened in September 2009. It connects Ningbo with cities along the coast to the south to Fujian Province. High-speed trains on this line operate at speeds of up to 250 km/h (160 mph).

Ningbo re-opened the Ningbo railway station after three years of construction on December 28, 2013. With a construction area of more than 120,000 m2, [61] it is one of the largest railway stations in China.

Expressway

Seven expressways connect Ningbo with its surrounding cities:

  • The Hangyong expressway, built in the 1990s, connects Hangzhou and Ningbo, and is now part of Hangzhou Bay ring expressway (G9211).
  • The Yongtaiwen expressway (G15), opened in 2000, connects Ningbo with Taizhou and Wenzhou.
  • The Yongjin expressway (G1512) connects Ningbo and Jinhua.
  • The Huyong expressway (G15) connects Ningbo and Shanghai via the Hangzhou Bay bridge.
  • The Yongzhou expressway (G9211) via Jintang Bridge. [62]
  • The G1501 Ningbo Ring Expressway
  • The G15W2 Ningbo–Dongguan Expressway
Ningbo Rail Transit Plan (2026) Ningbo Rail Transit Plan (2027) zh-hans.svg
Ningbo Rail Transit Plan (2026)

Rapid rail transit and subway

Ningbo has multiple metro lines in service, under construction, and under authorized planning:

Ningbo
Ningbo (Chinese characters).svg
"Ningbo" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Ningbo Rail Transit in 6 Urban Districts of Ningbo (Not Including 2 County-level Cities and 2 Counties)
LinesLength in Kilometers (km)Number of StationsIn-Service Year
Lines in Service
Line 146.17292014
Line 233.95272015
Line 338.63272019
Line 436.11252020
Lines Under Construction
Line 2 Extension2.922021
Line 527.5222021
Line 3 Extension9.552023
Line 4 East Extension2.51Construction Began in 2021
Constructing Plans That Will be Completed by 2026
Line 1 West Extension1.51by 2026
Line 4 West Extension2.51by 2026
Line 638.624by 2026
Line 738.825by 2026
Line 822.618by 2026

Since the Metro lines above mainly serve the 6 urban districts of Ningbo, the Ningbo government announced several future plans to built further rapid transit to connect the 6 urban districts with the county-level cities and counties.

Line 1 train leaving Xujiacao Changle Station Train leaving Xujiacao Changle Station, 2014-07-06.JPG
Line 1 train leaving Xujiacao Changle Station

Military

Ningbo serves as the headquarters of the East Sea Fleet of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy.

Culture

As a city with giant ports, Ningbo influenced many countries near China, such as Japan.

Language

Ningbo speech is a dialect of Wu Chinese that has preserved many aspects of ancient Chinese phonology. Its original wording mode can be found in classical reference books. After the unequal treaty port opening, western culture gradually permeated Ningbo. Thus, the prefix " yang", meaning ocean or Western, before the nouns of imported goods is a special language phenomenon of Ningbo dialect. [63]

Food

Ningbo is known for Ningbo Tangyuan, small stuffed buns which are boiled. The stuffing is usually ground sesame mixed with sugar or pork fat. The stuffing is then wrapped with sticky rice powder. Ningbo is even more well known throughout China for its seafood. Seafood markets are abundant, carrying countless varieties of fish, shellfish, snails, jellyfish and other invertebrates, and sea vegetables in all stages of preparation from "still swimming," to cleaned and ready to cook, to fully cooked.

Festivals

While the Mid-Autumn Festival is usually celebrated on August 15th of the Lunar Calendar, Ningbo celebrates the festival a day later on the 16th. The most creditable history for this is that long ago, the whole city waited for Shih Hao, a Southern Sung prime minister, to celebrate the festival.[ clarification needed ]

Education

At the end of 2020, there were 1,896 schools of all levels and types in the city, with a total of 1,418,000 students. Among them, there are 15 colleges and universities in Ningbo with 177,000 full-time students; 86 regular high schools with 93,000 students; 35 vocational schools with 69,000 students; 230 junior high schools with 21.7 (should this be 217,000 students? It is not 21.7 people) students; and 427 primary schools with 517,000 students. There were also 838 full-time private primary and secondary schools (including kindergartens) in the city, with 258,000 students, accounting for 21.7% of the city's full-time primary and secondary school students. In the compulsory education section, there were 288,000 children of migrant workers who went to schools in Ningbo. [64]

In the whole year of 2020, the city attracted 1,372 more workers with doctoral degrees, for a total of 9,265; 67,000 highly skilled talents, for a total of 551,000; 35 post-doctoral research stations, for a total of 224; and 166,000 graduates, a year-on-year increase of 20.5%. There are 10 offices, totaling 100. Throughout the year, 327,000 skilled personnel were trained in the city.

Higher-Educational institutions

Ningbo has 15 universities and colleges as of May 2021, as well as many research institutions that offer graduate degree programs. The following is a list of current universities and colleges in Ningbo.

List of Universities and Colleges in Ningbo as of May 2021
English NameChinese Name (中文名)Degree ProgramWebsiteNote
Ningbo University 宁波大学bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree https://www.nbu.edu.cn/en/ A Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines
University of Nottingham, Ningbo China 宁波诺丁汉大学bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree https://www.nottingham.edu.cn/en/ Affiliated with the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom (UK) and the first Sino-foreign university in China
Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University 浙大宁波理工学院bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree http://www.nit.zju.edu.cn/en/
Zhejiang Wanli University 浙江万里学院bachelor's degree, master's degree http://en.zwu.edu.cn/
Ningbo University of Technology 宁波工程学院bachelor's degree, master's degree http://www.nbut.cn/
Ningbo University of Finance and Economics 宁波财经学院 bachelor's degree http://www.nbut.cn/
College of Science and Technology, Ningbo University宁波大学科学技术学院bachelor's degree https://www.ndky.edu.cn/ An independent college of Ningbo University
China Coast Guard Academy中国人民武装警察部队海警学院bachelor's degree
Zhejiang University of Pharmacy浙江药科职业大学associate degree, bachelor's degree https://www.zjpc.net.cn/
Zhejiang Business Technology Institute浙江工商职业技术学院associate degree https://www.zjbti.net.cn/
Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College宁波职业技术学院associate degree https://en.nbpt.edu.cn/
Zhejiang Fashion Institute of Technology浙江纺织服装职业技术学院associate degree http://www.zjff.edu.cn/
Ningbo City College of Vocational Technology宁波城市职业技术学院associate degree https://www.nbcc.cn/
Ningbo College of Health Sciences宁波卫生职业技术学院associate degree http://www.nbchs.net/
Ningbo Childhood Education College宁波幼儿师范高等专科学校associate degree https://www.nbei.net/

As of 2020, many famous universities and research institutions have an operating campus or institutes in Ningbo, most of them offering graduate degree programs.

Part of Research Institutions Offering Graduate Programs in Ningbo
English NameChinese Name (中文名)
Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences中国科学院宁波材料技术与工程研究所
Ningbo Institute of Technology, BeihangUniversity北京航空航天大学宁波创新研究院
Zhejiang University, Ningbo浙江大学宁波校区
Harbin Institute of Technology, Ningbo哈尔滨工业大学宁波智能装备研究院
Dalian University of Technology, Ningbo大连理工大学宁波研究院
Tianjin University, Ningbo天津大学浙江研究院
Ningbo Institute of Marine-Derived Pharmaceutical, Peking University北京大学宁波海洋药物研究院
Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ningbo西北工业大学宁波研究院

Compared to the other 14 sub-provincial cities in China, Ningbo has the fewest higher-educational institutions.

Secondary and primary education

Compulsory education is from the ages 6 to 15. Students are catered to in a variety of state and private schools. Studying for the Gaokao (高考), a cumulative test taken at the end of high school, is optional. [65] At the end of 2020, there were 86 regular high schools with 93,000 students in Ningbo; 35 vocational schools with 69,000 students; 230 junior high schools with 21.7 students; and 427 primary schools with 517,000 students. There were also 838 full-time private primary and secondary schools (including kindergartens) in the city, with 258,000 students, accounting for 21.7% of the city's full-time primary and secondary school students. In the compulsory education section, there were 288,000 children of migrant workers who went to schools in Ningbo. [64]

International education

Several schools are permitted to operate foreign educational programs as an alternative to the Chinese National curriculum and to accept international students.

Access International Academy Ningbo (AIAN) and Ningbo Zhicheng School International (NZSI) both offer the American AERO (American Education Reaches Out) curriculum with the College Board Advanced Placement examinations. Ningbo International School (NBIS) delivers the Cambridge International Primary and Secondary Curricula leading to iGCSE Examinations and A-Levels. Huamao Multicultural Education Academy [66] is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Primary Years Program for students ages 3–12 and the IB Diploma Program for students ages 16–19.

Twin towns – sister cities

Ningbo is twinned with: [67]

CityCountrySince
Nagaokakyō, Kyoto Flag of Japan.svg Japan1983
Aachen Flag of Germany.svg Germany1986
Wilmington, Delaware Flag of the United States.svg United States1988
Waitakere City Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand1998
Rouen Flag of France.svg France1990
Santos, São Paulo Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil2002
Port Elizabeth Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa2003
Veszprém Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary2003
Stavanger Flag of Norway.svg Norway2004
Varna Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria2004
Bydgoszcz Flag of Poland.svg Poland2005
Nottingham Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom2005
Florence Flag of Italy.svg Italy2008
Daegu Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea2013
Bitola Flag of North Macedonia.svg North Macedonia2014
Heraklion Flag of Greece.svg Greece2019

See also

Related Research Articles

Zhejiang Province of China

Zhejiang is an eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou, and other notable cities include Ningbo and Wenzhou. Zhejiang is bordered by Jiangsu and Shanghai to the north, Anhui to the northwest, Jiangxi to the west and Fujian to the south. To the east is the East China Sea, beyond which lies the Ryukyu Islands. The population of Zhejiang stands at 64.6 million, the 8th highest among China. It has been called 'the backbone of China' due to being a major driving force in the Chinese economy and being the birthplace of several notable persons, including the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and entrepreneur Jack Ma. Zhejiang consists of 90 counties.

Hangzhou Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city in Zhejiang, China

Hangzhou, also romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang, People's Republic of China. It is located in the northwestern part of the province, sitting at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Shanghai and Ningbo. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of China's most renowned and prosperous cities for much of the last millennium. Its West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage Site west of the city, is among its best-known attractions. A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation ranked Hangzhou first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". According to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC), the city is classified as Beta city, together with Chongqing, Nanjing and Tianjin in China. Hangzhou is also one of the world's top 100 financial centers, according to the Global Financial Centres Index.

Yuyao County-level City in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Yuyao is a county-level city in the northeast of Zhejiang province, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the sub-provincial city of Ningbo.

Zhoushan Prefecture-level city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Zhoushanlisten , formerly romanized as Chusan, is an urbanized archipelago with the administrative status of a prefecture-level city in the eastern Chinese province of Zhejiang. It consists of an archipelago of islands at the southern mouth of Hangzhou Bay, off Ningbo. The prefecture's city proper is Dinghai on Zhoushan Island, now administered as the prefecture's Dinghai District. During the 2020 census, Zhoushan Prefecture's population was 1,157,817, out of whom 882,932 lived in the built-up area made of two urban districts of Dinghai and Putuo.

Beilun District District in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Beilun District  is a district of Ningbo in Zhejiang province, China. It is dominated by Beilun port, an international port of the easternmost edge of the southern coast of Hangzhou Bay. It primarily services the regional city of Ningbo. Beilun district has 380,000 permanent residents and 850,000 residents. Beilun district has a land area of 615 square kilometers, a sea area of 258 square kilometers and a coastline of 150 kilometers. It is the largest sea area and the longest coastline area within the jurisdiction of Ningbo city.

Yangtze Delta Megalopolis in East China

The Yangtze Delta or Yangtze River Delta is a triangle-shaped megalopolis generally comprising the Wu Chinese-speaking areas of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang. The area lies in the heart of the Jiangnan region, where the Yangtze River drains into the East China Sea. Having fertile soil, the Yangtze Delta abundantly produces grain, cotton, hemp and tea. In 2018, the Yangtze Delta had a GDP of approximately US$2.2 trillion, about the same size as Italy.

Yinzhou District, Ningbo District in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Yinzhou is a district of the major city of Ningbo, Zhejiang province, China.

Cixi, Zhejiang County-level city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Cixi, alternately romanized as Tzeki, is a county-level city under the jurisdiction of the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, in the north of Zhejiang province, China. As of the 2020 census, its population was 1,829,488. Its urban agglomeration built-up area, largely contiguous with Cixi plus the county-level city of Yuyao, had 3,083,520 inhabitants.

Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan Port in China

The Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan is the busiest port in the world in terms of cargo tonnage. It handled 888.96 million tons of cargo in 2015. The port is located in Ningbo and Zhoushan, on the coast of the East China Sea, in Zhejiang province on the southeast end of Hangzhou Bay, across which it faces the municipality of Shanghai.

Ninghai County County in Zhejiang, China

Ninghai County is a county under the administration of Ningbo, in the east of Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. It covers a land area of 1,712.50 km2 (661.20 sq mi) and a sea area 213.35 km2 (82.37 sq mi) of and has a 173.86 km (108.03 mi) coastline. It has four sub-districts, 11 towns, three townships and a population of 682,000.

Ningbo railway station

Ningbo railway station is a railway station on the Xiaoshan–Ningbo railway, Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou railway and Hangzhou–Ningbo high-speed railway located in Haishu District, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

Ningbo Rail Transit Rapid transit system in China

Ningbo Rail Transit, also known as the Ningbo Metro, is a rapid transit system serving the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang and its suburbs. Six metro lines are being built inside the urban area of Ningbo, serving Haishu, Jiangbei, Zhenhai, Beilun and Yinzhou. The first phase of Line 1 started construction in June 2009 and began to service the public on May 30, 2014. Line 2 began service on September 26, 2015.

G9211 Ningbo–Zhoushan Expressway

The Ningbo−Zhoushan Expressway, commonly referred to as the Yongzhou Expressway is an expressway in Zhejiang, China which links Ningbo to Zhoushan. In the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) in China, the number of this highway is G9211.

Hangzhou Bay New Zone is a new development district in Cixi City, Ningbo, Zhejiang province, China.

Xiaoshan–Ningbo railway

The Xiaoshan–Ningbo railway or Xiaoyong railway, is a double-track railroad in eastern China between Hangzhou and Ningbo in Zhejiang Province. Its name in Chinese, the Xiaoyong Line, is named after the railway's two terminal stations, Xiaoshan, a suburban district of Hangzhou on the southern bank of Qiantang River, and Ningbo, whose Chinese character abbreviation is yong. The line is 147.3 km (92 mi) long and was originally built in three parts in 1912, 1914 and 1936; rebuilt in 1959, then electrified in 2009. Cities along route include Xiaoshan District of Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Shangyu, Yuyao and Ningbo, all in Zhejiang Province. The Hangzhou–Ningbo high-speed railway runs parallel to the line. The section between Ningbo and Zhuangqiao railway station is proposed to be quadruple-tracked.

Eastern Zhejiang Canal UNESCO World Heritage Site in China

The Eastern Zhejiang Canal is located in Zhejiang province, China. Its west end is in Xixing Street, Binjiang District, Hangzhou City, crossing Cao'e River and Shaoxing City to its east end, the Yong River estuary in Ningbo City. The canal is 239 kilometres (149 mi) long. Early canal construction took place in the Shanyin old canal in Shaoxing City, during the Spring and Autumn period. In the third century AD, an official named He Xun supervised the construction of Xixing Canal, establishing the complete Eastern Zhejiang Canal.

Tang Yijun is a Chinese politician, and the current Minister of Justice. He formerly served as Governor of northeast China's Liaoning province. Prior to his transfer to Liaoning in October 2017, he spent his entire career in Zhejiang province. He was the mayor, then party chief of Ningbo.

Moon Lake (Ningbo) Body of water

The Moon Lake, also known as the West Lake, is a man-made lake in Haishu District, Ningbo, Zhejiang. It is a municipal conservation zone for history and culture in Ningbo.

Zhou Jiangyong Chinese politician

Zhou Jiangyong is a former Chinese politician and member of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). He was investigated by China's top anti-graft agency in August 2021. Previously he served as CCP secretary of Hangzhou. He is the first ministerial-level official caught in Zhejiang since the 19th CCP National Congress in 2017.

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