Cangzhou

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Cangzhou

沧州市

Tsangchow
Shi Cheng Yan Chang Tie Shi Zi  - panoramio.jpg
Cang Zhou Ti Yu Guan .jpg
201606 Cangzhou.jpg
A Er Qia Di Ya Da Jiu Dian  - panoramio.jpg
Huang Hua Gang Hang Pai DJI 0105.jpg
Clockwise from the top: Iron Lion, Cangzhou Stadium, Skyline of Cangzhou, Arcadia Hotel, Port of Huanghua
Nickname(s): 
Lion City (狮城)
Cangzhou
Location of Cangzhou Prefecture within Hebei (China).png
Location of Cangzhou City jurisdiction in Hebei
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Cangzhou
Location of the city centre in Hebei
China Northern Plain relief location map.png
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Cangzhou
Cangzhou (North China Plain)
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Cangzhou
Cangzhou (China)
Coordinates(Cangzhou municipal government): 38°18′17″N116°50′19″E / 38.3047°N 116.8387°E / 38.3047; 116.8387 Coordinates: 38°18′17″N116°50′19″E / 38.3047°N 116.8387°E / 38.3047; 116.8387
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Province Hebei
Settled517
Established15 November 1983
Municipal seat Yunhe District
Area
   Prefecture-level city 14,383.46 km2 (5,553.48 sq mi)
  Urban
[1]
183.00 km2 (70.66 sq mi)
   Districts [1] 320.0 km2 (123.6 sq mi)
Elevation
13 m (42 ft)
Population
   Prefecture-level city 7,134,062
  Density500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
   Urban
[1]
621,300
  Urban density3,400/km2 (8,800/sq mi)
  Districts [1]
748,000
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
016001
Area code(s) 0317
ISO 3166 code CN-HE-09
Licence plate prefixes 冀J
Website cangzhou.gov.cn
Cangzhou
Simplified Chinese 沧州
Traditional Chinese 滄州
Postal Tsangchow
Literal meaning"oceanside prefecture"

Cangzhou (Chinese :沧州) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. At the 2010 census, Cangzhou's built-up (or metro) area made of Yunhe, Xinhua districts and Cang County largely being conurbated had a population of 1,205,814 inhabitants, while the prefecture-level administrative unit in total has a population of 7,134,062. It lies approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) from the major port city of Tianjin, and 180 km (110 mi) from Beijing.

Contents

History

Cangzhou is reported to have been founded in the Southern and Northern Dynasties period (420−589 CE).

Administrative divisions

Cangzhou City comprises 2 districts, 4 county-level cities, 9 counties and 1 autonomous county.

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2004 est.)
Area (km²)Density
(/km²)
Yunhe District 运河区Yùnhé Qū270,0001381,957
Xinhua District 新华区Xīnhuá Qū220,000892,472
Botou City 泊头市Bótóu Shì550,000977563
Renqiu City 任丘市Rénqiū Shì770,0001,023753
Huanghua City 黄骅市Huánghuá Shì490,0001,545317
Hejian City 河间市Héjiān Shì770,0001,333578
Cang County 沧县Cāng Xiàn660,0001,527432
Qing County 青县Qīng Xiàn390,000968403
Dongguang County 东光县Dōngguāng Xiàn350,000710493
Haixing County 海兴县Hǎixīng Xiàn220,000836263
Yanshan County 盐山县Yánshān Xiàn400,000795503
Suning County 肃宁县Sùníng Xiàn330,000497664
Nanpi County 南皮县Nánpí Xiàn350,000794441
Wuqiao County 吴桥县Wúqiáo Xiàn280,000603464
Xian County 献县Xìàn Xiàn570,0001,191479
Mengcun Hui Autonomous County 孟村回族自治县Mèngcūn Huízú
Zìzhìxiàn
180,000393458

Economics

Cangzhou's urban center is a heavily industrial city but the city's administrative territory also includes strongly agricultural areas, and is well known in China for its Chinese jujubes (Chinese dates) and pear (widely known under the export name of Tianjin Ya Pear). The North China Oil Field is within Cangzhou City's jurisdiction. Cangzhou also encompasses a large fishing port and the coal-exporting Huanghua Harbour.

Geography and transportation

Map of the Grand Canal and vicinity Grand-Canal.png
Map of the Grand Canal and vicinity

Cangzhou is located in eastern Hebei, immediately to the south of Tianjin, near the coast of the Bohai Sea of the Pacific Ocean. Bordering prefecture-level cities are Hengshui to the southwest, Baoding to the west, and Langfang to the north. It lies on the Beijing–Shanghai Railway.

The G1811 Huanghua–Shijiazhuang Expressway connects Cangzhou to Shijiazhuang, the provincial capital, and is linked to Beijing via both the G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway and G3 Beijing–Taipei Expressway, which are concurrent within the province, and to Shanghai via G2. Cangzhou's Huanghua Harbour is the end of a main Chinese coal shipping railway, the Shuohuang Railway. Other major highways serving Cangzhou's urban area are China National Highway 104 and 307.

Major airports located closest to Cangzhou include Beijing Capital Airport and Tianjin Airport.

The Grand Canal passes directly through Cangzhou, and a district of Cangzhou (Yunhe District) is named after it.

Climate

Cangzhou has a four-season, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with cold, dry winters, and hot, humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.2 °C (26.2 °F) in January to 27.2 °C (81.0 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 13.25 °C (55.8 °F). A majority of the annual precipitation of 541 mm (21.3 in) occurs in July and August alone. With possible monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 49% in July to 65% in October, the city receives 2,663 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Cangzhou (1981−2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)2.7
(36.9)
6.8
(44.2)
13.9
(57.0)
21.3
(70.3)
27.5
(81.5)
31.6
(88.9)
32.1
(89.8)
30.4
(86.7)
27.2
(81.0)
20.5
(68.9)
11.4
(52.5)
4.0
(39.2)
19.1
(66.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.2
(26.2)
0.9
(33.6)
7.5
(45.5)
14.7
(58.5)
21.1
(70.0)
25.6
(78.1)
27.2
(81.0)
25.5
(77.9)
21.1
(70.0)
14.4
(57.9)
5.5
(41.9)
−1.3
(29.7)
13.3
(55.9)
Average low °C (°F)−7.7
(18.1)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.0
(35.6)
8.9
(48.0)
15.0
(59.0)
20.0
(68.0)
22.8
(73.0)
21.5
(70.7)
16.0
(60.8)
9.1
(48.4)
0.7
(33.3)
−5.5
(22.1)
8.3
(46.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)2.6
(0.10)
5.4
(0.21)
10.6
(0.42)
20.6
(0.81)
38.6
(1.52)
73.8
(2.91)
169.0
(6.65)
125.4
(4.94)
44.7
(1.76)
34.7
(1.37)
12.4
(0.49)
3.2
(0.13)
541
(21.31)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.62.53.14.45.78.612.69.55.84.83.22.163.9
Average relative humidity (%)58574749546072787165626161
Mean monthly sunshine hours 188.8184.5229.2250.7274.6261.5219.8229.3235.2226.6186.7175.82,662.7
Percent possible sunshine 63616264635949546365626060
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 19712000) [2] [3]

Culture

The Iron Lion IronLion.jpg
The Iron Lion

The city has historically been known in China for its wushu (Chinese martial arts) and acrobatics (specifically, the Wu Qiao school). Cangzhou is also famed for its historic thousand-year-old 40-ton sculpture, the Iron Lion of Cangzhou. The sculpture is reportedly the largest cast-iron sculpture in the world, cast in 953 in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The famed lion has even given its name to a locally brewed beer and is a symbol of the city. [4]

Cangzhou is home to a traditional Chinese form of musical performing arts, Kuaiban Dagu.

The city hosts seven mosques for Muslim adherents (mostly Hui). [5] One of them, the West Mosque, has collected at its museum one of China's best collections of Islamic manuscripts and artefacts. [6]

Demographics and society

Cangzhou, though predominated by the Han Chinese majority, is home to a sizable population of the Muslim Hui minority. Intermarriage occasionally occurs between the majority Han and the Hui, but stereotypes of Hui still exist among Cangzhou's Han residents, and some tensions remain. Migration to Hebei province and Cangzhou by Xinjiang Muslim minorities (generally ethnic Uighurs) is increasing.

Language

The dominant first language of Cangzhou's population is a variety of the northeastern Mandarin dialect continuum termed Cangzhou, [7] and is a variety of Ji Lu Mandarin. There are some similarities with the Tianjin variety and the Baoding variety of Mandarin, but both are considered distinct groups from that of Cangzhou . Dialects of the Cangzhou area vary between localities and counties, though are generally intelligible among each other.

Municipal government

The city, like all other Chinese administrative divisions, has a party committee, the People's government, the People's Congress, and the Political consultative conference.

Military

Cangzhou is home to the Cangzhou Airbase of the People's Liberation Army Air Force

Education

Cangzhou Normal University (沧州师范学院): now it has 871 teacher staff, including 607 full-time teachers, 233 people with the title of deputy senior or above, and 405 people with master's and doctor's degrees. The school motto is "knowing, morality, knowledge and behaviour, innovation" (明德、博学、知行、日新).

There is one international school in Cangzhou, the Cangzhou Zhenhua Korean International School (沧州振华韩国国际学校). [8]

Notable residents

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 46. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration . Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  3. 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  4. Wagner, Donald B. "The cast iron lion of Cangzhou", Needham Research Institute newsletter, no. 10, June 1991, pp. 2-3.
  5. Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (2015). China's Early Mosques. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 168. ISBN   978-1-4744-3721-9.
  6. WEST MOSQUE MUSEUM, CANGZHOU, HEBEI PROVINCE CHINA HERITAGE NEWSLETTER, No. 5, March 2006. (China Heritage Project, The Australian National University. ISSN 1833-8461).
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 October 2006. Retrieved 27 September 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. "Schools Approved by the Ministry of Education For Enrolling Children of Foreign Nationals" (Archive). Ministry of Education of China. Retrieved on 17 August 2015.