Hohhot

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Coordinates: 40°50′31″N111°44′56″E / 40.842°N 111.749°E / 40.842; 111.749

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Hohhot

呼和浩特ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ ( Kokeqota.svg )

Huhehot, Kweisui, Kuei-sui
Hohhot Montage.png
Clockwise from top: monument of Genghis Khan, Governor of Suiyuan General, Temple of the Five Pagodas, Zhaojun Tomb
Hohhot
Location of Hohhot Prefecture within Inner Mongolia (China).svg
Location of Hohhot City jurisdiction in Inner Mongolia
China Inner Mongolia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hohhot
Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hohhot
Hohhot (China)
Coordinates(Gongzhufu Park (公主府公园)): 40°50′05″N111°39′23″E / 40.8346°N 111.6565°E / 40.8346; 111.6565
Country China
Region Inner Mongolia
County-level divisions 10
Township divisions 116
Established1580
Municipal seat Xincheng District
Government
  Type Prefecture-level city
  Body Hohhot Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Wang Lixia
   Congress ChairmanChang Peizhong
   Mayor He Haidong
   CPPCC ChairmanBai Yongping
Area
   Prefecture-level city 17,186.1 km2 (6,635.6 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2017) [1]
265.05 km2 (102.34 sq mi)
   Districts [1] 2,054.0 km2 (793.1 sq mi)
Elevation
1,065 m (3,494 ft)
Population
 (2012 estimate) [2]
   Prefecture-level city 2,866,615
  Density170/km2 (430/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2017) [1]
2,049,800
  Urban density7,700/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
  Major ethnic groups
Time zone UTC+08:00 (China Standard)
Postal code
010000
Area code(s) 471
ISO 3166 code CN-NM-01
License plate prefixes 蒙A
GDP (2015) [2] CNY 309.05 billion
(US$49.62 billion) [3]
GDP per capita CNY 101,492
(US$16,295)
Local Dialect Jin: Zhangjiakou-Hohhot dialect; Southern Mongolian
Administrative division code 150100
Website www.huhhot.gov.cn
Hohhot
HHHTM.svg
Hohhot as written in Mongolian
HHHT name.svg
The Chinese name of Hohhot: Hūhéhàotè
Chinese name
Chinese 呼和浩特
Hanyu Pinyin Hūhéhàotè
Literal meaning"Blue City" (in Mongolian)
Hushi (Abbreviation of Huhehaote shi)
Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin Hūshì
Literal meaningHo[hhot] City
Kweisui
Traditional Chinese 歸綏
Simplified Chinese 归绥
Hanyu Pinyin PRC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuí
ROC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuī
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Хөх хот
Mongolian script ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Russian name
Russian Хух-Хото
Romanization Chuch-Choto

Hohhot (Mongolian: Mongolian script: Kokeqota.svg Kökekhota, Mongolian Cyrillic: Хөх хот Khökh khot /xɵxˈxɔtʰ/; Chinese :呼和浩特; pinyin :Hūhéhàotè), abbreviated Hushi (Chinese :呼市; pinyin :Hūshì), formerly known as Kweisui (traditional Chinese :歸綏; simplified Chinese :归绥; pinyin : PRC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuí, ROC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuī), is the capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, [4] [5] serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center. [6] Its population is 2,866,615 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 1,980,774 lives in the built-up (or metro) area made up of 4 urban districts. [7]

The name of the city in Mongolian means "Blue City", although it is also wrongly referred to as the "Green City." [8] The color blue in Mongol culture is associated with the sky, eternity and purity. In Chinese, the name can be translated as Qīng Chéng (Chinese :青城; lit. ' Blue/Green City') [9] The name has also been variously romanized as Kokotan, Kokutan, Kuku-hoton, Huhohaot'e, Huhehot, Huhot, or Köke qota. [5]

The city is a seat of the Inner Mongolia University, the largest regional comprehensive university and the only 211 Project University in Inner Mongolia.

History

Early history

Yunzhong Commandery (Chinese :雲中郡) was a historical commandery of China. Its territories were between the Great Wall and Yin Mountains, and correspond to part of modern-day Hohhot, Baotou and Ulanqab prefectures in Inner Mongolia. The central city of Yunzhong was in the suburb of today's Hohhot.

The commandery was created during King Wuling of Zhao's reign after a successful campaign against the Linhu (林胡) and Loufan (樓煩) peoples. [10] After the establishment of Qin and Han dynasty, the commandery became the frontier between Han and the Xiongnu. In early Han dynasty, the region saw frequent Xiongnu raids. However, from Emperor Wu's reign onwards, it became an important base of military operations in the wars against the Xiongnu. [11] In 127 BC, it was from Yunzhong that General Wei Qing led a 40,000-men strong cavalry force and conquered the modern Hetao and Ordos regions. In 2 AD, the commandery administered 11 counties, namely Yunzhong (雲中), Xianyang (咸陽), Taolin (陶林), Zhenling (楨陵), Duhe (犢和), Shaling (沙陵), Yuanyang (原陽), Shanan (沙南), Beiyu (北輿), Wuquan (武泉) and Yangshou (陽壽). The population totaled 38,303 households, or 173,270 people. [12] During Eastern Han, 3 counties were abolished, while 3 new counties were added from Dingxiang Commandery. In 140 AD, the population was 5,351 households, or a population of 26,430. [13] Toward the late Han dynasty, the area's population decreased sharply as residents fled from invading northern nomadic peoples, and the commandery was dissolved. [14]

The Tuoba chieftain Gui (called Tuoba Gui) was able to refound the Dai empire in 386. From his capital at Shengle (near modern Helingeer). His descendants would, step by step, conquer the north of China, divide the Later Yan realm into two parts, and subdue the Xia (407-431), the Later Qin (384-417) and the many Liang and Yan empires. [15]

Ming and Qing era

In 1557, the Tümed Mongol leader Altan Khan began building the Da Zhao Temple on the Tümed plain in order to convince the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) government of his leadership of the southern Mongol tribes. [16] The town that grew up around this temple was called the "Blue Town" (Kokegota in Mongolian). The Ming had been blockading the Mongols' access to Chinese iron, cotton, and crop seeds, in order to dissuade them from attacking the North China plain. In 1570, Altan Khan successfully negotiated the end of the blockade by establishing a vassal-tributary relationship with the Ming, who changed Kokegota's name to Guihua (traditional Chinese :歸化; simplified Chinese :归化; pinyin :Guīhuà; postal: Kweihua; lit. 'Return to Civilization') in 1575. The population of Guihua grew to over 150,000 in the early 1630s as local Mongol princes encouraged the settlement of Han Chinese merchants. There were occasional attacks on Guihua by Mongol armies, such as the total razing of the city by Ligdan Khan in 1631. Altan Khan and his successors constructed temples and fortresses in 1579, 1602 and 1727. The Tümed Mongols of the area had long since adopted a semiagricultural way of life. Hui merchants gathered north of the gate of the city's fortress, building a mosque in 1693. [17] Their descendants formed the nucleus of the modern Huimin district.

After the Manchus founded the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Kangxi Emperor (reigned 1661–1722) sent troops to control the region, [8] which was of interest to the Qing as a center of study of Tibetan Buddhism. Just northeast of Guihua the Qing built the strong garrison town of Suiyuan (traditional Chinese :綏遠; simplified Chinese :绥远; pinyin : PRC Standard Mandarin: Suíyuǎn, ROC Standard Mandarin: Suīyuǎn), from which they supervised the defense of southwestern Inner Mongolia against Mongol attacks from the north in 1735–39. [18] :13 [19] Guihua and Suiyuan was merged into Shanxi province and became Guihua County (歸化縣; 归化县; Guīhuà Xiàn) of Qing China. French missionaries established a Catholic church in Guihua in 1874, but the Christians were forced to flee to Beijing during the antiforeign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901.

Republican era

Wanbu Huayanjing Pagoda (Baita Pagoda) in Hohhot, 1942 Wanbu-Huayanjing-Pagoda, Hohhot.jpg
Wanbu Huayanjing Pagoda (Baita Pagoda) in Hohhot, 1942

In 1913, the government of the new Republic of China united the garrison town of Suiyuan and the old town of Guihua as Guisui (traditional Chinese :歸綏; simplified Chinese :归绥; pinyin : PRC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuí, ROC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuī; postal: Kweisui). Guisui town was the center of Guisui County (歸綏縣; 归绥县; PRC: Guīsuí Xiàn, ROC: Guīsuī Xiàn) and the capital of Suiyuan Province in northern China. A bubonic plague outbreak in 1917 and the connection of Guisui to railway links in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Hebei, and Beijing helped renew the economy of Guisui town by forming links with eastern China and western China's Xinjiang province. [18] :15 In 1918, the American specialist on Inner Asia Owen Lattimore noted Guisui's ethnic composition as "a town purely Han Chinese except for the Lama monasteries ... the Tümeds are now practically nonexistent and the nearest Mongolians are to be sought at 50 or 60 miles [80 or 100 kilometres] distance on the plateau." [18] :15 During the progressive Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s, the Japanese created the puppet state of Mengjiang headed by Prince De, who renamed Guisui "Blue City" ("Hohhot"(Chinese :厚和) or Huheshi). [20] After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China changed the name back to Guisui. [18] :16 The Communist Party of China's forces drove out General Fu Zuoyi, the Republic's commander in Suiyuan, during the Chinese Civil War, and after the Chinese Revolution in 1949, Guisui was renamed Hohhot. [18] :16

People's Republic era

People's Republic 10th Anniversary Parade in Hohhot China 10th Anniversary Parade in Hohhot.jpg
People's Republic 10th Anniversary Parade in Hohhot

During the Civil War, in order to gain the support of separatist Mongols, the Communists established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in Mongol-minority areas of the Republic's provinces of Suiyuan, Xing'an, Chahar, and Rehe. Guisui was chosen as the region's administrative centre in 1952, replacing Zhangjiakou. In 1954, after the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the city was renamed from Guisui to Hohhot, though with a different Chinese pronunciation of Huhehaote. [18] :16

The city has seen significant development since China's reform and opening began. The city's far east side began development around 2000 and is now home to the municipal government, most of the Autonomous Region's administrative buildings, [21] an artificial lake called Ruyi He, [22] and a large number of condominiums, mostly built by the local real estate company Gold Horse International Inc. The Hohhot City Stadium, built on the city's north side, was finished in 2007. [23]

A city with a rich cultural background, Hohhot is known for its historical sites and temples and is one of the major tourist destinations of Inner Mongolia. It is also nationally known as the home of China's dairy giants Mengniu and Yili, [24] [25] and was declared "Dairy Capital of China" by the China Dairy Industry Association and the Dairy Association of China in 2005.

Geography

Map including Hohhot (labeled as KUEI-SUI) (AMS, 1963) Txu-oclc-10552568-nk49-11.jpg
Map including Hohhot (labeled as KUEI-SUI) (AMS, 1963)
Huhhot and vicinities, LandSat-5 satellite image, 2005-07-12 Hohhot 111.67286E 40.80952N.jpg
Huhhot and vicinities, LandSat-5 satellite image, 2005-07-12

Located in the south central part of Inner Mongolia, Hohhot is encircled by the Daqing Shan (Chinese:大青山; lit. 'Great blue Mountains') to the north and the Hetao Plateau to the south. [26]

The city's antipodal location is located 14 kilometers (8.6 miles) from the village of Los Menucos in Río Negro Provence, Argentina. [27]

Climate

Hohhot features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), marked by long, cold, and very dry winters; hot, somewhat humid summers; strong winds (especially in spring); and monsoonal influence. The coldest month is January, with a daily mean of −11.0 °C (12.2 °F), while July, the hottest month, averages 23.3 °C (73.9 °F). The annual mean temperature is 7.33 °C (45.2 °F), and the annual precipitation is 396 millimetres (15.6 in), with more than half of it falling in July and August alone. Variability can be very high, however: in 1965 Hohhot recorded as little as 155.1 mm (6.11 in) but six years before that, as much as 929.2 mm (36.58 in), of which over a third (338.6 mm (13.33 in)) only in July. [28]

Hohhot is a popular destination for tourists during the summer months because of the nearby Zhaohe grasslands. More recently, due to desertification, the city sees sandstorms on almost an annual basis. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 58 percent in July to 71 percent in October, sunshine is abundant year-round, the city receives 2,862 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −32.8 °C (−27 °F) on 6 February 1951 to 38.9 °C (102 °F) on 30 July 2010. [29]

Climate data for Hohhot (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)8.0
(46.4)
17.0
(62.6)
19.4
(66.9)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
35.7
(96.3)
38.5
(101.3)
36.8
(98.2)
32.4
(90.3)
26.5
(79.7)
20.4
(68.7)
11.6
(52.9)
38.9
(102.0)
Average high °C (°F)−4.9
(23.2)
0.4
(32.7)
7.5
(45.5)
16.7
(62.1)
23.4
(74.1)
27.7
(81.9)
29.1
(84.4)
26.7
(80.1)
21.9
(71.4)
14.5
(58.1)
4.5
(40.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
13.7
(56.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−11.0
(12.2)
−6.1
(21.0)
0.9
(33.6)
9.6
(49.3)
16.6
(61.9)
21.3
(70.3)
23.3
(73.9)
21.0
(69.8)
15.4
(59.7)
7.6
(45.7)
−1.7
(28.9)
−9.0
(15.8)
7.3
(45.2)
Average low °C (°F)−15.8
(3.6)
−11.4
(11.5)
−4.9
(23.2)
2.5
(36.5)
9.2
(48.6)
14.5
(58.1)
17.3
(63.1)
15.4
(59.7)
9.3
(48.7)
1.8
(35.2)
−6.4
(20.5)
−13.4
(7.9)
1.5
(34.7)
Record low °C (°F)−30.5
(−22.9)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−11.5
(11.3)
−3.5
(25.7)
2.3
(36.1)
8.3
(46.9)
4.6
(40.3)
−2.0
(28.4)
−10.1
(13.8)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−26.4
(−15.5)
−32.8
(−27.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)2.1
(0.08)
4.3
(0.17)
10.6
(0.42)
14.4
(0.57)
32.4
(1.28)
48.9
(1.93)
101.6
(4.00)
101.8
(4.01)
52.0
(2.05)
20.6
(0.81)
4.4
(0.17)
3.3
(0.13)
396.4
(15.62)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)2.52.83.43.76.08.912.912.78.34.52.41.869.9
Average relative humidity (%)58504336384657625956555852
Mean monthly sunshine hours 180.7198.3245.5268.6294.5291.3264.9255.2252.1244.8195.3171.02,862.2
Percent possible sunshine 61666768666558606871666065
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 19712000) [30] [31]
Source 2: Weather China [32]

Administrative divisions

The city is administratively at the prefecture-level, meaning that it administers both its urban area and the rural regions in its vicinity. The administrative area includes 4 counties, 4 districts, and a county-level banner; they are further divided into 20 urban sub-districts, and 96 townships. The data here represented is in km2 and uses data from the 2010 Census.

Map
English NameMongolianSimplified ChinesePinyinAreaPopulationDensity
City Proper
Huimin District
(Hodong'arad District)
ᠬᠣᠳᠣᠩ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Qotoŋ Arad-un toɣoriɣ)
回民区Huímín Qū194.4394,5552,030
Xincheng District
(Xinhot District)
ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Sin-e Qota toɣoriɣ)
新城区Xīnchéng Qū660.6567,255859
Yuquan District ᠢᠤᠢ ᠴᠢᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Iui čiuvan toɣoriɣ)
玉泉区Yùquán Qū207.2383,3651,850
Saihan District ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Sayiqan toɣoriɣ)
赛罕区Sàihǎn Qū1,002.9635,599634
Rural
Togtoh County ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Toɣtaqu siyan)
托克托县Tuōkètuō Xiàn1,407.8200,840143
Wuchuan County ᠦᠴᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Üčuvan siyan)
武川县Wǔchuān Xiàn4,682.3108,72623
Horinger County ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Qorin Ger siyan)
和林格尔县Hélíngé'ěr Xiàn3,447.8169,85649
Qingshuihe County ᠴᠢᠩ ᠱᠦᠢ ᠾᠧ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Čiŋ šüi hė siyan)
清水河县Qīngshuǐhé Xiàn2,85993,88733
Tumed Left Banner
(Tumed Jun Banner)
ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Tümed Jegün qosiɣu)
土默特左旗Tǔmòtè Zuǒ Qí2,765312,532113

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1953792,600    
19641,118,600+41.1%
19821,645,200+47.1%
19901,911,600+16.2%
20002,437,900+27.5%
20102,866,600+17.6%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

The urban population of Hohhot has increased rapidly since the 1990s. According to the 2010 Census, the population of Hohhot had reached 2,866,615 people, 428,717 more inhabitants than in 2000 (the average annual demographic growth for the period 2000–2010 was of 1.63 percent). [7] [33] Its built-up (or metro) area is home to 1,980,774 inhabitants (4 urban districts).

The majority of the population of Hohhot are Han Chinese, representing 87.16 percent of the total population in 2010. Most Han in Hohhot, if their ancestry is traced several decades back, have ancestors from Shanxi, northeast China, or Hebei. Most Mongols in the city speak Chinese. A 1993 survey conducted by Inner Mongolia University found that only 8 percent of Tümed Mongols (the majority tribe in Hohhot) could speak the Mongolian language. [18] :15 A significant portion of the population is of mixed ethnic origin. According to the anthropologist William Jankowiak, author of the book Sex, Death, and Hierarchy in a Chinese City (1993), there is "relatively little difference between minority culture and Han culture" in Hohhot, with differences concentrating around relatively minor attributes such as food and art, and similarities abounding over fundamental issues of ethics, status, life goals, and worldview. [18] :5

Ethnic groups in Hohhot, according to the 2000 census, were:

EthnicityPopulationPercentage
Han Chinese 2,115,88888.42%
Mongol204,8468.56%
Hui Chinese 38,4171.61%
Manchu 26,4391.10%
Daur 2,6630.11%
Korean 1,2460.05%
Miao 4430.02%

Economy

Hohhot is a major industrial center within Inner Mongolia. Together with Baotou and Ordos, it accounts for more than 60 percent of the total industrial output of Inner Mongolia. [34] After Baotou and Ordos, it is the third-largest economy of the province, with GDP of RMB 247.56 billion in 2012, up 11.0 percent year on year. [3] Hohhot accounted for approximately 15.5 percent of the province's total GDP in 2012. [35] It is also the largest consumer center in the region, recording ¥102.2 billion retail sales of consumer goods in 2012, an increase of 14.9 percent from 2011. [3] The city has been a central developmental target for the China Western Development project being pursued by the Central Government. There are many famous enterprises located in Hohhot, including China's largest dairy producer by sales revenue, the Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group, and the China Mengniu Dairy Co. [36]

As the economic center of Inner Mongolia, Hohhot's urban area has expanded greatly since the 1990s. CBDs have grown rapidly in all the city's major districts. The completion of a new office tower for the Municipal Government in Eastern Hohhot marked a shift of the city center to the east. Hailiang Plaza (海亮广场), a 41-floor tower constructed in the city center, became one of the few notable department stores for luxury merchandise in the city.

Major development zones

Culture

A sign in Mongolian, Chinese, Tibetan, and Manchurian at the Dazhao temple in Hohhot. Hohhot Dazhao temple.ecriteau miltilingue.jpg
A sign in Mongolian, Chinese, Tibetan, and Manchurian at the Dazhao temple in Hohhot.

Due to its relatively diverse cultural make-up, and despite its characteristics as a mid-sized Chinese industrial city, the Hohhot street scene has no shortage of ethnic minority elements. Tongdao Road, a major street in the old town area, is decorated with Islamic and Mongol exterior designs on all its buildings. A series of government initiatives in recent years have emphasized Hohhot's identity with ethnic minority groups, especially in increasing Mongol-themed architecture around the city. By regulation, all street signs and public transportation announcements are in both Chinese and Mongolian. [37]

Dialect

Older Hohhot residents mostly tend to converse in the Hohhot dialect, a branch of the Jin language from neighbouring Shanxi province. This spoken form can be difficult to understand for speakers of other Mandarin Chinese dialects. The newer residents, mostly concentrated in Xincheng and Saihan Districts, speak Hohhot-based Mandarin, the majority also with a noticeable accent and some unique vocabulary.

Cuisine

Food specialty in the area is mostly focused on Mongol cuisine and dairy products. Commercially, Hohhot is known for being the base of the nationally renowned dairy giants Yili and Mengniu. The Mongol drink suutei tsai (Chinese :奶茶; pinyin :nǎichá; lit. ' milk tea '), has become a typical breakfast selection for anyone living in or visiting the city. [38] The city also has rich traditions in the making of hot pot and shaomai , a type of traditional Chinese dumpling served as dim sum. [39]

Transportation

Airport

Hohhot's Baita International Airport (IATA:HET) is located about 14.3 km (8.9 mi) east of the city centre by car. It has direct flights to larger domestic cities including Beijing, Tianjin, [40] Shanghai, Shenzhen, Chengdu, and others. It also has flights to Taichung, [41] Hong Kong, and Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Railway

Hohhot lies on the Jingbao Railway from Beijing to Baotou, and is served by two railway stations: Hohhot railway station and Hohhot East railway station. [42] The line began operation in 1921. [43] Trains to Beijing link to destinations to the south and the northeast. The most prominent rail link with Beijing is the overnight K90 train, which has served the Hohhot-Beijing line since the 1980s and is referred to colloquially as the "9-0". Westbound trains go through Baotou and Lanzhou. There are also rail links to most major Inner Mongolian cities and to Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Because the quickest trip to Beijing takes around six and a half hours despite the relatively close proximity of the two cities, plans for high-speed rail were discussed extensively prior to the construction of a high-speed railway station beginning in 2008. The station was completed in 2011 and initially serviced only ordinary lines. In January 2015, CRH opened its first D-series (dongchezu) route in Inner Mongolia in the Baotou-Hohhot-Jining corridor, shortening travel time between Inner Mongolia's two largest cities to a mere 50 minutes. [44] This line reached a maximum speed of 200 km/h (124 mph) between Hohhot and Baotou. Another high-speed rail line linking Hohhot to Zhangjiakou and the planned Beijing-Zhangjiakou railway are due for completion in 2017, and are designed to operate at 250 km/h (155 mph). The section between Hohhot and Ulanqab (Jining) opened in August 2017; travel time between the two cities was shortened to 40 minutes. [45]

Expressways

An expressway built in 1997 (then known as the Hubao Expressway) links Hohhot with Baotou. In recent years this expressway has been expanded eastwards to Jining and Zhangjiakou, and on to Beijing as part of the G6 Beijing–Lhasa Expressway (Jingzang Expressway). The city is on the route of China National Highway 110, which runs from Yinchuan to Beijing. China National Highway 209 begins in Hohhot and carries traffic southbound towards southern China, with its terminus in Guangxi. Hohhot is connected to its northern counties by the Huwu Highway, which was completed in 2006. Previously, travel to the northern counties had required lengthy navigation through mountainous terrain.

Long-distance buses connect Hohhot to outlying counties, the cities of Baotou, Wuhai, and Ordos, and other areas in Inner Mongolia.

Public transport

Hohhot's major north–south thoroughfares are called roads (Lu) and its east–west thoroughfares are called streets (Jie). The largest elevated interchange is near the site of the city's Drum Tower (Gulou), after which it is named. Several major streets are named after Inner Mongolian leagues and cities; among these, Hulun Buir, Jurim (now Tongliao), Juud (Now Chifeng), Xilin Gol, and Xing'an run north–south, while Bayannaoer, Hailar, Ulanqab, and Erdos run east–west.

The city's public transit system is composed of nearly one hundred bus routes and a large fleet of taxicabs, which are normally green or blue. Bus fare is 1 yuan; taxi fares begin at 8 yuan.

Metro

The Hohhot Metro is in operation. Line 1 opened on 29 December 2019. [46]

Education

Universities located in Hohhot include:

High Schools located in Hohhot include:

Sports

Hohhot lacked a professional soccer team until Shenyang Dongjin F.C. relocated to Hohhot, changing their name to Hohhot Dongjin, in 2012. [48] They played at Hohhot City Stadium, which was newly built in 2007. [23] The club finished in the bottom of the league in the 2012 season and was and relegated to League Two. After playing half a season at Hohhot in 2013, the team relocated to Liaoning and chose Benxi City Stadium as their new home court. [49]

On 14 January 2015, Taiyuan Zhongyou Jiayi F.C. moved to Hohhot and changed their name to Nei Mongu Zhongyou F.C. [50] The team play in China League One and chose Hohhot City Stadium as their home in 2015. The team had been first established as Shanxi Jiayi F.C. on 8 October 2011. [51]

Notable landmarks

There were over 50 Ming and Qing Buddhist temples and towers in Guihua and Suiyuan.

See also

Footnotes

Explanatory notes
    Citations
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    7. 1 2 Wang, Tong (王彤). 呼和浩特市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据. 内蒙古日报[Inner Mongolia Post]. Retrieved 13 July 2015 via Inner Mongolia News.
    8. 1 2 Perkins (1999), p. 212.
    9. Chinese "qing" has traditionally been a color between "blue" and "green" in English, leading some modern sources to translate Qing Cheng into English as "Green City" instead of "Blue City," including, for example, the official website of Hohhot Archived 15 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine .
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    20. Lin, Hsiao-ting (2010), Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West, Taylor and Francis, pp.  43, 49, ISBN   9780415582643
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    33. (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China Archived 22 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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    Bibliography

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