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Fujian Province
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese福建省 (Fújiàn Shěng)
  AbbreviationFJ / (pinyin: Mǐn, POJ: Bân)
   Foochow Hók-gióng
   Hokkien POJ Hok-kiàn
Wuyi Mountains Sea of clouds 4.jpg
Fujian in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Fujian Province
Coordinates: 25°54′N118°18′E / 25.9°N 118.3°E / 25.9; 118.3 Coordinates: 25°54′N118°18′E / 25.9°N 118.3°E / 25.9; 118.3
Country China
Jiangnandong Circuit 626
Fujian Circuit 985
Partition of Taiwan 1887
Fujian People's Government 1933-11-20 to 1934-01-13
Division of Fujian 1949-08-17
Named for : Fuzhou
Jiàn: Jianzhou
Capital Fuzhou
Largest city Quanzhou
Divisions9 prefectures, 85 [1] counties, 1107 [1] townships
  Type Province
  Body Fujian Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Yin Li
   Congress chairmanYin Li
   Governor Wang Ning
   CPPCC chairman Cui Yuying
  Total121,400 km2 (46,900 sq mi)
Area rank 23rd
Highest elevation2,158 m (7,080 ft)
 (2020) [3]
  Rank 17th
  Density340/km2 (890/sq mi)
  Density rank 14th
  Ethnic composition Han – 98%
She – 1%
Hui – 0.3%
  Languages and dialects Min (inc. Fuzhounese, Northern Min, Central Min, Pu-Xian Min, Hokkien and others), Mandarin, She, Hakka
ISO 3166 code CN-FJ
GDP (2020) CNY 4.390 trillion
USD 636 billion (7th) [4]
 - per capita CNY 105,690
USD 15,317 (6th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 3.3%
HDI (2018)0.764 [5] (high) (11th)
Website www.Fujian.gov.cn
   Sub-provincial cities

* - including Kinmen County, ROC (Taiwan). Claimed by the PRC. (included in the total Counties' count)

Fujian (Chinese characters).svg
"Fujian" in Chinese characters

All of the prefecture-level cities except Nanping, Sanming, and Longyan are found along the coast.

These nine prefecture-level cities are subdivided into 85 county-level divisions (28 districts, 13 county-level cities, and 44 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,107 township-level divisions (605 towns, 328 townships, 18 ethnic townships, and 156 subdistricts).

The People's Republic of China claims five of the six townships of Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as a county of the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou. [40] [41] [42]

The PRC claims Wuqiu Township, Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as part of Xiuyu District of the prefecture-level city of Putian.

Finally, the PRC claims Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands), Republic of China (Taiwan) as a township of its Lianjiang County, which is part of the prefecture-level city of Fuzhou.

Together, these three groups of islands make up the Republic of China's Fujian Province.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [43] District area [43] City proper [43] Census date
1 Xiamen 3,119,1103,531,3473,531,3472010-11-01
2 Fuzhou [lower-roman 1] [lower-roman 2] 2,824,4142,921,7627,115,3692010-11-01
(2)Fuzhou (new district) [lower-roman 1] 278,007682,626see Fuzhou2010-11-01
3 Jinjiang 1,172,8271,986,447see Quanzhou2010-11-01
4 Quanzhou [lower-roman 3] 1,154,7311,435,1858,128,5332010-11-01
5 Putian 1,107,1991,953,8012,778,5082010-11-01
6 Nan'an 718,5161,418,451see Quanzhou2010-11-01
7 Zhangzhou 614,700705,6494,809,9832010-11-01
8 Fuqing 470,8241,234,838see Fuzhou2010-11-01
9 Shishi 469,969636,700see Quanzhou2010-11-01
10 Longyan [lower-roman 4] 460,086662,4292,559,5452010-11-01
(10)Longyan (new district) [lower-roman 4] 136,496362,658see Longyan2010-11-01
11 Longhai 422,993877,762see Zhangzhou2010-11-01
12 Sanming 328,766375,4972,503,3882010-11-01
13 Fu'an 326,019563,640see Ningde2010-11-01
14 Nanping [lower-roman 5] 301,370467,8752,645,5482010-11-01
(14)Nanping (new district) [lower-roman 5] 150,756289,362see Nanping2010-11-01
15 Fuding 266,779276,740see Ningde2010-11-01
16 Ningde 252,497429,2602,821,9962010-11-01
17 Yong'an 213,732347,042see Sanming2010-11-01
18 Jian'ou 192,557231,583see Nanping2010-11-01
19 Shaowu 183,457140,818see Nanping2010-11-01
20 Wuyishan 122,801121,317see Nanping2010-11-01
21 Zhangping 113,739126,611see Longyan2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New district established after census: Changle (Changle CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. Does not include Beigan Township, Dongyin Township, Juguang Township, & Nangan Township (controlled by ROC) in the city proper count.
  3. Does not include Kinmen County (controlled by ROC) in the city proper count.
  4. 1 2 New district established after census: Yongding (Yongding County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 New district established after census: Jianyang (Jianyang CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.


List of the Secretaries of the CPC Fujian Committee

List of Governors


Fuzhou, the capital and largest city in Fujian province FuzhouTaijiang.jpg
Fuzhou, the capital and largest city in Fujian province

Fujian is one of the more affluent provinces with many industries spanning tea production, clothing and sports manufacturers such as Anta, 361 Degrees, Xtep, Peak Sport Products and Septwolves. Many foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell, GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK and Panasonic. [44]

Historical GDP of Fujian Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008) [45]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [46] )
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
USD 1Int'l$. 1

In terms of agricultural land, Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley. [47] Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed. Fujian leads the provinces of China in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea. Seafood is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent.

Because of the geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian has been considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between mainland China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China before 1978. Since 1978, when China opened to the world, Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita is only about the average of China's coastal administrative divisions. [48]

See also List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita

Minnan Golden Triangle which includes Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou accounts for 40 percent of the GDP of Fujian province.

Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of direct transport with Taiwan which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan to major Fujian cities such as Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou and Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan. [49] [50]

Fujian is the host of China International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen to promote foreign investment for all of China.

In 2011, Fujian's nominal GDP was 1.74 trillion yuan (US$276.3 billion), a rise of 13 percent from the previous year. [51] Its GDP per capita was 46,802 yuan (US$7,246 (9th)). [48]

By 2015 Fujian expects to have at least 50 enterprises that have over 10 billion RMB in annual revenues. The government also expects 55 percent of GDP growth to come from the industrial sector. [52]

Economic and Technological Development Zones

Mud clams, oysters and shrimp are raised in Anhai Bay off Shuitou. Anhai Bay - DSCF8869.JPG
Mud clams, oysters and shrimp are raised in Anhai Bay off Shuitou.


The ethnic townships in Fujian She ethnic townships in Fujian.png
The ethnic townships in Fujian

As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated "population of fourteen millions." [54]

Fujianese who are legally classified as Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Min Chinese speakers make up the largest subgroups classified as Han Chinese in Fujian such as Hoklo people, Fuzhounese people, Putian people and Fuzhou Tanka.

Hakka, a Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in the central and southwestern parts of Fujian. The She, scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the province. [55]

Many ethnic Chinese around the world, especially in Southeast Asia, trace their ancestries to the Fujianese branches of Hoklo people and Teochew people. Descendants of Southern Min speaking emigrants make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Australia, Brunei, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines. While Eastern Min speaking people, especially Fuzhounese people, is one of the major sources of China immigrants in the United States, especially since the 1990s. [56]


Religion in Fujian [57] [lower-alpha 2]

   Christianity (3.5%)
  Other religions or not religious people [lower-alpha 3] (65.19%)

The predominant religions in Fujian are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.31% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, while 3.5% of the population identifies as Christian. [57] The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 65.19% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.

In 2010, there are 115.978 Muslims in Fujian [58]


Ancient temple in Fujian Wuyishan Chengcun 2012.08.24 09-06-40.jpg
Ancient temple in Fujian
Kompyang (Fang Cun Guang Bing ) sold on the streets of Fujian cities GuanBingG.JPG
Kompyang (房村光餅) sold on the streets of Fujian cities

Because of its mountainous nature and waves of migration from central China and assimilation of numerous foreign ethnic groups such as maritime traders in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse places of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), and the regional cultures and ethnic composition can be completely different from each other as well. This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does". [59] Most varieties spoken in Fujian are assigned to a broad Min category. A recent classifications subdivide Min into [60] [61]

The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen, is not spoken in Fujian. Hakka, another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan by the Hakka people who live there.

As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian is Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different localities, [59] although native Fujian peoples still converse in their native languages and dialects respectively.

Several regions of Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Min opera is popular around Fuzhou; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou; Xiangju around Zhangzhou; Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian and Xianyou County.

Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin, sea cucumber, abalone and Shaoxing wine (a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage).

Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, Lapsang souchong and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Indeed, the tea processing techniques for three major classes tea, namely, oolong, white tea and black tea were all developed in the province. Fujian tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact, the English word "tea" is borrowed from Hokkien of the Min Nan languages. Mandarin and Cantonese pronounce the word chá.

Nanyin is a popular form of music of Fujian.

Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a noted type of lacquer ware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed. Fuzhou is also known for Shoushan stone carvings.


Stone Statue of Laozi. Quanzhou Qingyuan Shan 20120301-08.jpg
Stone Statue of Laozi.
Hekeng village, in Shuyang Town, is one of the many tulou villages of Fujian's Nanjing County. Hekeng - view from the lookout - DSCF3048.JPG
Hekeng village, in Shuyang Town, is one of the many tulou villages of Fujian's Nanjing County.

Fujian is home to a number of tourist attractions, including four UNESCO World Heritage Sites, one of the highest in China.

In the capital of Fuzhou is the Yongquan Temple, a Buddhist temple built during the Tang dynasty.

The Wuyi Mountains was the first location in Fujian to be listed by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 1999. They are a mountain range in the prefecture of Nanping and contains the highest peak in Fujian, Mount Huanggang. It is famous as a natural landscape garden and a summer resort in China.

The Fujian Tulou are Chinese rural dwellings unique to the Hakka in southwest Fujian. They were listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2008.

Gulangyu Island, Xiamen, is notable for its beaches, winding lanes and rich architecture. The island is on China's list of National Scenic Spots and is classified as a 5A tourist attraction by the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA). It was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Site in 2017. Also in Xiamen is the South Putuo Temple.

The Guanghua Temple is a Buddhist temple in Putian. It was built in the penultimate year of the Southern Chen Dynasty. Located in the northern half of the mouth of Meizhou Bay, it is about 1.8 nautical miles from the mainland and faces the Strait of Taiwan to the southeast. Covering an area of six square miles, the island is swathed in luxuriant green foliage. The coastline is indented with over 12 miles of beach area. Another buddhist temple, Nanshan Temple is located in Zhangzhou.

Around Meizhou Islands is the Matsu pilgrimage.

The Kaiyuan Temple, is a Buddhist temple in West Street, Quanzhou, the largest in Fujian province with an area of 78,000 square metres (840,000 square feet). [62] Although it is known as a both a Hindu and Buddhist temple, on account of added Tamil-Hindu influences, the main statue in the most important hall is that of Vairocana Buddha, the main Buddha according to Huayan Buddhism.

Mount Taimu is a mountain and a scenic resort in Fuding. It offers a grand view of mountain and sea, and is famous for its natural scenery including granite caves, odd-shaped stones, steep cliffs, clear streams, cascading waterfalls, and cultural attractions such as ancient temples and cliff Inscriptions.

The Danxia landform in Taining was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2010. It is a unique type of petrographic geomorphology found in China. Danxia landform is formed from red-coloured sandstones and conglomerates of largely Cretaceous age. The landforms look very much like karst topography that forms in areas underlain by limestones, but since the rocks that form danxia are sandstones and conglomerates, they have been called "pseudo-karst" landforms. They were formed by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion).

Notable individuals

The province and its diaspora abroad also has a tradition of educational achievement and has produced many important scholars, statesmen and other notable people. These include people whose ancestral home (祖籍) is Fujian (their ancestors originated from Fujian). In addition to the below list, many notable individuals of Han Chinese descent in Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and elsewhere have ancestry that can be traced to Fujian.

Some notable individuals include (in rough chronological order):

Han, Tang, Song dynasties

Yuan, Ming, Qing dynasties

20th-21st century


Fujian includes professional sports teams in both the Chinese Basketball Association and the Chinese League One.

The representative of the province in the Chinese Basketball Association are the Fujian Sturgeons, who are based in Jinjiang, Quanzhou. The Fujian Sturgeons made their debut in the 2004–2005 season, and finished in seventh and last place in the South Division, out of the playoffs. In the 2005–2006 season, they tied for fifth, just one win away from making the playoffs.

The Xiamen Blue Lions formerly represented Fujian in the Chinese Super League, prior to the teams closure in 2007. Today the province is represented by Fujian Tianxin F.C., who play in the China League Two, and the Fujian Broncos.


High schools

Colleges and universities




See also


  1. If included the islands of Kinmen, Matsu and Wuqiu, claimed by the PRC but administered by the Republic of China (ROC) as part of its streamlined Fujian Province, the total area overall is 121,580 square kilometres (46,940 sq mi) in Fujian.
  2. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [57] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang.
  3. This may include:

Related Research Articles

Kinmen County in Republic of China

Kinmen, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands governed as a county by the Republic of China (ROC) based on Taiwan, off the southeastern coast of mainland China. It lies roughly 10 km (6.2 mi) east of the city of Xiamen in Fujian, from which it is separated by Xiamen Bay. Kinmen is located 187 km (116 mi) west from the shoreline of the island of Taiwan across the Taiwan Strait.

Fuzhou Prefecture-level city in Fujian, China

Fuzhou, alternately romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area.

Lianjiang County County in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Lianjiang is a county on the eastern coast in Fuzhou prefecture-level city, the provincial capital of Fujian Province, China. Most of the county is administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC), while a number of outlying islands, collectively referred to as the Matsu Islands, are administered as Lienchiang County by the Republic of China (ROC) ever since their return to ROC control after Japanese occupation in World War II.

Xiangan District District in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Xiang'an is one of the districts of Xiamen, People's Republic of China. It is located on the mainland, and is Xiamen's easternmost district.

She people Ethnic minority in China

The She people are an ethnic group in China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.

Zhangzhou Prefecture-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Zhangzhou, alternately romanized as Changchow, is a prefecture-level city in Fujian Province, China. The prefecture around the city proper comprises the southeast corner of the province, facing the Taiwan Strait and surrounding the prefecture of Xiamen. During the 2020 census, the entire area of Zhangzhou was home to 5,054,328 inhabitants. Along with the 2,120,178 people of central Xiamen, its urban districts of Xiangcheng, Longwen, Longhai and Changtai, form a single metropolitan area of about 7,284,148 people (2020).

Fujian Province, Republic of China Province in Republic of China

Fujian Province is a nominal province of the Republic of China without formal administrative function. It includes three small archipelagos off the coast of the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China, namely the Matsu Islands, which make up Lienchiang County, and the Wuqiu Islands and Kinmen Islands, which make up Kinmen County. The seat of the provincial government is Jincheng Township of Kinmen County.

Putian Prefecture-level city in Fujian, China

Putian or Putien, also known as Puyang (莆阳) and Puxian (莆仙), historically known as Xinghua or Hing Hwa (興化), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Fujian province, China. It borders Fuzhou City to the north, Quanzhou City to the south, and the Taiwan Strait's Xinghai Bay to the east. The Mulan River flows through the southern part of the city. Its built-up area made of four urban districts was home to 1,953,801 inhabitants as of 2010 census. The native language of the area is Pu-Xian Min.

Fuding County-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Fuding  is a county-level city in northeastern Ningde prefecture level city, on Fujian's border with Zhejiang province.

Nanan, Fujian County-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Nan'an is a county-level city of southern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Quanzhou City and as of 2010, had a total population of 1,500,000. More than 3,000,000 overseas Chinese trace their ancestry to Nan'an.

Dongan County County in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Dong'an County is a county of Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Yongzhou prefecture-level City.

Ispah rebellion Series of civil wars in 14th century Fujian during the Yuan dynasty

The Ispah rebellion was a series of civil wars in the middle of 14th century in Fujian during the Yuan dynasty. The term Ispah might derive from the Persian word "سپاه" (sepâh), meaning "army" or "Sepoy". Thus, the rebellion is also known as the Persian Sepoy rebellion in Chinese documents.

Anhai Town in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Anhai is a town in southern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It is located in the far southern suburbs of the Quanzhou metropolitan area. and is separated by Weitou Bay from Kinmen, which is controlled by the Republic of China on Taiwan. Administratively, Anhai is part of Jinjiang County-level City, which in its turn is subordinated to Quanzhou.

Xiamen Xiangan International Airport

Xiamen Xiang'an International Airport is an airport being built to serve the city of Xiamen in Fujian Province, China. Once completed, it will replace the existing Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport as the city's main airport. The airport is located on the Dadeng Island in Xiang'an District, facing Nan'an, Quanzhou to the north. It is 15 km (9.3 mi) from Kinmen in the Republic of China, 25 km (16 mi) from central Xiamen, 44 km (27 mi) from downtown Quanzhou, and 72 km (45 mi) from Zhangzhou.

Shehua is an unclassified Sinitic language spoken by the She people of Southeastern China. It is also called Shanha, San-hak (山哈) or Shanhahua (山哈话). Shehua speakers are located mainly in Fujian and Zhejiang provinces of Southeastern China, with smaller numbers of speakers in a few locations of Jiangxi, Guangdong and Anhui provinces.

Dadeng Subdistrict Subdistrict in Republic of China, Peoples Republic of China

Dadeng Subdistrict is an insular subdistrict in Xiang'an District, Xiamen, Fujian, China. During the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis in 1958, the islands were designated by the State Council of the People's Republic of China as the "Hero's Triangle" (英雄三島). The islands were part of Kinmen County (Quemoy) in Republican China and are claimed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) as part of Kinmen County.

Fujian–Taiwan relationship Relations between Taiwan and the mainland Chinese province of Fujian

The Fujian–Taiwan relations, also known as the Min–Tai relations, refers to the relationship between Fujian, which is located in mainland China, and Taiwan, which is across the Taiwan Strait. Since the average width of the Taiwan Strait is 180 kilometers, Fujian and Taiwan are adjacent, similar in both climate and environment. Although the relationship between Taiwan and Fujian has changed with the development of history, the two places have maintained close relations in terms of personnel, economy, military, culture and other aspects. At present, Taiwan residents are mostly descendants of immigrants from mainland China, of which the southern Fujian ethnic group is the main group, accounting for 73.5% of Taiwan's total population. In terms of culture, language, religion, and customs, Fujian and Taiwan also share similarities.


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