Tianshui

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Tianshui

天水市
Fu Xi Miao Pai Fang .jpg
Tianshui Fuyi pedestrian street
Location of Tianshui Prefecture within Gansu (China).png
Location of Tianshui City jurisdiction in Gansu
Coordinates(Tianshui municipal government): 34°34′53″N105°43′29″E / 34.5815°N 105.7248°E / 34.5815; 105.7248 Coordinates: 34°34′53″N105°43′29″E / 34.5815°N 105.7248°E / 34.5815; 105.7248
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Province Gansu
Municipal seat Qinzhou District
Area
  Total14,300 km2 (5,500 sq mi)
Elevation
1,171 m (3,842 ft)
Population
 (2010) [1]
  Total3,262,548
  Density230/km2 (590/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
741000
Area code(s) 0938
ISO 3166 code CN-GS-05
Licence plate prefixes 甘E
Website tianshui.gov.cn
Tianshui
Fu Xi Miao Nei 01.jpg
The entrance to the Fuxi Temple in Tianshui
Chinese 天水市
Literal meaningCity of Sky and Water
Qinzhou
Chinese 秦州
Postal Tsinchow
Literal meaning Qin Province
Tianshui Commandery
Chinese 天水郡
Literal meaningCommandery of Heaven and Water
Hanyang Commandery
Simplified Chinese 汉阳郡
Traditional Chinese 漢陽郡
Hanyang County
Simplified Chinese 汉阳县
Traditional Chinese 漢陽縣

Tianshui is the second-largest city in Gansu Province, China. Its population is approximately 3.5 million. The city and its surroundings have played an important role in the early history of China, as still visible in the form of historic sites.

Contents

History

Qin, whose House of Ying were the founding dynasty of the Chinese empire, developed from Quanqiu (present-day Lixian) to the south. After the invasions of the Rong which unseated the Western Zhou, Qin recovered the territory of Tianshui from the nomads. It became an important region of their duchy and, later, kingdom. [2] Characteristically Qin tombs have been excavated at Fangmatan nearby, including one 2200-year-old map of Qin's Gui County. [3]

Under the Qin Empire, the area was part of Longxi Commandery but the Emperor Wu of the Han separated the region as the Tianshui Commandery as part of his expansion towards the Tarim Basin. The general Li Guang came from the city. The Han conquests and explorations eventually resulted in the development of the Northern Silk Road: Tianshui formed its junction with the Wei River, after which it followed the road past Mount Long to Chang'an (present-day Xi'an). [4] Nearby are the Maijishan Grottoes, filled with thousands of Buddhist sculptures representing figures such as Buddha and the original male form of Guanyin, produced between the Wei and Song dynasties by monks travelling along the road and by local Buddhists. [5]

During the Northern Wei, the city was known as Hanyang and was the center of the Hanyang Commandery. During the Western Wei, this name was changed to Hanyang County. During the Tang and Five Dynasties, the city of Tianshui was known as Shanggui (上邽). It alternated with Chengji (present-day Qin'an) as the capital of the province of Qinzhou (秦州). [6] Li County was separated from Tianshui's jurisdiction during the ninth year of Chenghua (AD1473) during the Ming dynasty.

Under Qinzhou's former romanization of Tsinchow, Tianshui is a (currently vacant) diocese (Latin : DIŒCESIS ZINCEUVENSIS) of the Roman Catholic church. [7]

Subdivisions

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2004 est.)
Area (km²)Density
(/km²)
Qinzhou District 秦州区Qínzhōu Qū650,0002,442266
Maiji District 麦积区Màijī Qū580,0003,452188
Qingshui County 清水县Qīngshuǐ Xiàn310,0002,003155
Qin'an County 秦安县Qín'ān Xiàn600,0001,601375
Gangu County 甘谷县Gāngǔ Xiàn600,0001,572382
Wushan County 武山县Wǔshān Xiàn440,0002,011219
Zhangjiachuan Hui
Autonomous County
张家川回族自治县Zhāngjiāchuān
Huízú Zìzhìxiàn
320,0001,311244

Geography

Map including Tianshui (labeled as T'IEN-SHUI (CH'IN-CHOU) (walled) Tian Shui (Qin Zhou )
) (AMS, 1955) Txu-oclc-10552568-ni48-7.jpg
Map including Tianshui (labeled as T'IEN-SHUI (CH'IN-CHOU) (walled) 天水(秦州)) (AMS, 1955)

Tianshui is located in the valley of the Jie River, a major tributary of the Wei River. The city has a monsoon-influenced, cool semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with four distinct seasons of comparatively equal length. Winters are cold but dry, with January 24-hour average temperature of −1.5 °C (29.3 °F), while summers are warm and somewhat humid, with July 24-hour average temperature of 23.2 °C (73.8 °F). Much of the annual rainfall occurs from June to September, and the annual mean temperature is 11.44 °C (52.6 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in September to 50% in December, the city receives 1,911 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Tianshui (1981−2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)12.1
(53.8)
20.2
(68.4)
27.0
(80.6)
31.8
(89.2)
33.9
(93.0)
37.2
(99.0)
38.2
(100.8)
36.1
(97.0)
36.2
(97.2)
28.5
(83.3)
21.6
(70.9)
14.7
(58.5)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F)3.9
(39.0)
7.5
(45.5)
13.0
(55.4)
19.7
(67.5)
24.3
(75.7)
27.5
(81.5)
29.3
(84.7)
27.9
(82.2)
22.6
(72.7)
16.8
(62.2)
10.9
(51.6)
5.2
(41.4)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1.5
(29.3)
1.9
(35.4)
6.9
(44.4)
13.0
(55.4)
17.5
(63.5)
21.1
(70.0)
23.2
(73.8)
22.0
(71.6)
17.2
(63.0)
11.3
(52.3)
5.1
(41.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
11.4
(52.6)
Average low °C (°F)−5.4
(22.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
2.2
(36.0)
7.4
(45.3)
11.8
(53.2)
15.6
(60.1)
18.2
(64.8)
17.4
(63.3)
13.3
(55.9)
7.5
(45.5)
1.0
(33.8)
−4.3
(24.3)
6.9
(44.4)
Record low °C (°F)−19.2
(−2.6)
−16.6
(2.1)
−10.0
(14.0)
−6.4
(20.5)
1.8
(35.2)
5.5
(41.9)
10.6
(51.1)
8.4
(47.1)
1.2
(34.2)
−5.1
(22.8)
−11.6
(11.1)
−17.4
(0.7)
−19.2
(−2.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)4.9
(0.19)
6.8
(0.27)
17.8
(0.70)
34.9
(1.37)
53.1
(2.09)
71.4
(2.81)
87.2
(3.43)
86.9
(3.42)
76.9
(3.03)
46.5
(1.83)
10.7
(0.42)
3.7
(0.15)
500.8
(19.71)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)5.05.27.98.910.511.211.810.711.210.65.43.0101.4
Average relative humidity (%)61605957606468717676706466
Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.3128.4142.2182.0201.7190.0195.7193.4125.4123.7133.4151.01,911.2
Percent possible sunshine 46423947474445473435435043
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 19712000) [8] [9]

Economy

Tianshui is a major industrial centre in Gansu province. Some major industries include:

Transportation

Airlines

Tianshui Maijishan Airport is located near the built up area.

Railway

Tianshui is currently serviced by Tianshui railway station on the Longhai Railway.

A new high-speed railway station, Tianshui South Railway Station, opened in 2017.

Highways

The Expressway connect Tianshui to Baoji/Xi'an in the east and Dingxi, Lanzhou towards the northwest and supersedes highway G310. G310 runs as a grade separated through road within the urban centre.

Tourism

Education

See also

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References

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  2. People's Daily Online. "Chinese surname history: Qin".
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