Hunan

Last updated
Hunan Province
湖南省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese湖南省 (Húnán Shěng)
  AbbreviationHN / (pinyin :Xiāng)
Hunan
Hunan in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Hunan Province
Coordinates: 28°06′46″N112°59′00″E / 28.11265°N 112.98338°E / 28.11265; 112.98338 Coordinates: 28°06′46″N112°59′00″E / 28.11265°N 112.98338°E / 28.11265; 112.98338
CountryChina
Named for ,  lake
, nán south
"South of the lake"
Capital
(and largest city)
Changsha
Divisions14 prefectures, 122 counties, 1,933 townships (2018), 29,224 villages (2018)
Government
  Type Province
  Body Hunan Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Zhang Qingwei
   Congress chairmanZhang Qingwei
   Governor Mao Weiming
   CPPCC chairman Li Weiwei
Area
[1]
  Total210,000 km2 (80,000 sq mi)
  Rank 10th
Highest elevation2,115.2 m (6,939.6 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total66,444,864
  Rank 7th
  Density320/km2 (820/sq mi)
   Rank 13th
Demonym(s) Hunanese
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han  – 90%
Tujia  – 4%
Miao  – 3%
Dong  – 1%
Yao  – 1%
Other peoples – 1%
  Languages and dialectsChinese varieties:
Xiang, Gan, Southwestern Mandarin, Xiangnan Tuhua, Waxiang, Hakka
Non-Chinese languages:
Xong, Tujia, Mien, Gam
ISO 3166 code CN-HN
GDP (2020 [3] ) CNY 4.178 trillion
USD 605.76 billion
$1.038 trillion (PPP) [3] (9nd)
 • per capita ¥62,881
$ 9,117(14th)
$14,943 (PPP)
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.755 [4]
high · 15th
Website www.enghunan.gov.cn
  1. 1 2 New district established after census: Wangcheng (Wangcheng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Lukou (Zhuzhou County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. Ningxiang County is currently known as Ningxiang CLC after census.
Hunan
Hunan (Chinese characters).svg
"Hunan" in Chinese characters
 
 
Most populous cities in Hunan
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [24]
RankPop.RankPop.
Changsha 2019 2.jpg
Changsha
Heng Yang Shi Ren Min Zheng Fu .jpg
Hengyang
1 Changsha 3,744,30011 Yongzhou 574,500 Zhu Zhou Shen Nong Gong Yuan .jpg
Zhuzhou
Simalou on Liuye lake in Changde.jpg
Changde
2 Hengyang 1,437,90012 Leiyang 573,000
3 Zhuzhou 1,152,60013 Loudi 516,800
4 Changde 997,90014 Ningxiang 472,700
5 Yueyang 892,00015 Jishou 315,000
6 Chenzhou 842,00016 Changning 300,000
7 Xiangtan 817,70017 Wugang 290,000
8 Shaoyang 712,30018 Liuyang 260,100
9 Yiyang 668,20019 Liling 247,500
10 Huaihua 624,00020 Xiangxiang 235,000

Politics

Young Mao Zedong statue in Changsha Young Mao Zedong statue 5.jpg
Young Mao Zedong statue in Changsha

The politics of Hunan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Hunan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hunan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hunan Chinese Communist Party Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Hunan CCP Party Chief".

Economy

As of the mid 19th century, Hunan exported rhubarb, musk, honey, tobacco, hemp, and birds. [25] The Lake Dongting area is an important center of ramie production, and Hunan is also an important center of tea cultivation. Aside from agricultural products, in recent years Hunan has grown to become an important center for steel, machinery and electronics production, especially as China's manufacturing sector moves away from coastal provinces such as Guangdong and Zhejiang. [26]

The Lengshuijiang area is noted for its stibnite mines, and is one of the major centers of antimony extraction in China. [ citation needed ]

Hunan is also well known for a few global makers of construction equipment such as concrete pumps, cranes, etc. These companies include Sany Group, Zoomlion and Sunward. Sany is one of the world's major players. The city of Liuyang is the world's top center for manufacturing fireworks. [27]

As of 2016, its nominal GDP was US$475 billion (CNY 3.16 trillion), the per capita GDP was US$6,983 (CNY 46,382). [28]

Historical GDP of Hunan Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008) [29]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [30] )
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
growth
(%)
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNYUSDPPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20163,155,137475,007901,2368.046,3826,98313,2496.64233.5009
20152,917,217468,373821,8678.543,1576,92912,1596.22843.5495
20142,728,177444,126768,4149.540,6356,61511,4456.14283.5504
20132,483,465400,999694,30710.137,2636,01710,4186.19323.5769
20122,233,833353,875629,10711.433,7585,3489,5076.31253.5508
20111,981,655306,815565,29912.830,1034,6618,5876.45883.5055
20101,615,325238,618487,92514.624,8973,6787,5206.76953.3106
20091,315,627192,597416,66713.920,5793,0136,5176.83103.1575
20081,162,761167,422366,01614.118,2612,6295,7486.94513.1768
2007948,599124,750314,63715.114,9421,9654,9567.60403.0149
2006772,23296,870268,35012.812,1921,5294,2377.97182.8777
2005662,34580,856231,67012.210,6061,2953,7108.19172.8590
2000355,14942,901130,6039.05,4256551,9958.27842.7193
1995213,21325,53178,11710.33,3594021,2318.35102.7294
199074,44415,56443,7244.01,2282577214.78321.7026
198534,99511,91724,96612.16262134472.93661.4017
198019,17212,79512,8205.23652442441.49841.4955
197511,8406,36610.32391291.8598
19709,3053,78017.6211862.4618
19656,5322,65313.2170692.4618
19606,4072,603-1.0176712.4618
19553,5831,37618.5104402.6040
19522,7811,25186392.2227

Economic and technological development zones

The Changsha National Economic and Technology Development Zone was founded in 1992. It is located east of Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi) and the current area is 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi). Near the zone is National Highways G319 and G107 as well as Jingzhu Highway. Besides that, it is very close to the downtown and the railway station. The distance between the zone and the airport is 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone include high-tech industry, biology project technology and new material industry. [31]

Approved by the State Council, Chenzhou Export processing Zone (CEPZ) was established in 2005 and is the only export processing zone in Hunan province. The scheduled production area of CEPZ covers 3km2. The industrial positioning of CEPZ is to concentrate on developing export-oriented hi-tech industries, including electronic information, precision machinery, and new-type materials. The zone has good infrastructure, and the enterprises inside could enjoy the preferential policies of tax-exemption, tax-guarantee and tax-refunding. By the end of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan", the CEPZ achieved a total export and import volume of over US$1 billion and provided more than 50,000 jobs. It aimed to be one of the first-class export processing zones in China. [32]

Zhuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1992. Its total planned area is 35 km2 (14 sq mi). It is very close to National Highway G320. The major industries in the zone include biotechnology, food processing and heavy industry. In 2007, the park signed a cooperation contract with Beijing Automobile Industry, one of the largest auto makers in China, which will set up a manufacturing base in Zhuzhou HTP. [33]

Demographics

Ethnic minority-inhabited areas in Hunan Ethnic minorities areas in Hunan.png
Ethnic minority-inhabited areas in Hunan
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [34] 27,617,000    
1928 [35] 31,501,000+14.1%
1936-37 [36] 28,294,000−10.2%
1947 [37] 25,558,000−9.7%
1954 [38] 33,226,954+30.0%
1964 [39] 37,182,286+11.9%
1982 [40] 54,008,851+45.3%
1990 [41] 60,659,754+12.3%
2000 [42] 63,274,173+4.3%
2010 [43] 65,683,722+3.8%

As of the 2000 census, the population of Hunan is 64,400,700 consisting of forty-one ethnic groups. Its population grew 6.17% (3,742,700) from its 1990 levels. According to the census, 89.79% (57,540,000) identified themselves as Han Chinese and 10.21% (6,575,300) as minority groups. The minority groups are Tujia, Miao, Dong, Yao, Bai, Hui, Zhuang, Uyghurs and so on.

In Hunan, ethnic minority languages are spoken in the following prefectures.

Religion in Hunan [44] [note 1]

   Christianity (0.77%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 2] (79.04%)

Hunanese Uyghurs

Around 5,000 Uyghurs live around Taoyuan County and other parts of Changde. [45] [46] [47] [48] Hui and Uyghurs have intermarried in this area. [49] [50] [51] In addition to eating pork, the Uygurs of Changde practice other Han Chinese customs, like ancestor worship at graves. Some Uyghurs from Xinjiang visit the Hunan Uyghurs out of curiosity or interest. [52] The Uyghurs of Hunan do not speak the Uyghur language, instead, Chinese is spoken as their native language. [53]

Religion

The predominant religions in Hunan are Chinese Buddhism, Taoist traditions and Chinese folk religions. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 20.19% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.77% of the population identifies as Christian. [44] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 79.04% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

In 2010, there are 118.799 muslims in Hunan [54]

Notable people:

Culture

Hunan's culture industry generated 87 billion yuan (US$11.76 billion) in economic value in 2007, [55] and is major contributor to the province's economic growth. The industry accounts for 7.5 percent of the region's GDP. [ citation needed ]

Language

Xiang Chinese (湘语) is the eponymous variety of Chinese spoken in Hunan. In addition to Xiang Chinese, there are also other dialects and languages present, such as Southwestern Mandarin, Hakka, Waxiang, and Xiangnan Tuhua. Nü shu, a writing system for Xiangnan Tuhua, is used exclusively among women in Jiangyong County and neighboring areas in southern Hunan.

Yongfeng chili sauce La Jiao Jiang .jpg
Yongfeng chili sauce

Cuisine

Hunanese cuisine is noted for its near-ubiquitous use of chili peppers, garlic, and shallots. These ingredients give rise to a distinctive dry-and-spicy (干辣; gānlà) taste, [56] with dishes such as smoked cured ham, and stir-fried spicy beef being prime examples of the flavor. [56]

Music

Huaguxi is a local form of Chinese opera that is very popular in Hunan province.

Tourism

Located in the south central part of the Chinese mainland, Hunan has long been known for its natural environment. It is surrounded by mountains on the east, west, and south, and by the Yangtze River on the north. For thousands of years, the region has been a major center of agriculture, growing rice, tea, and oranges. China's first all glass suspension bridge was also opened in Hunan, in Shiniuzhai National Geological Park. [57]


Hunan Hengshan summit ridge banner.jpg
Panoramic view of Mount Heng

Education

Sports

Yiyang Olympic Stadium Yiyang Stadium, Hunan, China 2012-04-14 10.56.37.jpg
Yiyang Olympic Stadium

Professional sports teams in Hunan include:

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [44] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. This may include:

Related Research Articles

Hubei Province of China

Hubei is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital, Wuhan, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China.

Liaoning Province of China

Liaoning, is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

Shaanxi Province in Northwest China

Shaanxi is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW) and Inner Mongolia (N).

Jilin Province of China

Jilin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. Along with the rest of Northeast China, Jilin underwent an early period of industrialization. However, Jilin's economy, characterized by heavy industry, has been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast". The region contains large deposits of oil shale.

Guizhou Province of southwestern China

Guizhou is a landlocked province in the southwest region of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Guiyang, in the center of the province. Guizhou borders the autonomous region of Guangxi to the south, Yunnan to the west, Sichuan to the northwest, the municipality of Chongqing to the north, and Hunan to the east. The population of Guizhou stands at 38.5 million, ranking 18th among the provinces in China.

Heilongjiang Province of China

Heilongjiang,, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province in northeast China. It is the northernmost and easternmost province of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area, the 15th-most populous, and the second-poorest by GDP per capita.

Jiangxi Province in eastern China

Jiangxi is a landlocked province in the east of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.

Qinghai Province of China

Qinghai, also known as Kokonor, is a landlocked province in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. It is the fourth largest province of China by area and has the third smallest population. Its capital and largest city is Xining.

Autonomous regions of China Overview of the autonomous regions of China

The autonomous regions are the highest-level administrative divisions of China. Like Chinese provinces, an autonomous region has its own local government, but under Chinese law an autonomous region has more legislative rights, such as the right to "formulate self-government regulations and other separate regulations." An autonomous region is the highest level of minority autonomous entity in China, which has a comparably higher population of a particular minority ethnic group.

Shaoyang Prefecture-level city in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Shaoyang, formerly named Baoqing (Paoking), is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Hunan province, China, bordering Guangxi to the south. It has a history of 2500 years and remains an important commercial and transportation city in Hunan. As of the 2020 Chinese census, its total population was 6,563,520 inhabitants, of whom 1,415,173 lived in the built-up area made of 3 urban districts and Xinshao County largely conurbated.

Aksu Prefecture Prefecture in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Aksu Prefecture is located in mid-Western Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. It has an area of 131,161 km2 (50,642 sq mi) and 2.37 million inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 535,657 lived in the built-up area made up of Aksu urban district. The name Aksu is Turkic for 'white water'. Aksu Prefecture has a 263.8 km (163.9 mi) long international boundary with Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.

Southwest China Geographical region of China

Southwest China is a region in the south of the People's Republic of China, traditionally known as Southwest China due to its location in relation to historical China proper. The narrowest concept of Southwest China consists of Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, and Guizhou, while wider definitions often include Guangxi and western portions of Hunan. The official government definition of Southwest China includes the core provinces of Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, and Guizhou, in addition to the Tibet Autonomous Region which has not traditionally been included as part of the region.

South Central China Geographic region of China

South Central China or South-Central China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by State Council that includes the provinces of Guangdong, Hainan, Henan, Hubei and Hunan, as well as the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; however, the two provincial-level special administrative regions (SAR) are also often included under South Central China: Hong Kong and Macau.

Western China Geographical and cultural region in China

Western China is the west of China. In the definition of the Chinese government, Western China covers one municipality: Chongqing; six provinces: Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai; and three autonomous regions: Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang.

Central China Geographic region of China

Central China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that includes the provinces of Henan, Hubei and Hunan. Jiangxi is sometimes also regarded to be part of this region. Central China is now officially part of South Central China governed by the People's Republic of China. In the context of the Rise of Central China Plan by the State Council of the People's Republic of China in 2004, surrounding provinces including Shanxi, Anhui, are also defined as regions of Central China development zones.

Longhu District District in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

Longhu District is a district of Shantou, Guangdong province, China. It is the birthplace of the famous Shantou Economic Zone.

Zhongfang County is a county of Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Huaihua.

South China Geographical and cultural region

South China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context. A notable feature of South China in comparison to the rest of China is that most of its citizens are not native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Cantonese is the most common language in the region while the Guangxi region contains the largest concentration of China's ethnic minorities, each with their own language.

Guangxi Autonomous region of southern China

Guangxi, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in South China and bordering Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Its current capital is Nanning.

References

  1. "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry Of Commerce – People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. 1 2 "List of Chinese provinces by 2020 GDP". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  4. "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  5. "Guizhou". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. n.d.
  6. (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces Archived 2016-04-27 at the Wayback Machine , People's Daily Online.
  7. Schram, Stuart R. (Stuart Reynolds), 1924-2012. (1967). Mao Tse-tung . Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN   0140208402. OCLC   7874661.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2019-06-11. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  9. Planet, Lonely. "Changsha travel | Hunan, China". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2019-07-11. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  10. Harold Wiens. Han Expansion in South China. (Shoe String Press, 1967).
  11. Brian Lander. State Management of River Dikes in Early China: New Sources on the Environmental History of the Central Yangzi Region . T'oung Pao 100.4-5 (2014): 325–362
  12. Dianda, Bas (15 March 2019). Political Routes to Starvation: Why Does Famine Kill?. ISBN   9781622735082.
  13. Turland, Jesse. "Op-Ed in China Draws Backlash for Advocating Women 'Warm Rural Bachelor's Beds'". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  14. "湖南6座最高山峰,桂东竟然占了两座,知道的人绝对不超过1%,周末赶紧约起来!". Sohu . Archived from the original on 2018-04-08. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  15. 湖南"新高度"——酃峰. Xinhua Hunan. 2013-09-26. Retrieved 2015-07-29.[ permanent dead link ]
  16. Wang, Shuo (王砚) (2016-01-30). Pei, Li (裴力) (ed.). 最美的山峰:酃峰海拔2115.2米湖南第一高峰. 潇湘晨报. Archived from the original on 2018-04-08. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  17. Alfreda Murck (2000). Poetry and Painting in Song China: The Subtle Art of Dissent. Harvard Univ Asia Center. ISBN   978-0-674-00782-6. Archived from the original on 2017-01-10. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  18. Peng, Shanchi; Babcock, Loren; Robison, Richard; Lin, Huanling; Rees, Margaret; Saltzman, Matthew (30 November 2004). "Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) of the Furongian Series and Paibian Stage (Cambrian)" (PDF). Lethaia. 37 (4): 365–379. doi:10.1080/00241160410002081 . Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  19. 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Simplified Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
  20. Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  21. Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6660-2.
  22. Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-7130-9.
  23. 1 2 3 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6659-6.
  24. Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China(MOHURD) (2019). 中国城市建设统计年鉴2018 [China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistic Publishing House. Archived from the original on 2020-07-18. Retrieved 2021-11-30.
  25. Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 123. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
  26. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2011-10-31.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. Government, Hunan. "Hunan Government Website International-enghunan.gov.cn". www.enghunan.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2009-02-08. Retrieved 2009-02-20.
  28. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-12-20.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. Historical GDP of Hunan Province published on Hunan Statistical Yearbook 2017, ALSO see Hunan'GDP Revison (Chinese) Archived 2017-12-22 at the Wayback Machine
  30. Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate according to IMF WEO (October 2017 Archived 2006-02-14 at Archive-It ) data; Exchange rate of CN¥ to US$ is according to State Administration of Foreign Exchange, published on China Statistical Yearbook Archived 2015-10-20 at the Wayback Machine .
  31. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2010-06-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2010-06-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-02-24. Retrieved 2016-02-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. 1912年中国人口. Ier.hit-u.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  35. 1928年中国人口. Ier.hit-u.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  36. 1936-37年中国人口. Ier.hit-u.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  37. 1947年全国人口. Ier.hit-u.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  38. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009.
  39. 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012.
  40. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012.
  41. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on June 19, 2012.
  42. 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012.
  43. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013.
  44. 1 2 3 China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  45. stin Jon Rudelson, Justin Ben-Adam Rudelson (1992). Bones in the sand: the struggle to create Uighur nationalist ideologies in Xinjiang, China. Harvard University. p. 30. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  46. Ingvar Svanberg (1988). The Altaic-speakers of China: numbers and distribution. Centre for Mult[i]ethnic Research, Uppsala University, Faculty of Arts. p. 7. ISBN   91-86624-20-2. Archived from the original on 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  47. Ingvar Svanberg (1988). The Altaic-speakers of China: numbers and distribution. Centre for Mult[i]ethnic Research, Uppsala University, Faculty of Arts. p. 7. ISBN   91-86624-20-2. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  48. Kathryn M. Coughlin (2006). Muslim cultures today: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 220. ISBN   0-313-32386-0. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  49. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 133. ISBN   0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  50. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 137. ISBN   0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  51. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 138. ISBN   0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  52. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 136. ISBN   0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  53. Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 133. ISBN   0-415-28372-8. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  54. "Muslim in China, Muslim Population & Distribution & Minority in China". www.topchinatravel.com. Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  55. according to Hunan Provincial Bureau of Statistics
  56. 1 2 Eats, Serious. "A Song of Spice and Fire: The Real Deal With Hunan Cuisine". www.seriouseats.com. Archived from the original on 2019-06-05. Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  57. "China's first glass-bottom bridge opens - CNN.com". CNN. Archived from the original on 2015-09-30. Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  58. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Fenghuang Ancient City". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2019-06-05. Retrieved 2019-06-05.