|Coordinates(Tianshui municipal government):|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Qinzhou District|
|• Prefecture-level city||14,280 km2 (5,510 sq mi)|
|• Urban||5,866 km2 (2,265 sq mi)|
|• Metro||5,866 km2 (2,265 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,171 m (3,842 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||2,984,659|
|• Density||210/km2 (540/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||210/km2 (540/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||210/km2 (540/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-GS-05|
|Licence plate prefixes||甘E|
|Literal meaning||City of Sky and Water|
|Literal meaning||Qin Province|
|Literal meaning||Commandery of Heaven and Water|
Tianshui is the second-largest city in Gansu Province,China. The city is located in the southeast of the province,along the upper reaches of the Wei River and at the boundary of the Loess Plateau and the Qinling Mountains. As of the 2020 census,its population was 2,984,659 inhabitants,of which 1,212,791 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of the 2 urban districts of Qinzhou and Maiji.The city and its surroundings have played an important role in the early history of China,as still visible in the form of historic sites such as the Maijishan Grottoes.
Qin,whose House of Ying were the founding dynasty of the Chinese empire,developed from Quanqiu (present-day Lixian) to the south. After the invasions of the Rong which unseated the Western Zhou,Qin recovered the territory of Tianshui from the nomads. It became an important region of their duchy and,later,kingdom.Characteristically Qin tombs have been excavated at Fangmatan nearby,including one 2200-year-old map of Qin's Gui County.
Under the Qin Empire,the area was part of Longxi Commandery but the Emperor Wu of the Han separated the region as the Tianshui Commandery in 114 BC as part of his expansion towards the Tarim Basin.The general Li Guang came from the city. The Han conquests and explorations eventually resulted in the development of the Northern Silk Road:Tianshui formed its junction with the Wei River,after which it followed the road past Mount Long to Chang'an (present-day Xi'an). Nearby are the Maijishan Grottoes,filled with thousands of Buddhist sculptures representing figures such as Buddha and the original male form of Guanyin,produced between the Wei and Song dynasties by monks travelling along the road and by local Buddhists.
During the Northern Wei,the city was known as Hanyang and was the center of the Hanyang Commandery. During the Western Wei,this name was changed to Hanyang County. During the Tang and Five Dynasties,the city of Tianshui was known as Shanggui (上邽). It alternated with Chengji (present-day Qin'an) as the capital of the province of Qinzhou (秦州). Li County was separated from Tianshui's jurisdiction during the ninth year of Chenghua (AD 1473) during the Ming dynasty.
According to a legend,the name Tianshui (天水) originates from a lake formed from heaven,which would remain the same size year round.
|Qinzhou District||秦州区||Qínzhōu Qū||650,000||2,442||266|
|Qin'an County||秦安县||Qín'ān Xiàn||600,000||1,601||375|
|Wushan County||武山县||Wǔshān Xiàn||440,000||2,011||219|
| Zhangjiachuan Hui|
Tianshui is located in the valley of the Jie River,a major tributary of the Wei River,and on the boundary between the Loess Plateau and Qinling Mountains. −1.5 °C (29.3 °F),while summers are warm and somewhat humid,with July 24-hour average temperature of 23.2 °C (73.8 °F). Much of the annual rainfall occurs from June to September,and the annual mean temperature is 11.44 °C (52.6 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in September to 50% in December,the city receives 1,911 hours of bright sunshine annually.The city has a monsoon-influenced,cool semi-arid (Köppen BSk)/humid continental (Dwa) climate,with four distinct seasons of comparatively equal length. Winters are cold but dry,with January 24-hour average temperature of
|Climate data for Tianshui (1991–2020 normals,extremes 1971–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||12.1|
|Average high °C (°F)||4.3|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.2|
|Record low °C (°F)||−19.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||4.6|
|Average precipitation days (≥0.1 mm)||5.1||4.9||6.6||7.8||9.8||10.3||11.3||10.9||12.1||10.5||5.7||2.8||97.8|
|Average snowy days||8.3||6.3||2.7||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||2.1||5.0||24.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61||60||57||55||59||63||67||70||75||76||71||64||65|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||140.1||129.0||163.2||193.3||204.7||191.3||193.7||179.4||117.6||115.3||125.4||143.7||1,896.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||44||41||44||49||47||44||44||44||32||33||41||47||43|
|Source:China Meteorological Administration|
Due to the mild climate,Tianshui is a large producer of fruits,in particular apples.
It is also a major industrial centre in Gansu province,especially regarding electronics.Some major industries include:
Tianshui Maijishan Airport is located near the built up area.
Tianshui is currently serviced by Tianshui railway station on the Longhai Railway. The railway station is connected to downtown by the Tianshui Tram.
A new high-speed railway station,Tianshui South railway station,opened in 2017.
The Tianshui–Longnan railway is currently under construction and will add a north–south link to the county.
The Lianyungang–Khorgas Expressway connects Tianshui to Baoji/Xi'an in the east and Dingxi,Lanzhou towards the northwest and supersedes highway G310. G310 runs as a motorway within the urban centre.
Tianshui's signature dish is Guagua (呱呱),a sticky boiled buckwheat flour meal,seasoned with chili oil,sesame paste,mustard,oil,salt,vinegar and garlic paste.The dish is normally eaten as a breakfast. According to legends it was the imperial food during Han dynasty general Wei Xiao's rule.
Gansu is a province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou,in the southeast part of the province.
Dingxi,also known as Longyou is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Gansu province,People's Republic of China. As of the 2020 census,its population was 2,524,097 inhabitants,of which 422,383 lived in the built-up area made of Anding urban district.
Xifeng District is a district and the seat of the city of Qingyang in Gansu Province,China. It has an area of 996 km2 (385 sq mi) and a population of 376,800 in 2019.
Jingchuan County is county under jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Pingliang,in the east of Gansu Province,China,bordering Shaanxi Province to the southeast. It has a land area of 1,486 square kilometers. The county is named after the Jing River. In 2020 it had a population of 356,200,over 300,000 of whom in the rural area.
Wen County or Wenxian is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Longnan,in the southeast of Gansu province,China,bordering Sichuan province to the south and west. It has a land area of 4,994 square kilometers,and a population of 241,000 (2019),notably having the largest population of Baima people.
Cheng County or Chengxian is a county under the administration of Longnan City,in southeastern Gansu Province of China. It has a land area of 1,780 square kilometers and a population of 250,000 in 2004. The postal code is 742500,and the county seat is located in Chengguan Town.
Gangu County is a county in the southeast of Gansu province,the People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Tianshui City and is the most populous county in Gansu. Its postal code is 741200,and in 1999 its population was 570,318 people.
Maiji District is a district of the prefecture-level city of Tianshui in the southeast of Gansu Province,China,bordering Shaanxi Province to the east. It is best known for,and named after,the Maijishan Grottoes. Before 2005 it was called Beidao District.
Jingtai County is a county in the middle of Gansu Province,bordering Inner Mongolia to the north. It is under the administration of Baiyin City and located at its northwest end. Covering an area of 5,483 square kilometres (2,117 sq mi),it governs 8 towns and 3 townships,which then in turn govern 15 residential communities and 135 administrative villages. Its postal code is 730400,and its population as of the 2010 Chinese Census was 225,755 people,which the county government reports has grown to about 238,900 as of 2019.
Jingyuan County is a county in the east of Gansu Province. It is under the administration of Baiyin City,and consists of two separate tracts of territory to the north and south of Pingchuan District. The northern tract borders Ningxia to the north. The southern area consists of an irrigated area around the Yellow River and the northern area is semi-arid highlands.
Ning County or Ningxian is a county in the east of Gansu province,China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Qingyang. Its postal code is 745200,and its population in 1999 was 505,660 people.
Huan County or Huanxian is an administrative district in eastern Gansu province,China at the junction of three provinces:Gansu,Shaanxi to the northeast,and Ningxia to the west and northwest. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Qingyang.
Minle County is a county in Gansu province of the People's Republic of China,bordering Qinghai province to the south. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhangye. Its postal code is 734500,and in 1999 its population was 232,462 people. The GDP per capita is US$1,605 in 2010.
Kongtong is a district of the city of Pingliang,Gansu province,China,bordering Ningxia to the northwest. It is named after the Kongtong Mountains. Kongtong is the seat of Pingliang city's government. At the start of 2021 the population was 534,800,65% living in the urban area.
Li County or Lixian is an administrative division of the prefecture-level city of Longnan in southeastern Gansu,a northwestern province of China. The 2010 Chinese census found a population of 458,237,a decline of around 25,000 from the year 2000 but still placing it second in size within its prefecture.
Tianshui Maijishan Airport,or Tianshui Air Base,is a dual-use military and civil airport serving the city of Tianshui in Gansu Province,China. It is located in Maiji District of Tianshui,50 kilometres from the tourist destination of Maijishan after which it is named.
Dongcha railway station is a railway station on the Baoji–Lanzhou high-speed railway in Maiji District,Tianshui,Gansu. The station opened on 6 May 2019.
Tianshui Commandery,known as Hanyang Commandery during the Eastern Han dynasty,was a historical commandery of China in eastern Gansu. The modern city of Tianshui receives its name from the commandery.
Tianshui Tram is a light rail system consisting of one route in Qinzhou District and Maiji District,Tianshui,Gansu,China.
The Tianshui–Longnan railway is a planned railway in China. The combined passenger and freight line will be 215 kilometres (134 mi) long and has a design speed of 160 kilometres per hour (99 mph). The project is in the design phase as of 2021.