Zhejiang

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Zhejiang Province
浙江省
Chekiang
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese浙江省 (Zhèjiāng Shěng)
  AbbreviationZJ / (pinyin :Zhè)
   Wu Tsehkaon San
Yu Zeng Feng Quan Mao  - panoramio.jpg
Zhejiang in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Zhejiang Province
Coordinates: 29°12′N120°30′E / 29.2°N 120.5°E / 29.2; 120.5 Coordinates: 29°12′N120°30′E / 29.2°N 120.5°E / 29.2; 120.5
CountryChina
Annexation by the Qin dynasty 222 BC
Jiangnandong Circuit 626
Liangzhe Circuit 997
Zhejiang Province formed1368
Republican Period 1912-01-01
Division of territory 1949-12-07
Conquest of Yijiangshan 1955-01-20
Named for Old name of Qiantang River
Capital
(and largest city)
Hangzhou
Divisions11 prefectures, 90 counties, 1570 townships
Government
  Type Province
  Body Zhejiang Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Yuan Jiajun
   Congress chairmanYuan Jiajun
   Governor Wang Hao
   CPPCC chairman Ge Huijun
Area
  Total101,800 km2 (39,300 sq mi)
Area rank 26th
Highest elevation1,929 m (6,329 ft)
Population
 (2020) [1]
  Total64,567,588
  Rank 8th
  Density630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
  Density rank 8th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han: 99.2%
She: 0.4%
  Languages and dialects Wu, Huizhou, Jianghuai Mandarin, Min Nan (in Cangnan and Pingyang County)
ISO 3166 code CN-ZJ
GDP (2020) CNY 6.461 trillion
USD 936 billion (31st) [2]
 - per capita CNY 100,070
USD 14,503 (25th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 3.6%
HDI (2018)Increase2.svg 0.810 [3]
high · 6th
Website www.zj.gov.cn
   Sub-provincial cities
Zhejiang
Zhejiang (Chinese characters).svg
"Zhejiang" in Chinese characters

The eleven prefecture-level divisions of Zhejiang are subdivided into 90 county-level divisions (36 districts, 20 county-level cities, 33 counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1,570 township-level divisions (761 towns, 505 townships, 14 ethnic townships, and 290 subdistricts). Hengdian belongs to Jinhua, which is the largest base of shooting films and TV dramas in China. Hengdian World Studios is called "China's Hollywood." At the year end of 2017, the total population is 56.57 million. [25]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [26] District area [26] City proper [26] Census date
1 Hangzhou [lower-alpha 1] 5,162,0936,241,9718,700,3732010-11-01
(1)Hangzhou (new districts) [lower-alpha 1] 838,4521,284,359see Hangzhou2010-11-01
2 Wenzhou [lower-alpha 2] 2,686,8253,039,4399,122,1022010-11-01
(2)Wenzhou (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 39,19387,683see Wenzhou2010-11-01
3 Ningbo [lower-alpha 3] 2,583,0733,491,5977,605,6892010-11-01
(3)Ningbo (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 239,992491,697see Ningbo2010-11-01
4 Taizhou 1,189,2761,902,5105,968,8382010-11-01
5 Cixi 1,059,9421,462,383see Ningbo2010-11-01
6 Rui'an 927,3831,424,667see Wenzhou2010-11-01
7 Yiwu 878,9031,234,015see Jinhua 2010-11-01
8 Jiaxing 762,6431,201,8824,501,6572010-11-01
9 Wenling 749,0131,366,794see Taizhou2010-11-01
10 Huzhou 748,4711,293,21928935422010-11-01
11 Yueqing 725,9721,389,332see Wenzhou2010-11-01
12 Jinhua 710,5971,077,2455,361,5722010-11-01
13 Yuyao 672,9091,010,659see Ningbo2010-11-01
14 Shaoxing [lower-alpha 4] 643,199883,8364,912,2392010-11-01
(14)Shaoxing (new districts) [lower-alpha 4] 1,297,6522,188,785see Shaoxing2010-11-01
15 Zhuji 606,6831,157,938see Shaoxing2010-11-01
16 Zhoushan 542,190842,9891,121,2612010-11-01
17 Linhai 503,3771,028,813see Taizhou2010-11-01
18 Dongyang 455,912804,398see Jinhua2010-11-01
19 Quzhou 422,688805,9632,122,6612010-11-01
20 Tongxiang 400,417815,848see Jiaxing2010-11-01
21 Haining 397,690806,966see Jiaxing2010-11-01
22 Yongkang 376,246723,490see Jinhua2010-11-01
(23) Yuhuan [lower-alpha 5] 362,135616,346see Taizhou2010-11-01
24 Pinghu 346,892671,834see Jiaxing2010-11-01
25 Shengzhou 345,674679,762see Shaoxing2010-11-01
26 Lishui 293,968451,4182,116,9572010-11-01
27 Lanxi 208,272560,514see Jinhua2010-11-01
28 Jiangshan 200,341467,862see Quzhou2010-11-01
29 Jiande 183,518430,750see Hangzhou2010-11-01
30 Longquan 117,239234,626see Lishui2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New districts established after census: Fuyang (Fuyang CLC), Lin'an (Lin'an CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Dongtou (Dongtou County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Fenghua (Fenghua CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New districts established after census: Keqiao (Shaoxing County), Shangyu (Shangyu CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. Yuhuan County is currently known as Yuhuan CLC after census.
 
 
Most populous cities in Zhejiang
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [27]
RankPop.RankPop.
Hangzhou CBD (Cropped).jpg
Hangzhou
Ningbo South Business District 24-09-2018.jpg
Ningbo
1 Hangzhou 6,504,90011 Yueqing 534,700 Vue generale de Wenzhou.JPG
Wenzhou
Shaoxing Cityscape.jpg
Shaoxing
2 Ningbo 3,685,10012 Cixi 530,300
3 Wenzhou 2,216,50013 Yuyao 458,500
4 Shaoxing 1,512,60014 Zhuji 438,200
5 Taizhou 1,050,60015 Dongyang 421,700
6 Huzhou 951,00016 Lishui 372,000
7 Yiwu 934,30017 Tongxiang 363,400
8 Jinhua 817,30018 Quzhou 356,700
9 Jiaxing 797,00019 Pinghu 349,500
10 Zhoushan 612,40020 Linhai 317,900

Politics

The politics of Zhejiang is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in Mainland China. The Governor of Zhejiang is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Zhejiang. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor is subordinate to the Zhejiang Communist Party of China (CPC) Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Zhejiang CPC Party Chief."

Several political figures who served as Zhejiang's top political office of Communist Party Secretary have played key roles in various events in PRC history. Tan Zhenlin (term 1949–1952), the inaugural Party Secretary, was one of the leading voices against Mao's Cultural Revolution during the so-called February Countercurrent of 1967. Jiang Hua (term 1956–1968), was the "chief justice" on the Special Court in the case against the Gang of Four in 1980. Three provincial Party Secretaries since the 1990s have gone onto prominence at the national level. They include CPC General Secretary and President Xi Jinping (term 2002–2007), National People's Congress Chairman and former Vice-Premier Zhang Dejiang (term 1998–2002), and Zhao Hongzhu (term 2007–2012), the Deputy Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, China's top anti-corruption body. Of Zhejiang's fourteen Party Secretaries since 1949, none were native to the province.

Zhejiang was home to Chiang Kai-shek and many high-ranking officials in the Kuomintang, who fled to Taiwan in 1949 after losing the Civil War.

Economy

Yuao, a fishing village on Dayu Bay in South Zhejiang (Cangnan County) Dayu Bay - YuAo Cun - P1210476.JPG
Yuao, a fishing village on Dayu Bay in South Zhejiang (Cangnan County)

Zhejiang is one of the richest and most developed provinces in China. As of 2018, its nominal GDP was US$849 billion (CN¥ 5.62 trilion), about 6.24% of the country's GDP and ranked 4th among province-level administrative units; the province's primary, secondary and tertiary industries were worth CN¥196.70 billion (US$29.72 billion), CN¥2.3506 trillion (US$355.22 billion) and CN¥3.0724 trillion (US$464.29 billion) respectively. Its nominal GDP per capita was US$14,907 (CN¥98,643) and ranked the 5th in the country. The private sector in the province has been playing an increasingly important role in boosting the regional economy since Economic Reform in 1978. [28]

Zhejiang's main manufacturing sectors are electromechanical industries, textiles, chemical industries, food and construction materials. In recent years Zhejiang has followed its own development model, dubbed the "Zhejiang model," which is based on prioritizing and encouraging entrepreneurship, an emphasis on small businesses responsive to the whims of the market, large public investments into infrastructure, and the production of low-cost goods in bulk for both domestic consumption and export. As a result, Zhejiang has made itself one of the richest provinces and the "Zhejiang spirit" has become something of a legend within China. However, some economists now worry that this model is not sustainable, in that it is inefficient and places unreasonable demands on raw materials and public utilities, and also a dead end, in that the myriad small businesses in Zhejiang producing cheap goods in bulk are unable to move to more sophisticated or technologically more advanced industries. [29] The economic heart of Zhejiang is moving from North Zhejiang, centered on Hangzhou, southeastward to the region centered on Wenzhou and Taizhou. [6] The per capita disposable income of urbanites in Zhejiang reached 55,574 yuan (US$8,398) in 2018, an annual real growth of 8.4%. The per capita disposable income of rural residents stood at 27,302 yuan (US$4,126), a real growth of 9.4%. [30]

Historical GDP of Zhejiang Province for 1978 –present (SNA2008) [28]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [31] )
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
growth
(%)
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNYUSDPPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20185,619,715849,2331,597,7097.198,64314,90728,0466.61743.5888
20175,176,826766,7321,442,4957.892,05713,63425,6516.75183.5888
20164,725,136711,3701,349,6927.684,91612,78424,2556.64233.5009
20154,288,649688,5641,208,2408.077,64412,46621,8756.22843.5495
20144,017,303653,9861,131,5077.673,00211,88420,5626.14283.5504
20133,775,658609,6461,055,5678.268,80511,11019,2366.19323.5769
20123,473,913550,323978,3478.063,50810,06117,8866.31253.5508
20113,236,338501,074923,2179.059,3319,18616,9256.45883.5055
20102,774,765409,892838,14611.951,7587,64615,6346.76953.3106
20051,341,768163,796469,31412.827,0623,3049,4668.19172.8590
2000614,10374,181225,83111.013,4151,6204,9338.27842.7193
1995355,75542,600130,34216.88,1499762,9868.35102.7294
199090,46918,91453,1363.92,1384471,2564.78321.7026
198542,91614,61430,61721.71,0673637612.93661.4017
198017,99212,00712,03116.44713143151.49841.4955
197812,3727,34921.93311971.6836

Traditionally, the province is known as the "Land of Fish and Rice." True to its name, rice is the main crop, followed by wheat; north Zhejiang is also a center of aquaculture in China, and the Zhoushan fishery is the largest fishery in the country. The main cash crops include jute and cotton and the province also leads the provinces of China in tea production. (The renowned Longjing tea is a product of Hangzhou.) Zhejiang's towns have been known for handicraft production of goods such as silk, for which it is ranked second among the provinces. Its many market towns connect the cities with the countryside.

As of 1832, the province was exporting silk, paper, fans, pencils, wine, dates, tea and "golden-flowered" hams. [32]

Ningbo, Wenzhou, Taizhou and Zhoushan are important commercial ports. The Hangzhou Bay Bridge between Haiyan County and Cixi, is the longest bridge over a continuous body of sea water in the world.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

Economic and technological development concerns

Waste disposal

On Thursday, September 15, 2011, more than 500 people from Hongxiao Village protested over the large-scale death of fish in a nearby river. Angry protesters stormed the Zhejiang Jinko Solar Company factory compound, overturned eight company vehicles, and destroyed the offices before police came to disperse the crowd. Protests continued on the two following nights with reports of scuffles, officials said. Chen Hongming, a deputy head of Haining's environmental protection bureau, said the factory's waste disposal had failed pollution tests since April. The environmental watchdog had warned the factory, but it had not effectively controlled the pollution, Chen added. [33]

Demographics

She ethnic county, townships and towns in Zhejiang She ethnic county, townships and towns in Zhejiang.png
She ethnic county, townships and towns in Zhejiang

Han Chinese make up the vast majority of the population and the largest Han subgroup are the speakers of Wu varieties of Chinese. There are also 400,000 members of ethnic minorities, including approximately 200,000 She people and approximately 20,000 Hui Chinese. [34] Jingning She Autonomous County in Lishui is the only She autonomous county in China. [35]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [36] 21,440,000    
1928 [37] 20,643,000−3.7%
1936-37 [38] 21,231,000+2.8%
1947 [39] 19,959,000−6.0%
1954 [40] 22,865,747+14.6%
1964 [41] 28,318,573+23.8%
YearPop.±%
1982 [42] 38,884,603+37.3%
1990 [43] 41,445,930+6.6%
2000 [44] 45,930,651+10.8%
2010 [45] 54,426,891+18.5%
2020 [46] 64,567,588+18.6%

Religion

Religion in Zhejiang [47] [note 1]

   Christianity (2.62%)

The predominant religions in Zhejiang are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 23.02% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 2.62% of the population identifies as Christian, decreasing from 3.92% in 2004. [47] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 74.36% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects. As of the mid-2010s, Zhejiang has 34,880 registered folk religious temples greater than 20 sqm and 10,000 registered places of worship of the five doctrines (Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam). [48] [49] [50] :35

In mid-2015 the government of Zhejiang recognised folk religion as "civil religion" beginning the formal registration of the province's folk religious temples under the aegis of the provincial Bureau of Folk Faith. [51] Buddhism has an important presence since its arrival in Zhejiang 1,800 years ago. [52]

Catholicism arrived 400 years ago in the province and Protestantism 150 years ago. [52] Zhejiang is one of the provinces of China with the largest concentrations of Protestants, especially notable in the city of Wenzhou. [53] In 1999, Zhejiang's Protestant population comprised 2.8% of the provincial population, a small percentage but higher than the national average. [54]

The rapid development of religions in Zhejiang has driven the local committee of ethnic and religious affairs to enact policies to rationalise them [55] in 2014, variously named "Three Remodelings and One Demolition" operations or "Special Treatment Work on Illegally Constructed Sites of Religious and Folk Religion Activities" according to the locality. [56] These regulations have led to cases of demolition of churches and folk religion temples or the removal of crosses from churches' roofs and spires. [57] An exemplary case was that of the Sanjiang Church. [58] Despite English-language media focused on Christian churches, only 2.3% of the buildings affected by the regulations were Christian churches; most of them were folk religious temples. [50] :36

Islam arrived 1,400 years ago in Zhejiang. Today Islam is practiced by a small number of people including virtually all the Hui Chinese living in Zhejiang. [52] In 2020, there are 117,000 Muslims in Zhejiang. [59] Another religion present in the province is She shamanism (practiced by She ethnic minority).

Media

The Zhejiang Radio & Television, Hangzhou Radio & Television Group, Ningbo Radio & Television Group are the local broadcasters in Zhejiang Province.

Culture

A boat on one of Shaoxing's waterways, near the city center. North Zhejiang, known as the "Land of Fish and Rice," is characterized by its canals and waterways. Shaoxing-ww-s.jpg
A boat on one of Shaoxing's waterways, near the city center. North Zhejiang, known as the "Land of Fish and Rice," is characterized by its canals and waterways.

Languages

Zhejiang is mountainous and has therefore fostered the development of many distinct local cultures. Linguistically speaking, Zhejiang is extremely diverse. Most inhabitants of Zhejiang speak Wu, but the Wu dialects are very diverse, especially in the south, where one valley may speak a dialect completely unintelligible to the next valley a few kilometers away. Other varieties of Chinese are spoken as well, mostly along the borders; Mandarin and Huizhou dialects are spoken on the border with Anhui, while Min dialects are spoken on the border with Fujian. (See Hangzhou dialect, Shaoxing dialect, Ningbo dialect, Wenzhou dialect, Taizhou dialect, Jinhua dialect and Quzhou dialect for more information)

Throughout history there have been a series of lingua francas in the area to allow for better communication. The dialects spoken in Hangzhou, Shaoxing and Ningbo have taken on this role historically. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Mandarin, which is not mutually intelligible with any of the local dialects, has been promoted as the standard language of communication throughout China. As a result, most of the population now can, to some degree, speak and comprehend Mandarin and can code-switch when necessary. A majority of the population educated since 1978 can speak Mandarin. Urban residents tend to be more fluent in Mandarin than rural people. Nevertheless, a Zhejiang accent is detectable in almost everyone from the area communicating in Mandarin and the home dialect remains an important part of the everyday lives and cultural identities of most Zhejiang residents.

Music

Zhejiang is the home of Yue opera, one of the most prominent forms of Chinese opera. Yueju originated in Shengzhou and is traditionally performed by actresses only, in both male and female roles. Other important opera traditions include Yongju (of Ningbo), Shao opera (of Shaoxing), Ouju (of Wenzhou), Wuju (of Jinhua), Taizhou Luantan (of Taizhou) and Zhuji Luantan (of Zhuji).

Cuisine

Fish being dried dockside in Pacao Harbor, Cangnan County Cangnan - Pacao - P1210261.JPG
Fish being dried dockside in Pacao Harbor, Cangnan County

Longjing tea (also called dragon well tea), originating in Hangzhou, is one of the most prestigious, if not the most prestigious Chinese tea. Hangzhou is also renowned for its silk umbrellas and hand fans. Zhejiang cuisine (itself subdivided into many traditions, including Hangzhou cuisine) is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine.

Place names

Since ancient times, north Zhejiang and neighbouring south Jiangsu have been famed for their prosperity and opulence[ citation needed ] and simply inserting north Zhejiang place names (Hangzhou, Jiaxing, etc.) into poetry gave an effect of dreaminess, a practice followed by many noted poets. In particular, the fame of Hangzhou (as well as Suzhou in neighbouring Jiangsu province) has led to the popular saying: "Above there is heaven; below there is Suzhou and Hangzhou" (上有天堂,下有苏杭), a saying that continues to be a source of pride for the people of these two still prosperous cities.

Tourism

The Hall of Five Hundred Arhats at Guoqing Temple Guoqingsi006r.jpg
The Hall of Five Hundred Arhats at Guoqing Temple

Tourist destinations in Zhejiang include:

Sports

Professional sports teams based in Zhejiang include:

Education

Colleges and universities

Notable people:

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [47] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. May also include a tiny number of Muslims.

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Taizhou, Zhejiang Prefecture-level city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

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Wang Guosong, was a Chinese electrical engineer, and a pioneer of electrotechniques in modern China. Wang was also an educator, and best known for his acting President position of Zhejiang University in history.

The Wu Chinese people, also known as Wuyue people, Jiang-Zhe people (江浙民系) or San Kiang (三江), are a major subgroup of the Han Chinese. They are a Wu Chinese-speaking people who hail from Southern Jiangsu Province, the entirety of the city of Shanghai and all of Zhejiang Province, as well as smaller populations in Xuancheng prefecture-level city in Southern Anhui Province, Shangrao, Guangfeng and Yushan counties of Northeastern Jiangxi Province and some parts of Pucheng County in Northern Fujian Province.

Taihu Wu (吳語太湖片) or Northern Wu (北部吳語) is a Wu Chinese language spoken over much of southern part of Jiangsu province, including Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, the southern part of Nantong, Jingjiang and Danyang; the municipality of Shanghai; and the northern part of Zhejiang province, including Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Ningbo, Huzhou, and Jiaxing. A notable exception is the dialect of the town of Jinxiang, which is a linguistic exclave of Taihu Wu in Zhenan Min-speaking Cangnan county of Wenzhou prefecture in Zhejiang province. Used in regions around Taihu Lake and Hangzhou Bay, this group makes up the largest population among all Wu speakers. Taihu Wu dialects such as Shanghainese, Shaoxing and Ningbo are mutually intelligible even for L2 Taihu speakers.

Wenzhou people or Wenzhounese people is a subgroup of Oujiang Wu Chinese speaking peoples, who live primarily in Wenzhou, Zhejiang province. Wenzhou people are known for their business and money making skills. The area also has a large diaspora population in Europe and the United States, with a reputation for being enterprising natives who start restaurants, retail and wholesale businesses in their adopted countries. About two-thirds of the overseas community is in Europe. Wenzhounese people have also made notable contributions to mathematics and technology.

The Shaoxing dialect is a Wu dialect spoken in the city of Shaoxing more specifically in the city center of Yuecheng and its surrounding areas. It is a representative Wu dialect with a tripartite distinction on voiced stop initials and a textbook register split with each of the four tonal categories of Middle Chinese being divided into upper and lower registers. Within Wu, it is classified as a Northern Wu dialect belonging to the Taihu division within which it is classified under the Linshao subdivision (臨紹小片/临绍小片).

Zhejiang Wenzhou High School Senior high school in Zhejiang, China

The Zhejiang Wenzhou High School, known colloquially as Wenyizhong (WZHS), is a public senior high school located in Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. WZHS is situated in the Ouhai District of Wenzhou, within the Sanyang Wetland Scenic Area. It is one of the first provincial first-class high schools and first provincial first-class ordinary high school model schools established by the Department of Education of Zhejiang Province. Wenzhou High School is known as the "cradle of mathematicians" for educating many famous mathematicians, such as Su Buqing and Gu Chaohao. Among the best schools in China in 2015, Zhejiang Wenzhou High School is ranked 46.

Eastern Zhejiang Canal

The Eastern Zhejiang Canal is located in Zhejiang province, China. Its west end is in Xixing Street, Binjiang District, Hangzhou City, crossing Cao'e River and Shaoxing City to its east end, the Yong River estuary in Ningbo City. The canal is 239 kilometres (149 mi) long. Early canal construction took place in the Shanyin old canal in Shaoxing City, during the Spring and Autumn period. In the third century AD, an official named He Xun supervised the construction of Xixing Canal, establishing the complete Eastern Zhejiang Canal.

Shehua is an unclassified Sinitic language spoken by the She people of Southeastern China. It is also called Shanha, San-hak (山哈) or Shanhahua (山哈话). Shehua speakers are located mainly in Fujian and Zhejiang provinces of Southeastern China, with smaller numbers of speakers in a few locations of Jiangxi, Guangdong and Anhui provinces.

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