|• Chinese||湖南省 (Húnán Shěng)|
|• Abbreviation||HN / 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng)|
The sandstone pillars of Wulingyuan
Map showing the location of Hunan Province
|Named for|| 湖 hú –lake |
南 nán –south
"south of the lake"
(and largest city)
|Divisions||14 prefectures, 122 counties, 2576 townships|
|• Secretary||Du Jiahao|
|• Governor||Xu Dazhe|
|• Total||210,000 km2 (80,000 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,115.2 m (6,939.6 ft)|
|• Density||320/km2 (830/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||13th|
|• Ethnic composition|| Han – 90%|
Tujia – 4%
Miao – 3%
Dong – 1%
Yao – 1%
Other peoples – 1%
|• Languages and dialects||Chinese varieties: |
Xiang, Gan, Southwestern Mandarin, Xiangnan Tuhua, Waxiang, Hakka.
Xong, Tujia, Mien, Gam
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HN|
|GDP (2017 )|| CNY 3.46 trillion|
USD 512.32 billion (9th)
|• per capita|| CNY 50,563 |
USD 7,489 (16th)
|HDI (2014)||0.735 (high) (20th)|
"Hunan" in Chinese characters
|Xiang||ɣu˩˧ nia˩˧ (fu-lã)|
|Literal meaning||"South of the (Dongting) Lake"|
Provincial-level administrative divisions, or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 33 such divisions, classified as 22 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. All but the disputed Taiwan Province and the a small fraction of Fujian Province are controlled by the People's Republic of China.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
The Yangtze or Yangzi is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises in the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau and flows 6,300 km (3,900 mi) in a generally easterly direction to the East China Sea. It is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world. Its drainage basin comprises one-fifth of the land area of China, and is home to nearly one-third of the country's population.
The name Hunan literally means "south of the lake". :湘), after the Xiang River, which runs from south to north through Hunan and forms part of the largest drainage system for the province.The lake that is referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province; Vehicle license plates from Hunan are marked Xiāng (Chinese
Dongting Lake is a large, shallow lake in northeastern Hunan province, China. It is a flood basin of the Yangtze River. Hence the lake's size depends on the season. The provinces of Hubei and Hunan are named after their location relative to the lake: Hubei means "North of the Lake" and Hunan, "South of the Lake".
Vehicle registration plates in China are mandatory metal or plastic plates attached to motor vehicles in mainland China for official identification purposes. The plates are issued by the local Vehicle Management Offices, under the administration of the Ministry of Public Security.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
The area of Hunan first came under Chinese rule around 350 BC, when the province became part of the State of Chu. Hunan was the birthplace of Chinese communist revolutionary Mao Zedong, who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China. Hunan today is home to some ethic minorities, including the Tujia and Miao, along with the Han Chinese, who make up a majority of the population. Varieties of Chinese spoken include Xiang, Gan, and Southwestern Mandarin.
Mao Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. His theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism. During Mao's lifetime the Western media universally rendered his name as Mao Tse-tung, using the then-common Wade-Giles system of phonetic spelling.
The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation. Pater Patriae, also seen as Parens Patriae, was a Roman honorific meaning the "Father of the Fatherland", bestowed by the Senate on heroes, and later on emperors. In monarchies, the monarch was often considered the "father/mother of the nation" or as a patriarch to guide his family. This concept is expressed in the Divine Right espoused in some monarchies, while in others it is codified into constitutional law as in Spain, where the monarch is considered the personification and embodiment, the symbol of the unity and permanence of the nation. In Thailand, the monarch is given the same recognition, and demonstrated loyalty is enforced with severe criminal statutes.
The Tujia, with a total population of over 8 million, is the eighth-largest ethnic minority in the People's Republic of China. They live in the Wuling Mountains, straddling the common borders of Hunan, Hubei and Guizhou Provinces, and Chongqing Municipality.
Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River. The site of Wulingyuan was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992.Changsha, the capital, is located in the eastern part of the province; it is now an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation centre.
Wulingyuan is a scenic and historical site in the Wulingyuan District of south-central China's Hunan Province. It was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992. It is noted for more than 3,000 quartzite sandstone pillars and peaks across most of the site, many over 200 metres (660 ft) in height, along with many ravines and gorges with attractive streams, pools, lakes, rivers and waterfalls. It features 40 caves, many with large calcite deposits, and a natural bridge named Tianqiashengkong, which is one of the highest natural bridges in the world.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Rome. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration in education, sciences, and culture in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.
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Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia, Dong and Yao peoples. The province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, and then the Han dynasty. At this time, and for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains.The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was especially prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south.
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups. Miao is a Chinese term and does not reflect the self-designations of the component groups of people, which include Hmong, Hmub, Xong (Qo-Xiong), and A-Hmao.
The Yao people is a government classification for various minorities in China and Vietnam. They are one of the 55 officially recognised ethnic minorities in China and reside in the mountainous terrain of the southwest and south. They also form one of the 54 ethnic groups officially recognised by Vietnam. In the last census in 2000, they numbered 2,637,421 in China and roughly 470,000 in Vietnam.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.
During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu.
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere, mainly in South China. It was the last prolonged period of multiple political division in Chinese imperial history.
Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty. Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723.
Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River. It was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought, particularly in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was also on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China. The land produced grain so abundantly that it fed many parts of China with its surpluses. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings. Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions. The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850. The rebellion spread into Hunan and then further eastward along the Yangzi River valley. Ultimately, it was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864.
Hunan was relatively quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the Communist's Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927. It was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, and established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war. They defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched Operation Ichigo, a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou (Yuehan Railway). Hunan was relatively unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more as the Nationalists retreated southward.
As Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976 [ citation needed ]. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976.
In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were also from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi; General Secretaries Ren Bishi and Hu Yaobang; Marshals Peng Dehuai, He Long, and Luo Ronghuan; Wang Zhen, one of the Eight Elders; Xiang Jingyu, the first female member of the party's central committee; Senior General Huang Kecheng; and veteran diplomat Lin Boqu. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji.
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Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres (81,800 square miles), making it the 10th largest provincial-level division. The east, south and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, and the Luoxiao Mountains to the east. Mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the province, and plains less than 20%. At 2115.2 meters above sea level, the highest point in Hunan province is Lingfeng (酃峰).
The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan. The center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River.
Lake Dongting is the largest lake in the province and the second largest freshwater lake of China.
The Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure prominently in Chinese poetry and paintings, particularly during the Song dynasty when they were associated with officials who had been unjustly dismissed.
Changsha (which means "long sands") was an active ceramics district during the Tang dynasty, its tea bowls, ewers and other products mass-produced and shipped to China's coastal cities for export abroad. An Arab dhow dated to the 830s and today known as the Belitung Shipwreck was discovered off the small island of Belitung, Indonesia with more than 60,000 pieces in its cargo. The salvaged cargo is today housed in nearby Singapore.
Hunan's climate is subtropical, and, under the Köppen climate classification, is classified as being humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), with short, cool, damp winters, very hot and humid summers, and plenty of rainfall. January temperatures average 3 to 8 °C (37 to 46 °F) while July temperatures average around 27 to 30 °C (81 to 86 °F). Average annual precipitation is 1,200 to 1,700 millimetres (47 to 67 in). The Furongian Epoch in the Cambrian Period of geological time is named for Hunan; Furong ( 芙蓉 ) means "lotus" in Mandarin and refers to Hunan which is known as the "lotus state".
Hunan is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: thirteen prefecture-level cities and an autonomous prefecture:
|Administrative divisions of Hunan|
|№||Division code||Division||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Divisions|
|Districts||Counties||Aut. counties||CL cities|
|430000||Hunan Province||210000.00||65,683,722||Changsha city||36||62||7||17|
|1||430100||Changsha city||11,819.46||7,044,118||Yuelu District||6||1||2|
|13||430200||Zhuzhou city||11,262.20||3,855,609||Tianyuan District||5||3||1|
|8||430300||Xiangtan city||5,006.46||2,748,552||Yuetang District||2||1||2|
|4||430400||Hengyang city||15,302.78||7,141,462||Zhengxiang District||5||5||2|
|7||430500||Shaoyang city||20,829.63||7,071,826||Daxiang District||3||7||1||1|
|11||430600||Yueyang city||14,897.88||5,477,911||Yueyanglou District||3||4||2|
|2||430700||Changde city||18,177.18||5,747,218||Wuling District||2||6||1|
|12||430800||Zhangjiajie city||9,516.03||1,476,521||Yongding District||2||2|
|9||430900||Yiyang city||12,325.16||4,313,084||Heshan District||2||3||1|
|3||431000||Chenzhou city||19,317.33||4,581,778||Beihu District||2||8||1|
|10||431100||Yongzhou city||22,255.31||5,180,235||Lengshuitan District||2||8||1|
|5||431200||Huaihua city||27,562.72||4,741,948||Hecheng District||1||5||5||1|
|6||431300||Loudi city||8,107.61||3,785,627||Louxing District||1||2||2|
|14||433100||Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture||15,462.30||2,547,833||Jishou city||7||1|
|Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Hunan Province||湖南省||Húnán Shěng||fu12 nan12 sǝn2|
|Changsha city||长沙市||Chángshā Shì||c̣an2 sa11 ṣî32|
|Zhuzhou city||株洲市||Zhūzhōu Shì||ćy11 c̣ôu11 ṣî32|
|Xiangtan city||湘潭市||Xiāngtán Shì||? ? ṣî32|
|Hengyang city||衡阳市||Héngyáng Shì||xǝn12 ian12 ṣî32|
|Shaoyang city||邵阳市||Shàoyáng Shì||? ian12 ṣî32|
|Yueyang city||岳阳市||Yuèyáng Shì||io4 ian12 ṣî32|
|Changde city||常德市||Chángdé Shì||? tô4 ṣî32|
|Zhangjiajie city||张家界市||Zhāngjiājiè Shì||? ćia11 kai31 ṣî32|
|Yiyang city||益阳市||Yìyáng Shì||i4 ian12 ṣî32|
|Chenzhou city||郴州市||Chēnzhōu Shì||? c̣ôu11 ṣî32|
|Yongzhou city||永州市||Yǒngzhōu Shì||yn2 c̣ôu11 ṣî32|
|Huaihua city||怀化市||Huáihuà Shì||fai12 fa31 ṣî32|
|Loudi city||娄底市||Lóudǐ Shì||? ti2 ṣî32|
|Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture||湘西自治州||Xiāngxī Zìzhìzhōu||? si11 ci31 c̣î31 c̣ôu11|
The fourteen prefecture-level divisions of Hunan are subdivided into 122 county-level divisions (35 districts, 17 county-level cities, 63 counties, 7 autonomous counties). Those are in turn divided into 2587 township-level divisions (1098 towns, 1158 townships, 98 ethnic townships, 225 subdistricts, and eight district public offices). At the year end of 2017, the total population is 68.6 million.
|Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities|
|#||City||Urban area||District area||City proper||Census date|
|(1)||Changsha (new district)||230,136||523,660||see Changsha||2010-11-01|
|(3)||Zhuzhou (new district)||94,326||383,598||see Zhuzhou||2010-11-01|
|25||Jishou||212,328||302,065||part of Xiangxi Prefecture||2010-11-01|
The politics of Hunan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.
The Governor of Hunan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hunan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hunan Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Hunan CPC Party Chief".
As of the mid 19th century, Hunan exported rhubarb, musk, honey, tobacco, hemp, and birds.The Lake Dongting area is an important center of ramie production, and Hunan is also an important center of tea cultivation. Aside from agricultural products, in recent years Hunan has grown to become an important center for steel, machinery and electronics production, especially as China's manufacturing sector moves away from coastal provinces such as Guangdong and Zhejiang.
The Lengshuijiang area is noted for its stibnite mines, and is one of the major centers of antimony extraction in China. [ citation needed ]
Hunan is also well known for a few international makers of construction equipments such as concrete pumps, cranes, etc. These companies include Sany Group, Zoomlion and Sunward. Sany is one of the major players in the world. Liuyang is the major maker of fireworks in the world.
As of 2016, its nominal GDP was USD 475 billion (CNY 3.16 trillion), the per capita GDP was USD 6,983 (CNY 46,382).
|Historical GDP of Hunan Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008) |
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 )
|year||GDP||GDP per capita (GDPpc)|
based on mid-year population
|GDP in millions||real|
1 foreign currency
|CNY||USD|| PPP |
|USD 1||Int'l$. 1|
The Changsha National Economic and Technology Development Zone was founded in 1992. It is located east of Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi) and the current area is 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi). Near the zone is National Highways G319 and G107 as well as Jingzhu Highway. Besides that, it is very close to the downtown and the railway station. The distance between the zone and the airport is 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone include high-tech industry, biology project technology and new material industry.
Approved by the State Council, Chenzhou Export processing Zone (CEPZ) was established in 2005 and is the only export processing zone in Hunan province. The scheduled production area of CEPZ covers 3km2. The industrial positioning of CEPZ is to concentrate on developing export-oriented hi-tech industries, including electronic information, precision machinery, and new-type materials. The zone has good infrastructure, and the enterprises inside could enjoy the preferential policies of tax-exemption, tax-guarantee and tax-refunding. By the end of the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan”, the CEPZ achieved a total export and import volume of over US$1 billion and provided more than 50,000 jobs. It aimed to be one of the first-class export processing zones in China.
Zhuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1992. Its total planned area is 35 km2 (14 sq mi). It is very close to National Highway G320. The major industries in the zone include biotechnology, food processing and heavy industry. In 2007, the park signed a cooperation contract with Beijing Automobile Industry, one of the largest auto makers in China, which will set up a manufacturing base in Zhuzhou HTP.
As of the 2000 census, the population of Hunan is 64,400,700 consisting of forty-one ethnic groups. Its population grew 6.17% (3,742,700) from its 1990 levels. According to the census, 89.79% (57,540,000) identified themselves as Han people, 10.21% (6,575,300) as minority groups. The minority groups are Tujia, Miao, Dong, Yao, Bai, Hui, Zhuang, Uyghurs and so on.
In Hunan, ethnic minority languages are spoken in the following prefectures.
Around 5,000 Uyghurs live around Taoyuan County and other parts of Changde.Hui and Uyghurs have intermarried in this area. In addition to eating pork, the Uygurs of Changde practice other Han Chinese customs, like ancestor worship at graves. Some Uyghurs from Xinjiang visit the Hunan Uyghurs out of curiosity or interest. Also, the Uyghurs of Hunan do not speak the Uyghur language, instead, they speak Chinese as their native language.
The predominant religions in Hunan are Chinese Buddhism, Taoist traditions and Chinese folk religions. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 20.19% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.77% of the population identifies as Christian.The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 79.04% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.
Hunan's culture industry generated 87 billion yuan (US$11.76 billion) in economic value in 2007, [ citation needed ]and is major contributor to the province's economic growth. The industry accounts for 7.5 percent of the region's GDP.
Xiang Chinese (湘語) is the eponymous variety of Chinese spoken in Hunan. In addition to Xiang Chinese, there are also other dialects and languages present, such as Southwestern Mandarin, Hakka, Waxiang, and Xiangnan Tuhua. Nü shu, a writing system for Xiangnan Tuhua, is used exclusively among women in Jiangyong County and neighboring areas in southern Hunan.
Hunanese cuisine is noted for its near-ubiquitous use of chili peppers, garlic, and shallots. These ingredients give rise to a distinctive dry-and-spicy (Chinese: 干辣; gān là) taste,with dishes such as smoked bacon, and stir-fried spicy beef being prime examples of the flavor.
Huaguxi is a local form of Chinese opera that is very popular in Hunan province.
Located in the south central part of the Chinese mainland, Hunan has long been known for its natural environment. It is surrounded by mountains on the east, west, and south, and by the Yangtze River on the north. For thousands of years, the region has been a major center of agriculture, growing rice, tea, and oranges. China's first all glass suspension bridge was also opened in Hunan, in Shiniuzhai National Geological Park.
See List of universities and colleges in Hunan
Professional sports teams in Hunan include:
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Central China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the central area of China. This region includes the provinces of Henan, Hubei and Hunan, as Jiangxi is sometimes also regarded to be part of this region. Central China is now officially part of South Central China governed by the People's Republic of China. In the context of the Rise of Central China Plan by the State Council of the People's Republic of China in 2004, surrounding provinces including Shanxi, Anhui, are also defined as regions of Central China development zones.
South China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context.
Guangxi ( ; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; Chinese: 广西; Zhuang: Gvangjsih, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in south China and bordering Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Its current capital is Nanning.
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