Hunan

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Hunan Province

湖南省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese湖南省 (Húnán Shěng)
  AbbreviationHN / (pinyin: Xiāng)
Hunan in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Hunan Province
Coordinates: 28°06′46″N112°59′00″E / 28.11265°N 112.98338°E / 28.11265; 112.98338 Coordinates: 28°06′46″N112°59′00″E / 28.11265°N 112.98338°E / 28.11265; 112.98338
Named for  lake
nán south
"south of the lake"
Capital Changsha
Largest city Hengyang
Divisions14 prefectures, 122 counties, 2576 townships
Government
   Secretary Du Jiahao
  Governor Xu Dazhe
Area
[1]
  Total210,000 km2 (80,000 sq mi)
Area rank 10th
Highest elevation
2,115.2 m (6,939.6 ft)
Population
(2014) [2]
  Total67,370,000
  Rank 7th
  Density320/km2 (830/sq mi)
  Density rank 13th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han  – 90%
Tujia  – 4%
Miao  – 3%
Dong  – 1%
Yao  – 1%
Other peoples – 1%
  Languages and dialectsChinese varieties:
Xiang, Gan, Southwestern Mandarin, Xiangnan Tuhua, Waxiang, Hakka.
Non-Chinese languages:
Xong, Tujia, Mien, Gam
ISO 3166 code CN-HN
GDP (2017 [3] ) CNY 3.46 trillion
USD 512.32 billion (9th)
 • per capita CNY 50,563
USD 7,489 (16th)
HDI (2014)0.735 [4] (high) (20th)
Website www.enghunan.gov.cn
Hunan
Hunan (Chinese characters).svg
"Hunan" in Chinese characters
Chinese 湖南
Xiang ɣu˩˧ nia˩˧ (fu-lã)
Literal meaning"South of the (Dongting) Lake"

Hunan ( Loudspeaker.svg 湖南 ) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed in South Central China; it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west, and Chongqing to the northwest. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous and the 10th most extensive province-level by area.

Provinces of China Peoples Republic of China province-level subdivision

Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. All but Taiwan Province and a small fraction of Fujian Province are controlled by the People's Republic of China.

China State in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Yangtze longest river in China

The YangtzeRiver, which is 6,380 km (3,964 mi) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. The river is the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It drains one-fifth of the land area of the People's Republic of China(PRC) and its river basin is home to nearly one-third of the country's population. The Yangtze is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world.

Contents

The name Hunan literally means "south of the lake"; Hu means "lake" while nan means "south." [5] . The lake that is referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province; Vehicle license plates from Hunan are marked Xiāng (Chinese :), after the Xiang River, which runs from south to north through Hunan and forms part of the largest drainage system for the province. [6] Its capital and largest city is Changsha, which also abuts the Xiang River.

Dongting Lake large, shallow lake in northeastern Hunan province, China

Dongting Lake is a large, shallow lake in northeastern Hunan province, China. It is a flood basin of the Yangtze River. Hence the lake's size depends on the season. The provinces of Hubei and Hunan are named after their location relative to the lake: Hubei means "North of the Lake" and Hunan, "South of the Lake".

Vehicle registration plates in China are mandatory metal or plastic plates attached to motor vehicles in mainland China for official identification purposes. The plates are issued by the local Vehicle Management Offices, under the administration of the Ministry of Public Security.

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

History

Zeng Guofan Zeng Guofan.png
Zeng Guofan
Changde battle Changde battle.jpg
Changde battle
Battle of Changsha Type 92 Heavy Machine Gun2.jpg
Battle of Changsha
Western Han painting on silk was found draped over the coffin in the grave of Lady Dai (c. 168 BC) at Mawangdui in Hunan. Mawangdui silk banner from tomb no1.jpg
Western Han painting on silk was found draped over the coffin in the grave of Lady Dai (c. 168 BC) at Mawangdui in Hunan.

Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia, Dong and Yao peoples. The province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, and then the Han dynasty. At this time, and for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains. [7] The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. [8] To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was especially prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south.

Miao people ethnic group in China

The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups. Miao is a Chinese term and does not reflect the self-designations of the component groups of people, which include Hmong, Hmub, Xong (Qo-Xiong), and A-Hmao.

Tujia people Ethnic minority group in China

The Tujia, with a total population of over 8 million, is the 8th largest ethnic minority in the People's Republic of China. They live in the Wuling Mountains, straddling the common borders of Hunan, Hubei and Guizhou Provinces, and Chongqing Municipality.

Yao people government classification for various minorities in China

The Yao people is a government classification for various minorities in China and Vietnam. They are one of the 55 officially recognised ethnic minorities in China and reside in the mountainous terrain of the southwest and south. They also form one of the 54 ethnic groups officially recognised by Vietnam. In the last census in 2000, they numbered 2,637,421 in China and roughly 470,000 in Vietnam.

During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period period of Chinese history

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907-979) was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere, mainly in South China. It was the last prolonged period of multiple political division in Chinese imperial history.

Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty. Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723.

Hubei Province

Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China.

Huguang

Huguang was a province of China during the Yuan and Ming dynasties. During the Yuan dynasty it included the areas of modern Hubei south of the Yangtze river, Hunan, Guizhou, and Guangxi. During the Ming dynasty it came to include just the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan, in the process adding areas north of the Yangtze. It was partitioned in 1644 by the newly established Qing dynasty, becoming the provinces of Hubei and Hunan, which were administered by the viceroy of Lianghu.

Qing dynasty former empire in Eastern Asia, last imperial regime of China

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history.

Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River. It was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought, particularly in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was also on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China. The land produced grain so abundantly that it fed many parts of China with its surpluses. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings. Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions. The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850. The rebellion spread into Hunan and then further eastward along the Yangzi River valley. Ultimately, it was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864.

Yuelu Academy

The Yuelu Academy is on the east side of Yuelu Mountain in Changsha, the capital of Hunan province, China, on the west bank of the Xiang River. As one of the four most prestigious academies over the last 1000 years in China, Yuelu Academy has been a famous institution of higher learning as well as a centre of academic activities and cultures since it was formally set up during the Northern Song dynasty. The academy was converted into Hunan Institute of Higher Learning in 1903. It was later renamed Hunan Normal College, Hunan Public Polytechnic School, and finally Hunan University in 1926.

Changsha Prefecture-level city in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010 Census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population. It is part of the Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster or megalopolis.

Taiping Rebellion Rebellion in Qing dynasty China

The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.

Hunan was relatively quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the Communist's Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927. It was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, and established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war. They defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched Operation Ichigo, a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou (Yuehan Railway). Hunan was relatively unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more as the Nationalists retreated southward.

As Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976 [ citation needed ]. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976.

In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were also from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi; General Secretaries Ren Bishi and Hu Yaobang; Marshals Peng Dehuai, He Long, and Luo Ronghuan; Wang Zhen, one of the Eight Elders; Xiang Jingyu, the first female member of the party's central committee; Senior General Huang Kecheng; and veteran diplomat Lin Boqu. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji.

Geography

Furong Ancient Town, located in Yongshun County of Xiangxi 1 furong panorama 2012.jpg
Furong Ancient Town, located in Yongshun County of Xiangxi

Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres (81,800 square miles), making it the 10th largest provincial-level division. The east, south and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, and the Luoxiao Mountains to the east. Mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the province, and plains less than 20%. At 2115.2 meters above sea level, the highest point in Hunan province is Lingfeng (酃峰). [9] [10] [11]

The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan. The center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River.

Lake Dongting is the largest lake in the province and the second largest freshwater lake of China.

Fenghuang Ancient Town, located in Fenghuang County of Xiangxi 1 fenghuang ancient town hunan china.jpg
Fenghuang Ancient Town, located in Fenghuang County of Xiangxi

The Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure prominently in Chinese poetry and paintings, particularly during the Song dynasty when they were associated with officials who had been unjustly dismissed. [12]

Changsha (which means "long sands") was an active ceramics district during the Tang dynasty, its tea bowls, ewers and other products mass-produced and shipped to China's coastal cities for export abroad. An Arab dhow dated to the 830s and today known as the Belitung Shipwreck was discovered off the small island of Belitung, Indonesia with more than 60,000 pieces in its cargo. The salvaged cargo is today housed in nearby Singapore.

Hunan's climate is subtropical, and, under the Köppen climate classification, is classified as being humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), with short, cool, damp winters, very hot and humid summers, and plenty of rainfall. January temperatures average 3 to 8 °C (37 to 46 °F) while July temperatures average around 27 to 30 °C (81 to 86 °F). Average annual precipitation is 1,200 to 1,700 millimetres (47 to 67 in).

The Furongian Epoch in the Cambrian Period of geological time is named for Hunan; Furong ( 芙蓉 ) means "lotus" in Mandarin and refers to Hunan which is known as the "lotus state". [13]

Changsha South Station Guangzhou South Railway Station Platform CRH3 EMU.jpg
Changsha South Station

Administrative divisions

Hunan is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: thirteen prefecture-level cities and an autonomous prefecture:

Administrative divisions of Hunan
Hunan prfc map.png

    Prefecture-level city district areas      County-level cities

Division code [14] DivisionArea in km2 [15] Population 2010 [16] SeatDivisions [17]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
 430000Hunan Province210000.0065,683,722 Changsha city3662717
1430100 Changsha city11,819.467,044,118 Yuelu District 612
13430200 Zhuzhou city11,262.203,855,609 Tianyuan District 531
8430300 Xiangtan city5,006.462,748,552 Yuetang District 212
4430400 Hengyang city15,302.787,141,462 Zhengxiang District 552
7430500 Shaoyang city20,829.637,071,826 Daxiang District 3711
11430600 Yueyang city14,897.885,477,911 Yueyanglou District 342
2430700 Changde city18,177.185,747,218 Wuling District 261
12430800 Zhangjiajie city9,516.031,476,521 Yongding District 22
9430900 Yiyang city12,325.164,313,084 Heshan District 231
3431000 Chenzhou city19,317.334,581,778 Beihu District 281
10431100 Yongzhou city22,255.315,180,235 Lengshuitan District 281
5431200 Huaihua city27,562.724,741,948 Hecheng District 1551
6431300 Loudi city8,107.613,785,627 Louxing District 122
14433100 Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture 15,462.302,547,833 Jishou city71

The fourteen prefecture-level divisions of Hunan are subdivided into 122 county-level divisions (35 districts, 17 county-level cities, 63 counties, 7 autonomous counties). Those are in turn divided into 2587 township-level divisions (1098 towns, 1158 townships, 98 ethnic townships, 225 subdistricts, and eight district public offices). At the year end of 2017, the total population is 68.6 million.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [18] District area [18] City proper [18] Census date
1 Changsha [lower-alpha 1] 2,963,2183,092,2137,040,9522010-11-01
(1)Changsha (new district) [lower-alpha 1] 230,136523,660see Changsha2010-11-01
2 Hengyang 1,115,6451,133,9677,148,3442010-11-01
3 Zhuzhou [lower-alpha 2] 999,4041,055,1503,857,1002010-11-01
(3)Zhuzhou (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 94,326383,598see Zhuzhou2010-11-01
4 Yueyang 924,0991,231,5095,476,0842010-11-01
5 Xiangtan 903,287960,3032,752,1712010-11-01
6 Changde 846,3081,457,4195,714,6232010-11-01
7 Yiyang 697,6071,245,5174,307,9332010-11-01
8 Liuyang 588,0811,279,469see Changsha2010-11-01
9 Chenzhou 582,971822,5344,583,5312010-11-01
10 Shaoyang 574,527753,1947,071,7352010-11-01
11 Yongzhou 540,9301,020,7155,194,2752010-11-01
(12) Ningxiang [lower-alpha 3] 498,055116,6138see Changsha2010-11-01
13 Leiyang 476,1731,151,554see Hengyang2010-11-01
14 Huaihua 472,687552,6224,741,6732010-11-01
15 Liling 449,067947,387see Zhuzhou2010-11-01
16 Loudi 425,037496,7443,784,6342010-11-01
17 Changning 332,927810,447see Hengyang2010-11-01
18 Miluo 321,074692,080see Yueyang2010-11-01
19 Yuanjiang 281,097666,270see Yiyang2010-11-01
20 Zhangjiajie 250,489494,5281,478,1492010-11-01
21 Lianyuan 245,360995,515see Loudi2010-11-01
22 Lengshuijiang 238,275327,146see Loudi2010-11-01
23 Linxiang 225,054498,319see Yueyang2010-11-01
24 Zixing 215,707337,294see Chenzhou2010-11-01
25 Jishou 212,328302,065part of Xiangxi Prefecture 2010-11-01
26 Xiangxiang 210,799788,216see Xiangtan2010-11-01
27 Hongjiang 197,753477,996see Huaihua2010-11-01
28 Wugang 187,436734,870see Shaoyang2010-11-01
29 Jinshi 156,230250,898see Changde2010-11-01
30 Shaoshan 27,61386,036see Xiangtan2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New district established after census: Wangcheng (Wangcheng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Lukou (Zhuzhou County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. Ningxiang County is currently known as Ningxiang CLC after census.

Politics

The politics of Hunan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Hunan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hunan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hunan Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Hunan CPC Party Chief".

Economy

As of the mid 19th century, Hunan exported rhubarb, musk, honey, tobacco, hemp, and birds. [19] The Lake Dongting area is an important center of ramie production, and Hunan is also an important center of tea cultivation. Aside from agricultural products, in recent years Hunan has grown to become an important center for steel, machinery and electronics production, especially as China's manufacturing sector moves away from coastal provinces such as Guangdong and Zhejiang. [20]

The Lengshuijiang area is noted for its stibnite mines, and is one of the major centers of antimony extraction in China. [ citation needed ]

Hunan is also well known for a few international makers of construction equipments such as concrete pumps, cranes, etc. These companies include Sany Group, Zoomlion and Sunward. Sany is one of the major players in the world. Liuyang is the major maker of fireworks in the world. [21]

As of 2016, its nominal GDP was USD 475 billion (CNY 3.16 trillion), the per capita GDP was USD 6,983 (CNY 46,382). [22]

Historical GDP of Hunan Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008) [23]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [24] )
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
growth
(%)
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNYUSDPPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20163,155,137475,007901,2368.046,3826,98313,2496.64233.5009
20152,917,217468,373821,8678.543,1576,92912,1596.22843.5495
20142,728,177444,126768,4149.540,6356,61511,4456.14283.5504
20132,483,465400,999694,30710.137,2636,01710,4186.19323.5769
20122,233,833353,875629,10711.433,7585,3489,5076.31253.5508
20111,981,655306,815565,29912.830,1034,6618,5876.45883.5055
20101,615,325238,618487,92514.624,8973,6787,5206.76953.3106
20091,315,627192,597416,66713.920,5793,0136,5176.83103.1575
20081,162,761167,422366,01614.118,2612,6295,7486.94513.1768
2007948,599124,750314,63715.114,9421,9654,9567.60403.0149
2006772,23296,870268,35012.812,1921,5294,2377.97182.8777
2005662,34580,856231,67012.210,6061,2953,7108.19172.8590
2000355,14942,901130,6039.05,4256551,9958.27842.7193
1995213,21325,53178,11710.33,3594021,2318.35102.7294
199074,44415,56443,7244.01,2282577214.78321.7026
198534,99511,91724,96612.16262134472.93661.4017
198019,17212,79512,8205.23652442441.49841.4955
197511,8406,36610.32391291.8598
19709,3053,78017.6211862.4618
19656,5322,65313.2170692.4618
19606,4072,603-1.0176712.4618
19553,5831,37618.5104402.6040
19522,7811,25186392.2227

Economic and technological development zones

The Changsha National Economic and Technology Development Zone was founded in 1992. It is located east of Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi) and the current area is 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi). Near the zone is National Highways G319 and G107 as well as Jingzhu Highway. Besides that, it is very close to the downtown and the railway station. The distance between the zone and the airport is 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone include high-tech industry, biology project technology and new material industry. [25]

Approved by the State Council, Chenzhou Export processing Zone (CEPZ) was established in 2005 and is the only export processing zone in Hunan province. The scheduled production area of CEPZ covers 3km2. The industrial positioning of CEPZ is to concentrate on developing export-oriented hi-tech industries, including electronic information, precision machinery, and new-type materials. The zone has good infrastructure, and the enterprises inside could enjoy the preferential policies of tax-exemption, tax-guarantee and tax-refunding. By the end of the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan”, the CEPZ achieved a total export and import volume of over US$1 billion and provided more than 50,000 jobs. It aimed to be one of the first-class export processing zones in China. [26]

Zhuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1992. Its total planned area is 35 km2 (14 sq mi). It is very close to National Highway G320. The major industries in the zone include biotechnology, food processing and heavy industry. In 2007, the park signed a cooperation contract with Beijing Automobile Industry, one of the largest auto makers in China, which will set up a manufacturing base in Zhuzhou HTP. [27]

Demographics

Ethnic minorities areas in Hunan Ethnic minorities areas in Hunan.png
Ethnic minorities areas in Hunan
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [28] 27,617,000    
1928 [29] 31,501,000+14.1%
1936-37 [30] 28,294,000−10.2%
1947 [31] 25,558,000−9.7%
1954 [32] 33,226,954+30.0%
1964 [33] 37,182,286+11.9%
1982 [34] 54,008,851+45.3%
1990 [35] 60,659,754+12.3%
2000 [36] 63,274,173+4.3%
2010 [37] 65,683,722+3.8%

As of the 2000 census, the population of Hunan is 64,400,700 consisting of forty-one ethnic groups. Its population grew 6.17% (3,742,700) from its 1990 levels. According to the census, 89.79% (57,540,000) identified themselves as Han people, 10.21% (6,575,300) as minority groups. The minority groups are Tujia, Miao, Dong, Yao, Bai, Hui, Zhuang, Uyghurs and so on.

In Hunan, ethnic minority languages are spoken in the following prefectures.

Religion in Hunan [38] [note 1]

   Christianity (0.77%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 2] (79.04%)

Hunanese Uyghurs

Around 5,000 Uyghurs live around Taoyuan County and other parts of Changde. [39] [40] [41] [42] Hui and Uyghurs have intermarried in this area. [43] [44] [45] In addition to eating pork, the Uygurs of Changde practice other Han Chinese customs, like ancestor worship at graves. Some Uyghurs from Xinjiang visit the Hunan Uyghurs out of curiosity or interest. [46] Also, the Uyghurs of Hunan do not speak the Uyghur language, instead, they speak Chinese as their native language. [47]

Religion

The predominant religions in Hunan are Chinese Buddhism, Taoist traditions and Chinese folk religions. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 20.19% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.77% of the population identifies as Christian. [38] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 79.04% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

Language and Culture

Yuelu Academy Hunan pond Yuelu-Academy-Hunan-pond.jpg
Yuelu Academy Hunan pond

Xiang Chinese (湘語) is the biggest native language to Hunan province, and it is also a group of Chinese dialects spoken in most parts of Hunan and in a few adjacent areas. In addition to Xiang Chinese, there are also some other Chinese varieties and some non-Chinese native languages, spoken in many places of Hunan province.

Hunanese cuisine is noted for its use of chili peppers.

Huaguxi is a local form of Chinese opera that is very popular in Hunan province.

Nü shu is a writing system that was used exclusively among women in Jiangyong County and a few neighbor countryside places, in south Hunan. Local women read Nü shu with their native language - Xiangnan Tuhua, a very special local Chinese variety, which is not intelligible with any other Chinese.

Hunan's culture industry generated 87 billion yuan (US$11.76 billion) in economic value in 2007, [48] a major contributor to the province's economic growth. The industry accounts for 7.5 percent of the region's GDP - 0.9 percentage points higher than the previous year. [ citation needed ]

Tourism

Wulingyuan features thousands of quartzite sandstone peaks. 1 tianzishan wulingyuan zhangjiajie 2012.jpg
Wulingyuan features thousands of quartzite sandstone peaks.
Zhangjiajie Zhangjiajie-Hunan.jpg
Zhangjiajie
Changsha Tianxin Pavilion Changsha Tianxin Pavilion.jpg
Changsha Tianxin Pavilion
Hunan museum Hunanprovmuseum.jpg
Hunan museum
Hunan Cured Ham Hunan Cured Ham.jpg
Hunan Cured Ham
Fenghuang ancient town 1 fenghuang ancient town hunan china.jpg
Fenghuang ancient town
Jiugui Jiugui.jpg
Jiugui
Zhangjiajie Huangshizhai Wulingyuan Panorama 1 zhangjiajie huangshizhai wulingyuan panorama 2012.jpg
Zhangjiajie Huangshizhai Wulingyuan Panorama

Located in the south central part of the Chinese mainland, Hunan has long been known for its natural beauty. It is surrounded by mountains on the east, west, and south, and by the Yangtze River on the north. Its mixture of mountains and water makes it among the most beautiful provinces in China. For thousands of years, the region has been a major center of agriculture, growing rice, tea, and oranges. China's first all glass suspension bridge was also opened in Hunan, in Shiniuzhai National Geological Park. [49]

Tuojiang in fenghuang Tuojiang in fenghuang.jpg
Tuojiang in fenghuang
Yuelu Academy Gate Yuelu-Academy-Gate.jpg
Yuelu Academy Gate

Education

See List of universities and colleges in Hunan

Sports

Professional sports teams in Hunan include:

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [38] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. This may include:

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