Fuzhou

Last updated
Fuzhou

福州市

Hokciu
Foochow pic.PNG
From top, left to right: Black Pagoda of Fuzhou, Xichan Temple Pagoda of Fuzhou; Xichan Temple, City Skyline of Fuzhou; Gulou District of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Locator map Fuzhou in Fujian (claimed hatched).svg
Location of Fuzhou City jurisdiction in Fujian
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Fuzhou
Location in China
Coordinates(Fuzhou municipal government): 26°04′27″N119°17′47″E / 26.0743°N 119.2964°E / 26.0743; 119.2964 Coordinates: 26°04′27″N119°17′47″E / 26.0743°N 119.2964°E / 26.0743; 119.2964
Country China
Province Fujian
Municipal seat Gulou District
Divisions
 - County-level

6 districts, 6 counties,
& 1 County-level cities(2017)
Government
  Type Prefecture-level city
  Body Fuzhou Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Lin Baojin
   Congress ChairmanChen Weimin
   Mayor You Mengjun
   CPPCC ChairmanHe Jingyan
Area
   Prefecture-level city 12,231.9 km2 (4,722.8 sq mi)
  Water4,634 km2 (1,789 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2018) [1]
1,768.2 km2 (682.7 sq mi)
Population
 (31 December 2018) [2]
   Prefecture-level city 7,740,000
  Density630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2018) [3]
3,940,000
  Urban density2,200/km2 (5,800/sq mi)
   Metro
4,665,000
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
350000
Area code(s) 591
ISO 3166 code CN-FJ-01
GDP 2018 [2]
 - Total CNY 785.681 billion
US$118.683 billion
 - Per capitaCNY 102,569
US$15,494
 - GrowthIncrease2.svg 8.7%
License plate prefixes 闽A
Local dialect Fuzhou dialect of the Eastern Min Language
Website Fuzhou.gov.cn
Fuzhou
Fuzhou (Chinese characters).svg
"Fuzhou" in Chinese characters
Chinese 福州
Postal Foochow
Literal meaning"Blessed Prefecture"

Fuzhou, alternately romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China. [4] Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong (lit. Eastern Fujian) linguistic and cultural area.

Contents

Fuzhou lies on the north (left) bank of the estuary of Fujian's largest river, the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, and Ningde's Gutian County lies upriver. Its population was 7,115,370 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 4,408,076 inhabitants are urban representing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 representing around 38.05%. [2] As of 31 December 2018, the total population was estimated at 7,740,000 whom 4,665,000 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 5 urban districts plus Minhou County. [5] In 2015, Fuzhou was ranked as the 10th fastest growing metropolitan area in the world by Brookings Institution. [6] Fuzhou is listed as No. 20 in China Integrated City Index 2016's total ranking, a study conducted by National Development and Reform Commission. [7]

Fuzhou is also a major city for scientific research, appearing in the global top 100 cities as tracked by the Nature Index. [8] The city is home to several major universities, notably Fuzhou University, one of China's most prestigious universities under the Project 211.

Names

Fuzhou in Chinese is "有福之州" (yǒufúzhīzhōu), meaning "a city with good luck." The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties , a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th century, says that Fuzhou's name came from Mount Futo a mountain northwest of the city. The mountain's name was then combined with -zhou , meaning "settlement" or "prefecture," in a manner similar to many other Chinese cities. During the Warring States period, area of Fuzhou was sometimes referred to as Ye (Chinese :), and Fuzhou was incorporated into China proper during Qin dynasty. The city's name was changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries before finally settling on Fuzhou in 948. [9] In Chinese, the city is sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname Rongcheng (Chinese:榕城; Foochow Romanized: Ṳ̀ng-siàng), lit. 'The Banyan City'.

In older English publications, the name is variously romanized as Foochow, Foo-Chow, [10] Fuchow, Fūtsu, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew, and Hokchew.

History

Pre-Qin history (before 221 BC)

The remains of two Neolithic cultures—the Huqiutou Culture (虎丘頭文化), from around 5000 BC, and the Tanshi Mountain Culture (曇石山文化), from around 3000 BC—have been discovered and excavated in the Fuzhou area. During the Warring States period (c. 475–221 BC), Chinese began referring to the modern Fujian area as Min Yue (閩越), suggesting that the native inhabitants of the area were a branch of the Yue peoples, a diverse population of non-Chinese tribes who once inhabited most of southern China. [11] In 306 BC, the Yue Kingdom (present-day Zhejiang) fell to the state of Chu. Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family fled south to what is now Fujian, where they settled alongside the native Yue people, joining Chinese and Yue culture to create Minyue. [12] Their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up the Min watershed near Wuyishan City.

Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–AD 206)

The First Emperor of Qin unified ancient China in 221 BC and desired to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule. The Qin dynasty organized its territory into "Commanderies" (Chinese:; pinyin:jùn)—roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture—and the Fujian area was organized as Minzhong Commandery (閩中郡). The area seems to have continued mostly independent of Chinese control for the next century. The Han dynasty followed the short-lived Qin, and Emperor Gaozu of Han declared both Minyue and neighboring Nanyue to be autonomous vassal kingdoms. In 202 BC, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a leader named Wuzhu (無諸; Old Chinese: Matya) as King of Minyue, and a walled city called Ye (; Old Chinese: Lya; literally: Beautiful) was built. The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional founding date of the city of Fuzhou.

In 110 BC, the armies of Emperor Wu of Han defeated the Minyue kingdom's armies during the Han–Minyue War and annexed its territory and people into China. [13] Many Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated into the Jianghuai area, and the Yue ethnic group was mostly assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's inhabitants. [11] The area was eventually re-organized as a county in 85 BC.

Three Kingdoms to Sui dynasty (200–618)

During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast China was nominally under the control of Eastern Wu, and the Fuzhou area had a shipyard for the coastal and Yangtze River fleets. In 282, during the Jin dynasty, two artificial lakes known simply as the East Lake and West Lake were constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system. The core of modern Fuzhou grew around these three water systems, though the East and West Lakes no longer exist. In 308, during the War of the Eight Princes at the end of the Jin dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of China began, followed by subsequent waves during later periods of warfare or natural disaster in the Chinese heartland. The administrative and economic center of the Fujian area began to change to the Ye area during the Sui dynasty (581–618).

Tang to the ten kingdoms era (618–960)

In 725, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the mid-Tang dynasty, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland such as the An Lushan Rebellion and Huang Chao Rebellion, prompting another wave of northerners to immigrate to the modern-day Northern Min and Eastern Min areas. In 879, a large part of the city was captured by the army of Huang Chao during their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893, the warlord brothers Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi captured Fuzhou in a rebellion against the Tang dynasty, successfully gaining control of the entire Fujian Province and eventually proclaiming their founding of an independent kingdom they called the Min Kingdom in 909. The Wang brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom only survived until 945. In 978, Fuzhou was incorporated into the newly founded Song dynasty, though their control of the mountainous regions was tenuous.

Fuzhou prospered during the Tang dynasty. Buddhism was quickly adopted by citizens who quickly built many Buddhist temples in the area.

Song era (960–1279)

Fuzhou underwent a major dramatic surge in its refined culture and educational institutions throughout the Song Dynasty as Fuzhou produced 10 Fuzhounese zhuangyuan scholars (scholar who is ranked the top first place in the imperial examinations zh:状元), a large number for a small city in the country during that dynasty.

The "Hualin" Temple (華林寺, not to be confused with the temple of the same name in Guangzhou), founded in 964, is one of the oldest and surviving wooden structures in China. New city walls were built in 282, 901, 905, and 974, so the city had many layers of walls – more so than the Chinese capital. Emperor Taizong of the Song dynasty ordered the destruction of all the walls in Fuzhou in 978 but new walls were rebuilt later. The latest was built in 1371. During the Southern Song dynasty, Fuzhou became more prosperous; many scholars came to live and work. Among them were Zhu Xi, the most celebrated Chinese philosopher after Confucius, and Xin Qiji, the greatest composer of the ci form of poetry.

Marco Polo, an Italian guest of the Emperor Kubilai, transcribed, after the conventions of Italian orthography, the place name as Fugiu. This was not the local Min pronunciation but that of the mandarin administrative class.

According to Odoric of Pordenone, Fuzhou had the biggest chickens in the world. [14]

Ming dynasty (1368–1644)

Between 1405 and 1433, a fleet of the Ming Imperial navy under Admiral Zheng He sailed from Fuzhou to the Indian Ocean seven times; on three occasions the fleet landed on the east coast of Africa. Before the last sailing, Zheng erected a stele dedicated to the goddess Tian-Fei (Matsu) near the seaport.

The Ming government gave a monopoly over Philippine trade to Fuzhou, which at times was shared with Quanzhou. [15]

Galeote Pereira, a Portuguese soldier and trader, was taken prisoner during the pirate extermination campaign of 1549 and imprisoned in Fuzhou. Later transferred to a form of internal exile elsewhere in the province, Pereira escaped to Langbaijiao in 1553. The record of his experiences in the Ming Empire, logged by the Jesuits at Goa in 1561, was the first non-clerical account of China to reach the West since Marco Polo. [16]

The Ryukyu Kingdom established an embassy in Fuzhou.

Qing dynasty (1644–1912)

In 1839, Lin Zexu, who himself was a Fuzhou native, was appointed by the Daoguang Emperor to enforce the imperial ban on the opium trade in Canton. His unsuccessful actions, however, precipitated the disastrous First Opium War with Great Britain, and Lin, who had become a scapegoat for China's failure in war, was exiled to the northwestern section of the empire. The Treaty of Nanjing (1842), which put an end to the conflict, made Fuzhou (then known to Westerners as Foochow) one of five Chinese treaty ports, and it became completely open to Western merchants and missionaries. [17] [18]

The Eastward View of Fuzhou from Black Stone Hill (circa 1880) Foochow morrison.jpg
The Eastward View of Fuzhou from Black Stone Hill (circa 1880)

Fuzhou was one of the most important Protestant mission fields in China. On January 2, 1846, the first Protestant missionary, Rev. Stephen Johnson (missionary) from ABCFM, entered the city and soon set up the first missionary station there. ABCFM was followed by the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society that was led by Revs. M. C. White and J. D. Collins, who reached Fuzhou in early September 1847. The Church Missionary Society also arrived in the city in May 1850. These three Protestant agencies remained in Fuzhou until the communist revolution in China in the 1950s, leaving a rich heritage in Fuzhou's Protestant culture. They supported the creation of hospitals and schools, including the Woolston Memorial Hospital, run by the American-trained Hü King Eng. [19]

On August 23, 1884, the Battle of Fuzhou broke out between the French Far East Fleet and the Fujian Fleet of the Qing dynasty. As the result, the Fujian Fleet, one of the four Chinese regional fleets, was destroyed completely in Mawei Harbor.[ citation needed ]

Republic of China

On November 8, 1911, revolutionaries staged an uprising in Fuzhou. After an overnight street battle, the Qing army surrendered.[ citation needed ]

Revolutionary Republic

Fuzhou Jinshan Temple Fuzhou Jinshan Temple.jpg
Fuzhou Jinshan Temple

On November 22, 1933, Eugene Chen and the leaders of the National Revolutionary Army's 19th Army set up the short-lived People's Revolutionary Government of Republican China. [20] Blockaded by Chiang Kai-shek and left without support from the nearby Soviet Republic of China, the PRGRC collapsed within two months. [21]

Japanese occupation

1924 map of Foochow 1924 Imperial Japanese Railway Map of Foochow or Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China.png
1924 map of Foochow

With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, hostilities commenced in Fujian Province. Xiamen (Amoy) fell to a Japanese landing force on May 13, 1938. The fall of Amoy instantly threatened the security of Fuzhou. On May 23, Japanese ships bombarded Mei-Hua, Huang-chi and Pei-Chiao while Japanese planes continued to harass the Chinese forces. Between May 31 and June 1, Chinese gunboats Fu-Ning, Chen-Ning and Suming defending the blockade line in the estuary of the Min River were successively bombed and sunk. Meanwhile, the Chinese ship Chu-Tai berthed at Nan-Tai was damaged. The Chinese Navy's Harbor Command School, barracks, shipyard, hospital and marine barracks at Ma-Wei were successively bombed. [22] Fuzhou is recorded as having fallen to Japanese forces in 1938. [23]

The extent of Japanese command and control of the city of Fuzhou itself as opposed to the port at Mawei and the Min River Estuary is uncertain. By 1941 (5/7), the city is recorded as having returned to Nationalist control. The British Consulate in Fuzhou is noted as operational from 1941 to 1944 after the United Kingdom Declaration of War on Japan in December 1941. Western visitors to Fuzhou in the period 1941–1944 include the Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett in 1942. [24] and the British scientist Dr Joseph Needham in May 1944. [25] Both visitors record the presence of a British Consul and a Fuzhou Club comprising western businessmen.

In The Man Who Loved China: The Fantastic Story of the Eccentric Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries of the Middle Kingdom, author Simon Winchester relates the visit of Dr Needham in 1944. Needham encountered the American government agent (John Caldwell) and the British SIS agent (Murray MacLehose working undercover as the British Vice-Consul in Fuzhou) involved in aid to the Nationalist resistance to Japanese forces in Fujian Province. [25]

As part of Operation Ichi-Go (1944), the last large-scale Japanese offensive in China in World War 2, the Japanese intended to isolate Fuzhou and the Fujian Province corridor to Nationalist forces in western China and the wartime capital of Chongqing. One account of the Japanese re-taking of Fuzhou city itself is narrated by American naval officer, Houghton Freeman. [26] The date is given as October 5, 1944. [27]

Fuzhou remained under Japanese control until the surrender of Japan and its armed forces in China in September 1945.

Following the restitution of Republic control (1946), the administration divisions of Fuzhou were annexed, and administration level was promoted from county-level to city-level officially.

People's Republic of China

Map of Fuzhou (labeled as FU-CHOU (FOOCHOW)) Txu-oclc-10552568-ng50-8-back.jpg
Map of Fuzhou (labeled as FU-CHOU (FOOCHOW))
Foochow Mosque in Fuzhou. Foochow Mosque.jpg
Foochow Mosque in Fuzhou.

Fuzhou was occupied by People's Liberation Army with little resistance on 17 August 1949. [28]

In the 1950s, the city was on the front line of the conflict with KMT in Taiwan, as hostile KMT aircraft frequently bombed the city. The bombing on 20 January 1955 was the most serious one, killing hundreds of people. [29]

Fuzhou was also involved in violent mass chaos during the Cultural revolution. Different groups of Red Guards fought with each other using guns on the streets of the city, and even attacking the People's Liberation Army. [30]

Under the reform and opening policy since the late 1970s, Fuzhou has developed rapidly. In 1982, Fuzhou became the first city in China where the stored program control was introduced, which marked a milestone in the history of telecommunications in China. [31] In 1984, Fuzhou was chosen as one of the first branches of Open Coastal Cities by the Central Government. [32]

On December 13, 1993, a raging fire swept through a textile factory in Fuzhou and claimed the lives of 60 workers. [33]

On October 2, 2005, floodwaters from Typhoon Longwang swept away a military school, killing at least 80 paramilitary officers. [33]

Geography

Fuzhou is located in the northeast coast of Fujian province, connects jointly northwards with Ningde and Nanping, southwards with Quanzhou and Putian, westwards with Sanming respectively.

Climate

Fuzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) influenced by the East Asian Monsoon; the summers are long, very hot and humid, and the winters are short, mild and dry. In most years, torrential rain occurs during the monsoon in the second half of May. Fuzhou is also liable to typhoons in late summer and early autumn. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 10.9 °C (51.6 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 19.84 °C (67.7 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24 percent in March to 54 percent in July, the city receives 1,607 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −1.9 °C (29 °F) on 25 January 2016 to 41.7 °C (107 °F) on 26 July 2003. [34] [35] Snow is very rare, having covered the ground last times in February 1957, December 1975 and December 1991.

Climate data for Fuzhou (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)23.6
(74.5)
28.5
(83.3)
30.3
(86.5)
36.2
(97.2)
37.5
(99.5)
39.1
(102.4)
41.7
(107.1)
40.6
(105.1)
39.3
(102.7)
36.7
(98.1)
33.4
(92.1)
26.5
(79.7)
41.7
(107.1)
Average high °C (°F)15.8
(60.4)
16.7
(62.1)
19.2
(66.6)
23.9
(75.0)
27.7
(81.9)
30.9
(87.6)
34.5
(94.1)
33.7
(92.7)
31.0
(87.8)
27.0
(80.6)
22.7
(72.9)
18.1
(64.6)
25.1
(77.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)11.4
(52.5)
12.1
(53.8)
14.3
(57.7)
18.9
(66.0)
23.0
(73.4)
26.4
(79.5)
29.3
(84.7)
28.8
(83.8)
26.6
(79.9)
22.7
(72.9)
18.4
(65.1)
13.8
(56.8)
20.5
(68.8)
Average low °C (°F)8.7
(47.7)
9.3
(48.7)
11.2
(52.2)
15.6
(60.1)
19.8
(67.6)
23.4
(74.1)
25.9
(78.6)
25.6
(78.1)
23.7
(74.7)
19.7
(67.5)
15.5
(59.9)
10.9
(51.6)
17.4
(63.4)
Record low °C (°F)−1.9
(28.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
0.3
(32.5)
6.2
(43.2)
10.9
(51.6)
18.9
(66.0)
20.7
(69.3)
20.3
(68.5)
18.3
(64.9)
12.2
(54.0)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.7
(28.9)
−1.9
(28.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)49.9
(1.96)
84.9
(3.34)
141.5
(5.57)
154.4
(6.08)
187.8
(7.39)
202.0
(7.95)
123.0
(4.84)
169.4
(6.67)
156.4
(6.16)
47.6
(1.87)
40.9
(1.61)
34.0
(1.34)
1,391.8
(54.78)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)9.714.417.517.818.215.910.412.111.67.17.27.1149.0
Average relative humidity (%)72757776767974757267687073
Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.679.289.1111.0114.4141.9225.6199.2153.7144.2120.3126.91,607.1
Percent possible sunshine 31252429283554494240373936
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000), [36] [37]

Administrative divisions

Historical population
YearPop.±%
2000 [2] 6,386,013    
2010 [2] 7,115,370+11.4%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

The administrative divisions of Fuzhou have been changed frequently throughout history. From 1983, the Fuzhou current administrative divisions were formed officially, namely, 5 districts and 8 counties. In 1990 and 1994, Fuqing (Foochow Romanized: Hók-chiăng) and Changle (Foochow Romanized: Diòng-lŏ̤h) counties were promoted to county-level cities; Changle became a district in 2017. Despite these changes, the administrative image of "5 districts and 8 counties" is still held popularly among local residents. Fuzhou's entire area only covers 9.65 percent of Fujian Province.

The city of Fuzhou has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts, 1 county-level city, and 6 counties:

Map
NameChinese (S) Hanyu Pinyin Foochow Romanized Population
(2010 census) [2]
Area (km2)Density
(/km2)
City proper2,921,7631,015.072878.39
Gulou District 鼓楼区Gǔlóu QūGū-làu-kṳ̆687,70636.6018,790
Taijiang District 台江区Táijiāng QūDài-gĕ̤ng-kṳ̆446,89118.2824,447
Cangshan District 仓山区Cāngshān QūChŏng-săng-kṳ̆762,746139.415,471
Mawei District 马尾区Mǎwěi QūMā-muōi-kṳ̆231,929254.33912
Jin'an District 晋安区Jìn'ān QūCéng-ăng-kṳ̆792,491566.451,399
Changle District 长乐区Chánglè QūDiòng-lŏ̤h-kṳ̆682,626717.54951
Suburban and Rural
Minhou County 闽侯县Mǐnhòu Xiàn [38] Mìng-âu-gâing662,1182,133.03310
Lianjiang County 连江县Liánjiāng XiànLièng-gŏng-gâing561,4901,190.67472
Luoyuan County 罗源县Luóyuán XiànLò̤-nguòng-gâing207,6771,081.17192
Minqing County 闽清县Mǐnqīng XiànMìng-chiăng-gâing237,6431,468.90162
Yongtai County 永泰县Yǒngtài XiànĪng-tái-gâing249,4552,243.41111
Pingtan County 平潭县Píngtán XiànBìng-tàng-gâing357,760371.09964
Satellite cities
Fuqing 福清市Fúqīng ShìHók-chiăng-chê1,234,8381,932.43639
Total7,115,37012,153.31585.47

Culture

Banyan King in Fuzhou National Forest Park (Fu Zhou Guo Jia Sen Lin Gong Yuan 
). Banyan King, Fuzhou.JPG
Banyan King in Fuzhou National Forest Park (福州國家森林公園).

The City of Banyans is distinct from the mainstream inland cultures of central China, and in details vary from other areas of the Chinese coast

Language and art

Besides Mandarin Chinese, the majority local residents of Fuzhou (Fuzhou people) also speak Fuzhou dialect (福州話), the prestige form of Eastern Min.

Min opera, also known as Fuzhou drama, is one of the major operas in Fujian Province. It enjoys popularity in the Fuzhou area and in neighboring parts of Fujian such as the northeast and northwest areas where the Fuzhou dialect is spoken, as well as in Taiwan and the Malay Archipelago. It became a fixed opera in the early 20th century. There are more than 1,000 plays of Min opera, most of which originate from folk tales, historical novels, or ancient legends, including such traditional plays as "Making Seal", "The Purple Jade Hairpin" and "Switching Fairy Peach with Litchi". [39]

Architecture

Traditional Fuzhounese architetcure Zuohai Park North Gate.jpg
Traditional Fuzhounese architetcure

Religion

The two traditional mainstream religions practiced in Fuzhou are Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. Traditionally, many people practice both religions simultaneously. The city is also home to many Buddhist monasteries, Taoist temples and Buddhist monks.

Apart from mainstream religions, a number of religious worship sites of various local religions are situated in the streets and lanes of Fuzhou.

The origins of local religion can be dated back centuries. These diverse religions incorporated elements such as gods and doctrines from other religions and cultures, such as totem worship and traditional legends. For example, Monkey King, originated to monkey worship among local ancients, gradually came to embody the God of Wealth in Fuzhou after the novel Journey to the West was issued in Ming dynasty.

As the most popular religion in the Min River Valley, the worship of Lady Linshui is viewed as one of the three most influential local religions in Fujian, the other two being the worship of Mazu and Baosheng Dadi (保生大帝).

Local cuisine

Fuzhou's local dish Litchi Pork (Li Zhi Rou 
), famous for its sweet and sour flavor Litchi Pork.jpg
Fuzhou's local dish Litchi Pork (荔枝肉), famous for its sweet and sour flavor

Fuzhou cuisine is most notably one of the four traditional cooking styles of Fujian cuisine, which in turn is one of the eight Chinese regional cuisines. Dishes are light but flavorful, with particular emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as xianwei (simplified Chinese:鲜味; traditional Chinese:鮮味; pinyin:xiānwèi), as well as retaining the original flavor of the main ingredients instead of masking them. In Fuzhou cuisine, the taste is light compared to that of some other Chinese cooking styles, and often have a mixed sweet and sour taste. Soup, served as an indispensable dish in meals, is cooked in various ways with local seasonal fresh vegetables and seafood and often added with local cooking wine (福建老酒).

Fuzhou is famous for its street food and snacks. Some notable street food dishes include Fuzhou fish balls (魚丸), meat-pastry dumplings (扁肉燕), oyster cake (海蛎饼), rice scroll soup (鼎邊糊), guong bian (光餅; a kind of mildly savory pastry), and pork floss (肉鬆). Many of these street food dishes have a long history and their own local legend; an example would be the oyster cake, according Fuzhou local folklore, in the early Qing dynasty, there was a young man who inherited his father's dim sum business, despite all his hard works, he only managed to earn enough money to feed himself, not enough to raise and feed a family of his own. One night, he dreamt of a silver-haired elderly man, who told him that he has very good fortune, the young man then asked him what he can do to obtain good luck, the elderly man then floated away. That's when the young man notice the setting moon, and after the moon sank under the clouds, rose from the east a golden sun. he was inspired by the dream and invented oyster cake, which is white like the moon before being lowered into hot grease and coming out golden as the morning sun. According to the legend, after the young man made a fortune out of his invention and his oyster cake was imitated by many others, which was passed down till this day. another example of a Fuzhou street food with a long history is rice scroll soup, which became popular in Fuzhou in the early part of the Qing dynasty. As more Fuzhou residents settled overseas, Fuzhou dishes spread to Taiwan, Southeast Asia and the U.S.. For example, one is able to find guong bian and Fuzhou fish balls in Sitiawan in Ipoh, Malaysia while Fuzhou fish balls, meat-pastry dumplings and rice scroll soup can be found in New York's Chinatown.

Fuzhou residents also enjoy eating festival foods during traditional Chinese holidays. For example, red and white rice cakes (年糕) are served over Chinese New Year, stuffed yuanxiao (元宵) during the Lantern Festival, zongzi (粽子) during the Dragon Boat Festival, and sweet soy bean powder-covered plain yuanxiao over the winter solstice.

Special crafts

Bodiless lacquerware (脫胎漆器), paper umbrellas and horn combs (角梳) are the "Three Treasures" of Fuzhou traditional arts. In addition, bodiless lacquerware, together with cork pictures (軟木畫) and Shoushan stone sculptures (壽山石雕) are called "Three Superexcellences" of Fuzhou.

Media

Fuzhou Evening News (福州晚报), Strait Metropolitan Post and Southeast Express (东南快报) are the three most primary newspapers in the city. Fuzhou Daily (福州日报) is the official newspaper of the Fuzhou Committee of Communist Party of China. [40] FZTV, the local municipal television station has four channels. [41] As the capital, the provincial state-owned Fujian Media Group, Fujian Daily Newspaper Group and Straits Publishing & Distributing Group also headquarter here.

Transportation

Airports

The city is served by Fuzhou Changle International Airport, which replaces Fuzhou Yixu Airport, the old airfield. The former is its main international airport and an air-hub in southeast China, while the latter was turned into a PLA airbase after 1997.

Railways

Fuzhou Railway Station Fuzhou Train.JPG
Fuzhou Railway Station

Fuzhou is a railway hub in northern Fujian. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen Railways form part of the Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor and can accommodate high-speed trains at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph). The Hefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway links the city to Beijing through its nearby inner land province Jiangxi at speeds up to 350 km/h (220 mph). The Nanping–Fuzhou Railway and Xiangtang–Putian Railway provide rail access inland. The latter line can carry trains at speeds of 200 km/h (124 mph). The regional Fuzhou-Mawei Cargo Railway runs from the Fuzhou Railway Station eastward to the port in Mawei District. Fuzhou has two main railway stations, Fuzhou and Fuzhou South. Fuzhou station is often just referred to as Fuzhou station given its central location.

Metro

Fuzhou Metro is the first rapid transit system in Fujian province, has two metro lines in operation, the first line opened linking the south of the city and the north above the Min River, and five lines under construction. [42]

Platform of Fuzhou Railway Station (Fuzhou Metro) 20171118 Platform of Fuzhou Railway Station (Fuzhou Metro) 01.jpg
Platform of Fuzhou Railway Station (Fuzhou Metro)

Line 1 links the two railway stations of the city. The Fuzhou railway station is located north of the city center, near the North Second Ring Road. Fuzhou South Railway Station, located in Cangshan district, is a key landmark of the New City development scheme, begun in 2007 and completed in 2010. Line 1 was opened on May 18, 2016.

Line 2 runs in the east–west direction of the city, linking the university city and Fuzhou High-Tech Zone in Minhou county, Jinshan Industrial Zone in Cangshan district, and Gushan mountain in Jin'an district. Line 2 was opened on 26 April 2019.

Seaport

The dock in Luoyuan Bay, Fuzhou. The construction of a new industrial park is still in progress
. Lo-nguong Bay.jpg
The dock in Luoyuan Bay, Fuzhou. The construction of a new industrial park is still in progress .

Passenger liners regularly sail between ROC's Matsu Islands and the port in Mawei District. [43] [44]

A high-speed ferry sails across Taiwan Strait between the port in Pingtan County, the mainland's closest point to Taiwan, to Taipei and Taichung, a trip that takes about 3 hours. [45]

History of Fuzhou port

In 1867 the Fuzhou seaport was the site of one of China's first major experiments with Western technology, when the Fuzhou Navy Yard was established. A shipyard and an arsenal were built under French guidance and a naval school was opened. A naval academy was also established at the shipyard, and it became a center for the study of European languages and technical sciences. The academy, which offered courses in English, French, engineering, and navigation, produced a generation of Western-trained officers, including the famous scholar-reformer Yan Fu (1854–1921).

The yard was established as part of a program to strengthen China in the wake of the country's disastrous defeat in the Second Opium War (1856–60). Most talented students nonetheless continued to pursue a traditional Confucian education, and by the mid-1870s the government began to lose interest in the shipyard, which had trouble securing funds and declined in importance. Fuzhou remained essentially a commercial center and a port until World War II; it had relatively little industry. The port was occupied by the Japanese during 1940–45.

Since 1949, Fuzhou has grown considerably. Transportation has been improved by the dredging of the Min River for navigation by medium-sized craft upstream to Nanping. In 1956 the railway linking Fuzhou with the interior of the province and with the main Chinese railway system began operation. The port has also been improved; Fuzhou itself is no longer accessible to seagoing ships, but Luoxingta anchorage and the outer harbor at Guantou on the coast of the East China Sea have been modernized and improved. The chief exports are timber, fruits, paper, and foodstuffs.

Economy

Fuzhou's GDP (Nominal) trend [2]
YearGDP
(billions of CN¥)
Growth (%)
2005172.0009.8
2006165.69412.2
2007197.45915.1
2008228.41613.0
2009252.42812.8
2010306.82114.0
2011373.47813.0
Taijiang District (Financial District) of Fuzhou. Fuzhou Taijiang.jpg
Taijiang District (Financial District) of Fuzhou.

Industry is supplied with power by a grid running from the Gutian hydroelectric scheme in the mountains to the northwest. The city is a center for commercial banking, designer brands and timber-working, engineering, papermaking, printing, and textile industries. A small iron and steel plant was built in 1958. In 1984 Fuzhou was designated one of China's "open" cities in the new open-door policy inviting foreign investments. Handicrafts remain important in the rural areas, and the city is famous for its lacquer and wood products.

Its GDP was ¥75,614 (c. US$12,140) per capita in 2015, ranked no. 52 among 659 Chinese cities.

Fuzhou is undoubtedly the province's political, economic and cultural center as well as an industrial center and seaport on the Min River. In 2008, Fuzhou's GDP amounted to ¥228.4 billion, an increase of 13 percent. [46]

Manufactured products include chemicals, silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel, and processed food. Among Fuzhou's exports are fine lacquerware and handcrafted fans and umbrellas. The city's trade is mainly with Chinese coastal ports. Its exports of timber, food products, and paper move through the harbor at Guantou located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) downstream. [47]

In 2008, exports reached US$13.6 billion, a growth of 10.4 percent while imports amounted to US$6.8 billion. Total retail sales for the same period came to ¥113.4 billion and per capita GDP grew to ¥33,615. [47] During the same period, Fuzhou approved 155 foreign-invested projects. Contracted foreign investment amounted to US$1.489 billion, while utilized foreign investment increased by 43 percent to US$1.002 billion. [47]

Taixi Central Business District Fuzhou Cityscape (Taixi CBD).jpg
Taixi Central Business District

Economic and Technological Zones

The Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in January 1985 by State Council, with a total planning area of 22 square kilometres (8.5 sq mi) and now has 10.1 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) built. It is located close to Fuzhou Changle International Airport and Fuzhou Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, trading and distribution, automobile production/assembly, medical equipment and supplies, shipping/warehousing/logistics and heavy industry. [48]

The Fuzhou Export Processing Zone was founded on June 3, 2005, with the approval of the State Council and enjoys all the preferential policies. It is located inside the Chang'an Investment Zone of the Fuzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone (FETDZ) with a planned land area of 1.14 square kilometres (0.44 sq mi). [49]

The Fuzhou Free Trade Zone was established in 1992 by the State Council, with a planning area of 1.8 square kilometres (0.69 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the free trade zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, heavy industry, instruments & industrial equipment production, shipping/warehousing/logistics, telecommunications equipment, trading, and distribution. [50]

The Fuzhou High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995, the Fuzhou Municipal Government decided to build Baiyi Electronic Information City, which covers 1.2 square kilometres (0.46 sq mi) in the zone, making it the lead electronic industrial zone in Fuzhou. The Administrative Commission of Mawei High-tech Park was set up in the zone in 1999. It covers an area of 5.6 square kilometres (2.2 sq mi), and is in the area between Gushan Channel and Mawei Channel, Jiangbin Road and Fuma Road. [51]

The Fuzhou Science and Technology Park was established in 1988 and was approved to be a national-level zone by the State Council in 1991. The planned area is 5.5 square kilometres (2.1 sq mi) and is divided into 3 parts: the Mawei portion, the Cangshan portion, and the Hongshan portion. The main industries are electronics, information technology, and biotechnology. The zone is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) away from the China National Highway 316 and 41 kilometres (25 mi) away from the Fuzhou Changle International Airport. [52]

The Fuzhou Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established in May 1989 by the State Council. The zone is located in the Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. The zone is a commercial base for Taiwan-related development. The current area is 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). The main industries are IT, metallurgy, food processing, and textiles. The zone is 11.5 kilometres (7.1 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and 52 kilometres (32 mi) away from Fuzhou Changle International Airport. [53]

Cityscape

Fuzhou skyline, the city hall is on the left, and the Financial District is on the right. Fuzhou skyline.jpg
Fuzhou skyline, the city hall is on the left, and the Financial District is on the right.
Fuzhou Taixi Central Business District Fuzhou Taixi CBD.jpg
Fuzhou Taixi Central Business District
Panorama of West Lake (Xi Hu ) West Lake Fuzhou.jpg
Panorama of West Lake (西湖)

Tourist attractions

Historical / cultural

Sanfang Qixiang (三坊七巷) "Three Lanes and Seven Alleys" is a cluster of ancient residential buildings dating from the late Jin dynasty now features a pedestrian zone with shops along the street. Situated at the centre of the city at Gulou District, it is the most popular touristic destination in the city. Many buildings were revitalized recently to increase tourism.

Interior of St. Dominic's Cathedral, Fuzhou St. Dominic's Cathedral Fuzhou Post-Renovation Interior.webp
Interior of St. Dominic's Cathedral, Fuzhou

Recreational

Notable people

Fuzhou Memorial Hall of Lin Zexu Fuzhou Linzexu.jpg
Fuzhou Memorial Hall of Lin Zexu

Education

Colleges and universities

The old campus of Fujian Normal University Hwa nan college.JPG
The old campus of Fujian Normal University

Three Universities above take the leading position in the province, and they are supported by Fujian Government to build High-level University. [54] [55]

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

High schools

See also

Related Research Articles

Fujian Province of China

Fujian is a province on the southeastern coast of China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital is Fuzhou, while its largest city by population is Quanzhou, both located near the coast of the Taiwan Strait in the east of the province.

Fuzhou University Public university in China

Fuzhou University is a university located in Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Split into two campuses by the Min River, Fuzhou University's Old Campus is located on the north bank of the river in the western part of Fuzhou City, while the New Campus is located on the edge of the city on the south bank, at the base of Qi Mountain.

Fujian Province, Republic of China Province in Republic of China

Fujian or Fukien Province is a nominal province of the Republic of China without formal administrative function. It includes three small archipelagos off the coast of the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China, namely the Matsu Islands, which make up Lienchiang County, and the Wuqiu Islands and Kinmen Islands, which make up Kinmen County. The seat of the provincial government is Jincheng Township of Kinmen County.

Eastern Min Branch of the Min group of Sinitic languages of China

Eastern Min or Min Dong, is a branch of the Min group of Sinitic languages of China. The prestige form and most-cited representative form is the Fuzhou dialect, the speech of the capital and largest city of Fujian.

Fuzhou dialect Eastern Min Chinese dialect

The Fuzhou dialect, also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like many other varieties of Chinese, the Fuzhou dialect is dominated by monosyllabic morphemes that carry lexical tones, and has a mainly analytic syntax. While the Eastern Min branch it belongs to is relatively closer to Southern Min or Hokkien than to other Sinitic branches such as Mandarin, Wu Chinese or Hakka, they are still not mutually intelligible.

Changle District District in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Changle  is one of 6 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian Province, China. It occupies a land area of 648 square kilometers (250 sq mi) and a sea area of 1,327 square kilometers (512 sq mi). Changle was established in the sixth year of Emperor Wude during the Tang Dynasty, and it became a county-level city on February 18, 1994. The district faces the East China Sea and is connected to Mawei district by the Min River. Due to an increase in businesses, the province is now one of the richest provinces in China. The city was upgraded to a district on August 2017 by a government proposal.

Fuding County-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Fuding  is a county-level city in northeastern Ningde prefecture level city, on Fujian's border with Zhejiang province.

Fuzhou people

Fuzhou people, also known as, Foochowese, Hokchew, Hokchia, Hokchiu, Fuzhou Shiyi people (福州十邑人), Eastern Min or Mindong refer to Chinese who originate from the Fuzhou and Mindong regions and the Gutian and Pingnan counties of Fujian province and Matsu Islands. Fuzhou people are a part of the Min Chinese-speaking group that speaks Eastern Min or specifically Fuzhou dialect. There is also a significant overseas Fuzhou population, particularly distributed in Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United States, Singapore and the United Kingdom.

Fujian Fleet

The Fujian Fleet founded in 1678 as the Fujian Marine Fleet was one of China's four regional fleets during the closing decades of the nineteenth century. The fleet was almost annihilated on 23 August 1884 by Admiral Amédée Courbet's Far East Squadron at the Battle of Fuzhou, the opening engagement of the Sino-French War.

Cangshan District District in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Cangshan District is one of 6 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian Province, China.

Fuqing dialect, or Hokchia, is an Eastern Min dialect. It is spoken in the county-level city of Fuqing, situated within the prefecture-level city of Fuzhou. It is not completely mutually intelligible with Fuzhou dialect.

Hefei–Fuzhou high-speed railway

Hefei–Fuzhou high-speed railway, is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, high-speed rail line between Hefei and Fuzhou, the provincial capitals of Anhui and Fujian, respectively. It has a total length of 813 km (505 mi) and runs through Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian province. Construction began on April 27, 2010 and the line was opened on 28 June 2015. The total cost of the line was about ¥109.8 billion. On this line, trains can reach top speeds of 300 kilometres per hour, reducing the travel time by rail from Hefei to Fuzhou from fourteen to four hours. The railway is part of the future Beijing–Taipei high-speed rail corridor.

CNHLS

Wallace, Fujian Food Co., Ltd., doing business as CNHLS, is a fast food chain in China. Its head office is in Taijiang District, Fuzhou, Fujian.

Fujian Free-Trade Zone Free-Trade Zone in China

Fujian Free-Trade Zone, officially China (Fujian) Pilot Free-Trade Zone is a free-trade zone in Fujian province, China. The mainland free-trade zone is the nearest to Taiwan. The zone covers an area of 118.04 square kilometres and integrates three existing bonded zones in three areas — Pingtan Subdistrict, Fuzhou Subdistrict and Xiamen Subdistrict. Fujian FTZ was founded in Mawei District, Fuzhou on 21 April 2015.

Fuzhou Foreign Language School Public school in Fuzhou, Fujian, China

Fuzhou Foreign Language School is a public high school featured foreign language teaching in Fuzhou, Fujian province, China. Besides English teaching in general, it also has French, Japanese and German Departments. It is an accredited school for the Deutsches Sprachdiplom, which allows its students have the chance to apply for German universities. Fuzhou Foreign Language School signed a cooperation agreement with Trinity College Dublin, Ireland through their historic link, run the Anglo-Chinese IELTS class jointly, sending qualified graduates study abroad. The French language class features with art courses.

Shehua is an unclassified Sinitic language spoken by the She people of Southeastern China. It is also called Shanha, 山哈 (San-hak) or Shanhahua, 山哈话. Shehua speakers are located mainly in Fujian and Zhejiang provinces of Southeastern China, with smaller numbers of speakers in a few locations of Jiangxi, Guangdong and Anhui provinces.

Hualin Temple (Fuzhou)

Hualin Temple is a Buddhist temple located in Gulou District, Fuzhou, Fujian. After the introduction of Chan Buddhism from China to Japan in the Song dynasty (960–1279), the architectural style of Song dynasty have a profound influence on Japan traditional cultural and folk customs. The oldest things in the temple is the Main Hall, which was built in the early Song dynasty (960–1279).

Fujian–Taiwan relationship Relations between Taiwan and the mainland Chinese province of Fujian

The Fujian-Taiwan relationship, also known as the Minnan-Taiwan relationship, refers to the relationship between Fujian, which is located in mainland China, and Taiwan, which is across the Taiwan Strait. Since the average width of the Taiwan Strait is 180 kilometers, Fujian and Taiwan are adjacent, similar in both climate and environment. Although the relationship between Taiwan and Fujian has changed with the development of history, the two places have maintained close relations in terms of personnel, economy, military, culture and other aspects. At present, Taiwan residents are mostly descendants of immigrants from mainland China, of which the southern Fujian ethnic group is the main group, accounting for 73.5% of Taiwan's total population. In terms of culture, language, religion, and customs, Fujian and Taiwan also share similarities.

Nantai Island River island in Fuzhou, Fujian, China

Nantai is the largest island in the Min River of Fujian. It is located in the center of the Fuzhou Plain, surrounded by the "north harbor" of the Min (闽江北港) and the Wulong River, or "south harbor" of the Min. It has the nickname "Island of Chinese snowballs and jade" (琼花玉岛).

References

  1. Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-03. Retrieved 2018-08-06.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Fuzhou Municipal Statistic Bureau". Fuzhou.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  3. Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-03. Retrieved 2018-08-06.
  4. "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Archived from the original on 2013-12-10. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  5. https://www.citypopulation.de/en/china/fujian/admin/
  6. Jesus Leal Trujillo, Joseph Parilla (February 10, 2015). "The World's 10 Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on July 21, 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  7. 2016中国城市综合发展指标发布 北上深位列三甲. Archived from the original on 2017-03-25. Retrieved 2017-03-24.
  8. "Nature Index 2020 Science Cities | Supplements | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2020-11-26.
  9. Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian (中国古今地名大词典), (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe, 2005), 3116.
  10. Sladen, Douglas (1895), "Bits of China", The Japs at Home, 5th ed., New York: New Amsterdam Book Co., p.  279 .
  11. 1 2 Xu Xiaowang (徐曉望 (2006). 福建通史. Fujian People's Press (福建人民出版社).
  12. Records of the Grand Historian , Yue Wang Goujian Shijia越王勾踐世家.
  13. Yu 1986, p. 456.
  14. Yule 2002, p. 124.
  15. Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p.  420. ISBN   0-521-49781-7 . Retrieved 14 December 2011. Foochow was reserved for trade with the Philippines (a similar role had been assumed by Ch'iian- chou between 1368 and 1374 and again after 1403 in the Yung-le era)
  16. Spence, Jonathan D., The Chan's Great Continent: China in Western Minds, 1999, W.W.Norton & Company, ISBN   978-0-393-31989-7, pp.20–21
  17. "Treaty of Nanjing 1842 (original text)". US-China Institute. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  18. "Treaty of Nanjing (original document)" (PDF). Columbia.edu. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  19. 中華共和國人民革命政府; Zhōnghuá Gònghéguó Rénmín Gémìng Zhèngfǔ, also known as the Fujian People's Revolutionary Government (福建人民革命政府, Fújiàn Rénmín Zhèngfǔ). Compare 中華共和國 to the shorter, more ambiguous 中華民國 (Zhonghua Minguo, "Folk-state of China"), which was the one-party state under Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek against which Chen and the 19th rebelled (translated into English nonetheless as the "Republic of China").
  20. 晚清民國史 [History of the late Qing and the Republic]. 五南圖書出版股份有限公司. 2002. pp. 440–. ISBN   978-957-11-2898-6. Archived from the original on 2014-09-25. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
  21. Hu, Pu-yu (1974). A brief history of Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) (1st ed.). Taipei, Taiwan: Chung Wu Publishing Co. p. 142.
  22. Dreyer, Edward L. (1995). China at War, 1901–1949. London, New York City: Longman. p. 107. ISBN   0-521480-01-9.
  23. Strahan, Lachlan (1996). Australia's China: Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s. Cambridge, New York City: Cambridge University Press. p. 235. ISBN   0-582051-25-8.
  24. 1 2 Winchester, Simon. (2008). The Man Who Loved China: The Fantastic Story of the Eccentric Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries of the Middle Kingdom (1st ed.). New York: Harper. pp.  143–151. ISBN   978-0060884598.
  25. Smith, Nancy. "The Freeman Orientation". Wesleyan Alumni Magazine. Wesleyan University. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010.
  26. "League of Nations Timeline – 1944". Indiana University. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  27. 福州有福,完好无损迎来解放. society.people.com.cn. Archived from the original on 2012-06-11. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  28. 一·二○”大轰炸60周年 沙县退休职工忆尘封历史. 66163.com. 2015-02-04. Archived from the original on 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  29. 军队介入平息福州武斗乱局. Archived from the original on 2017-10-18.
  30. 福州万门程控电话开通25周年纪念专题.[ permanent dead link ]
  31. OPENING TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD Archived 2017-04-26 at the Wayback Machine . China.org.cn
  32. 1 2 Major Events Across The Taiwan Straits Archived April 28, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  33. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2014-11-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Archived from the original on 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2010-12-02.
  35. 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
  36. "Index" 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2018-09-05. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  37. 现代汉语词典(第七版[ A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Seventh Edition) ]. Beijing: The Commercial Press. 1 September 2016. p. 547. ISBN   978-7-100-12450-8. 闽侯(Mǐnhòu),地名,在福建。
  38. "Min Opera". cultural-china.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-25.
  39. 福州的报纸. Archived from the original on 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  40. 福州广播电视台本台介绍. Archived from the original on 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  41. "Fuzhou Metro merges sleek future with rich heritage". www.chinadaily.com.cn. 10 January 2017. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  42. Direct shipping services between Taiwan's Matsu and Mawei in mainland China Archived 2017-03-30 at the Wayback Machine , China Daily, 2010-04-19
  43. 福州连江县黄岐至马祖白沙客运航线通航. Xinhua News Fujian. Archived from the original on 2017-03-25. Retrieved 2017-03-24.
  44. "First high-speed ship to Taiwan sails out of Pingtan". Archived from the original on 2017-03-25. Retrieved 2017-03-24.
  45. "China Expat city Guide Dalian". China Expat. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-02-17. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
  46. 1 2 3 "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
  47. "Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Archived from the original on 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  48. "Fuzhou Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. 2005-06-03. Archived from the original on 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  49. "Fuzhou Free Trade Zone". RightSite.asia. Archived from the original on 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  50. "Fuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Archived from the original on 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  51. "Fuzhou Science and Technology Park". RightSite.asia. Archived from the original on 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  52. "Fuzhou Taiwan Merchants Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  53. 'High-level university construction' a hot phrase at Fujian two sessions Archived 2017-03-30 at the Wayback Machine , China Daily, 2016-01-19
  54. 福州大学、福建师范大学、福建农林大学着手建设高水平大学. Fujian Daily. 2014-02-20. Archived from the original on 2017-03-30 via 163.com.

Sources